ARCHIVED - Irradiation of Shrimp: Summary of Submission Process

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A. Summary of Situation

(a) The Request

A submission has been received for the irradiation of pre-packaged1 fresh, frozen, further prepared and dried shrimp. 'Shrimp' includes all edible species of shrimp and prawns.

(b) Divisions of the Food Directorate Responsible for Evaluating these Submissions

Chemical Health Hazard Assessment Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety (Coordinating Division; also evaluates toxicological safety, chemical safety and dosimetry portions of submissions)

Evaluation Division, Bureau of Microbial Hazards (evaluates efficacy and microbial safety aspects)

Nutrition Evaluation Division, Bureau of Nutritional Sciences (evaluates nutritional effects)

B. Evaluation Summary

(a) Purpose, Source of Radiation and (Absorbed) Dose

The purpose of irradiation is (1) to extend the cold storage life of shrimp, (2) to eliminate, or severely reduce, any pathogenic bacteria that may be present in the processed and packaged shrimp, and (3) to concomitantly reduce or eliminate the bacteria that cause food spoilage.

The proposed source of ionizing (gamma-) radiation is Cobalt-60.

The doses proposed by the petitioner are as follows:

  • Fresh, frozen,further prepared and dried shrimp and prawns
    • Absorbed dose minimum, 1.5 kGy; maximum 5.0 kGy.
    • Expected average dose in commercial irradiation: 2.75 kGy

(b) Efficacy

The claim for the elimination or severe reduction of pathogenic bacteria was assessed, based on a study conducted under commercial conditions using frozen shrimp (-18°C).

It was difficult to draw conclusions from this study about the effectiveness of irradiation in pathogen reduction because the frozen shrimp controls were virtually free of pathogens in the first place.

Although the literature evidence referenced supports the effectiveness of irradiation in the elimination of pathogens and in the extension of shelf-life, very little of such data were gleaned under actual conditions of commercial production. These concerns and others items that needed clarification have since been addressed satisfactorily by the petitioner. It has been clearly demonstrated in commerce that the reported shelf-life extension of irradiated shrimp cannot be achieved simply by strict adherence to good manufacturing practice.

Evaluators concluded (1) that irradiation can extend the shelf-life and reduce the level of pathogens in fresh, frozen or dried shrimp, and (2) that there is no reason to object to the use of irradiation at the levels proposed, if the shrimp used are from a marine environment.2 In commenting on the original doses, evaluators expressed the need to limit the use of irradiation in fresh shrimp to 3.0 kGy to ensure that sufficient spoilage bacteria survive to prevent growth of potential radiation resistant pathogens. Alternatively, if the 5.0 kGy dose is retained, packaging materials that were permeable to oxygen should be specified in the proposals. The submission demonstrated that there were sufficient bacteria surviving the 3.0 kGy irradiation dose regardless of whether the product was aerobically or anaerobically packaged and therefore the packaging environment was not considered a safety issue. As a result of these comments, the proposal was changed to specify maxima that parallel those for poultry, i.e. 3.0 kGy for fresh shrimp and 5.0 kGy for frozen shrimp. The petitioner concurred in writing with this revision.

(c) Dosimetry

A comprehensive dosimetry study of the irradiation of frozen shrimp was undertaken in two separate trials, one in Thailand and the other in Canada to determine the absorbed dose range for shrimp irradiated under commercial conditions2. At both locations, dosimetry was done using three different dosimeter systems (Ceric-cerus, opti-Chromic and Amber-Perspex) in simulated products at ambient temperature. The study on frozen shrimp undertaken at both locations used the Amber-Perspex Dosimeter. The dosimetry procedures employed in the feasibility study are considered satisfactory.

For dosimetry in practice, the petitioner cites standard methodology published by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) (1988; 1993)3, Codex Alimentarius Commission (1992)4, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) (1988)5 and Chadwick and Osterheert (1986)6.

(d) Alteration of Chemical. Physical and Microbiological Characteristics

i. Odour:

Literature indicates that off-odours are noticeable in shrimp treated at dose levels above 5.0 kGy, whether fresh or frozen. These changes would be minimized for shrimp irradiated in the frozen condition or irradiated fresh below 3°C up to the maximum dose level.

ii. Appearance/Colour:

Carotenoid Pigments

Astaxanthin ester and astacene derived from $-carotene together account for over 90% of the carotenoid pigments that impart colour to shrimp. Shrimp pigments are sensitive to dehydration at moderately high temperatures and oxidation. Irradiation at doses up to 3.0 kGy did not significantly change the colour of raw or cooked shrimp (Snauwaert et al.1973).8 At higher doses, a reddish colour appeared in the raw shrimp, which faded to some extent in cooking (Kumta and Sreenivasan,1966).9 Frozen shrimp showed no change in colour at a dose level of 6 to 8 kGy (Wills, 1981).10


The greyish brown discolouration of shrimp that develops during storage is caused by the degradation of tyrosine by naturally occurring phenolase-type enzymes. Melanosis can be prevented by chemical preservatives, e.g. potassium metabisulphite or by blanching. Freshly caught shrimp when irradiated showed reduced melanosis, but shrimp that underwent irradiation after post-harvest storage showed accelerated melanosis (Urbain, 1986).11 All the changes are minimized when the shrimp are irradiated in a frozen condition.

iii. Organoleptic quality:

Vyncke compared the analytical data for total volatile nitrogen, ammonia, dimethylamine and trimethylamine with the sensory quality of boiled brown shrimp irradiated at 1.0 kGy, over a period of 30 days of storage. The shrimp showed an acceptable shelf-life of 23 days as compared to non-irradiated shrimp with the shelf-life of 9 to 16 days. There was practically no formation of hypoxanthine, trimethylamine or volatile acids in the irradiated sample.

Volatile Carbonyls

Monocarbonyls occur naturally in shrimp and other crustaceans. The volatile carbonyls contribute to the overall flavour of the products. All reports in the literature indicate that irradiation of shrimp at the proposed dose levels does not produce any new volatile compounds as determined by gas chromatography. The level of total volatile carbonyls is also significantly lower in the irradiated as compared with non-irradiated shrimp.

iv. Composition:

No significant changes in the protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash content have been observed in shrimp exposed to low-dose irradiation. Irradiated shrimp showed an insignificant decrease in some amino acids, viz. alanine, isoleucine, leucine, and tyrosine, as compared to non-irradiated shrimp. Similar changes are known to occur in canned shrimp.

A slight increase is observed in the in vitro digestibility of irradiated shrimp protein by pepsin and trypsin, as compared to non-irradiated shrimp.

The lipid content of shrimp is in the range of 3 to 4%. Although the polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute 28 to 35% of the total lipid, the effect of irradiation on the unsaturated fatty acid is considered as insignificant. The effect of irradiation on cholesterol levels is also insignificant.

King et al.(1972)13 have reviewed the chemical changes that occur when seafood is irradiated up to doses of 56 kGy at ice or ambient temperatures. The total amino acid composition is unchanged, the protein quality is not significantly affected, but some B- vitamins are destroyed. The magnitude of the radiation-induced changes in composition is similar to that occurring after cooking, chilled storage or packaging.

(e) Packaging

In the commercial process, shrimp is prepackaged for irradiation treatment, such that following irradiation, it is ready for sale at the retail or food service stage, ready for cooking by the consumer or food service cooks, or ready for further processing. The packaging material is also in direct contact with the shrimps. It is therefore important that the package design and the quality criteria of the packaging material meet appropriate quality standards and safety requirements. In all cases, the letters of opinion consider the requirements of Section B.23.001 of the Regulations which states that "No person shall sell any food in a package that may yield to its contents any substance that may be injurious to the health of a consumer of the food."

(f) Nutritional Aspects

Nutrition evaluators reviewed the submission for irradiation of shrimp. In addition to the information provided by the petitioner, information was also gathered from publications from an independent literature search conducted by the evaluators. The studies considered are shown in Appendix I. Nutrient composition of irradiated shrimp is also reviewed under B (d) iv. Composition, above.

Literature reports on the effects of irradiation on the content and composition of lipids, proteins and amino acids, and the content of vitamins and minerals in shrimp and other seafood of similar composition were reviewed and the effects evaluated with respect to the contribution that shrimp makes to the intake of those nutrients. Also, the effects of irradiation were contrasted with the effects of other processes where data were available and considered with respect to the relationship between irradiation and other types of processing likely to be applied to shrimp.

The nutrients which shrimp contains in significant quantities are protein, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), cobalamin (B12) and niacin, and the minerals phosphorus, magnesium, iron and zinc. None of these nutrients was found to be degraded consistently in all studies by irradiation treatment within the dose range proposed in this submission. There was some indication that pyridoxine, niacin and riboflavin could be destroyed to some extent but most results indicated little or no loss. Data related to effects of irradiation of shrimp on certain other nutrients were limited and it was necessary to refer to results obtained from studies on other fish and shellfish, which were considered to have similar physical and chemical compositions. Taking the evidence regarding effects of irradiation on these nutrients as a whole, it was concluded that it would be reasonable to expect no or very low losses as a result of the irradiation doses that are the subject of this submission.

While thiamin loss is significant in proportion to the initial amounts found, very little thiamin is found in shrimp. Also, given the contribution of shrimp to the diet in Canada, any loss would be considered insignificant.

It is advised that, as with all food processing, good manufacturing practice be followed to minimize unnecessary losses through the administration of the lowest possible effective radiation dose, the use of low oxygen environments, and low product temperature during irradiation. Restricting the maximum dose for fresh shrimp to 3.0 kGy in order to standardize doses with the poultry irradiation proposal would be consistent with that advice.

(g) Toxicological Studies

In 1984, staff toxicologists reviewed a number of studies investigating the potential toxicity of gamma (Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137) irradiated sea foods and concluded that irradiated fish or clams were neither toxic nor carcinogenic at doses up to 55.8 kGy, when fed to different species of experimental animals (mouse, hamster, rat, dog) in the diet at levels up to 45% for a period of 2 years. Reproduction performance in multi-generation studies was not affected and short-term mutagenicity tests were negative.

A search was undertaken for additional literature references, some of which were provided by the petitioner at the request of the Branch.14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19

Although these studies were performed prior to the introduction of GLP standards, they were designed and conducted appropriately and the findings reported adequately. Results from two sub-chronic studies in rats showed that diets containing 2.8 to 80% of irradiated shrimp (2.5 to 55.8 kGy), fed for 13 weeks led to no adverse effects on general growth, growth rate, hematology or serum enzyme activity or any pathogenic changes in tissues or organs.

Diets, irradiated at dose levels ranging from 2.5 to 25.0 kGy, containing 4% shrimp and fed to rats for either four or five successive generations, caused no toxicity in animals of either the parental or filial generations. No adverse effect was observed regarding their reproductive performance.

There was no dominant lethal mutation determined by pre- or post-implantation losses in mice or rats, when males were exposed to irradiated (up to 25.0 kGy) diets containing 4% shrimp, for 8 weeks including in-utero exposure, prior to mating.

Staff toxicologists concluded that, from a toxicological point of view, shrimp irradiated at doses up to 5.0 kGy should pose no health hazard to the consumer. All of the toxicological studies considered by staff toxicologists in connection with this submission are listed in Appendix II.

Cholesterol oxidation products:

Although low (<1%) in fat, raw shrimp contain significant amounts of cholesterol, about

150 mg per 100 g (Health Canada, 1997).20 Cholesterol in any food is relatively unstable and easily undergoes spontaneous oxidation when exposed to oxygen, heat, light or radiation. An evaluation of cholesterol oxidation products undertaken by the Toxicological Evaluation Section indicated that there were insufficient data to establish ADI/TDIs for these substances. While irradiation can induce the formation of cholesterol oxides, so can other more conventional processes and conditions. Oxidation products of cholesterol have been found in different stored or processed foods, such as egg products, dairy products and meats and meat products. Also, certain cholesterol oxidation products are formed in vivo as intermediates in the metabolism of cholesterol. Novak et al. (1964) measured a slightly higher cholesterol content in irradiated dried shrimp (663 mg/100g) compared to unirradiated dried shrimp (650 mg/100 g).21 The method of analysis employed by these workers, however, was not capable of distinguishing between cholesterol and cholesterol oxides.

C. Proposed Amendments

New items22 proposed for the addition to the Table in Division 26 are as follows:

Item Column I Food Column II Permitted source of Ionizing radiation Column III Purpose of treatment Column IV Permitted Absorbed Dose
7.1 Fresh, prepared or dried shrimp and prawns Cobalt-60, cesium- 137 or electrons from machine sources (10 MeV max.) To control pathogens, reduce microbial load and extend durable life 1.5 kGy (minimum) 3.0 kGy (maximum)
7.2 Frozen shrimp and prawns Cobalt-60, cesium- 137 or electrons from machine sources (10 MeV max.) To control pathogens, reduce microbial load and extend durable life 1.5 kGy (minimum) 5.0 kGy (maximum)

It should be noted by the reader that the above proposal differs from the original request. This change was a result of consultation with staff microbiologists, staff nutritionists and the petitioner. Comments resulting from this consultation appear under Section B(b) of in this document.

The protocol, "The Proposed Overall Treatment for Irradiation of Shrimp" appears as Figure 1.

D. Consultation

Consultation was undertaken with the following to assess the toxicological safety, the nutritional quality of shrimp and the efficacy of the irradiation treatments at the proposed dose levels, as noted above:

  • C The Toxicological Evaluation Section of the Chemical Health Hazard Assessment Division;
  • C The Evaluation Division of the Bureau of Microbiological Sciences;
  • and C The Nutrition Evaluation Division of the Bureau of Nutritional Sciences.

Consultation with Canadian Food Inspection Agency and its Predecessors

In 1989, when the Branch became aware that this petitioner would be making a submission on shrimp irradiation and prior to running efficacy trials under commercial conditions, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans was consulted on the irradiation of shrimp. The reply stated "Irradiation processing, when properly utilized and controlled, can play a role in providing that added measure of safety in relation to bacteria of public health significance and extension of product shelf-life" and went on to state, "If GMPs are followed, we would have no objections to the use of irradiation processing for fish and seafood products, including shrimp."

Recognizing that inspection personnel of Fisheries and Oceans have been since absorbed by the new Canadian Food Inspection Agency, a second consultation was undertaken in May, 1999. In a communication dated September 30, 1999, the Agency indicated that it did not object to allowing the irradiation of shrimp as part of a HACCP program at a permitted absorbed dose of 1.5 kGy to 5.0 kGy. CFIA intends to develop methodologies for detecting irradiated shrimp and also intends to study the effect of irradiation on product quality attributes of shrimp. CFIA planned to engage industry in discussions of the implications of this proposal. This information exchange with industry would include discussions regarding the labelling requirements for irradiated products, the roles that Environment Canada, atomic energy authorities and provincial or municipal agencies play in approving irradiation facilities, and the Occupational Health and Safety requirements to ensure worker/inspector safety in irradiation facilities.

Food Directorate Health Products and Food Branch Health Canada October 29, 2002

Appendix I: Nutritional Safety of Irradiated Shrimp

Studies considered in the evaluation of the nutritional safety of irradiated shrimp.

  1. Al-Kahtani, HA, Abu-Tarboush, HM, Bajaber, AS and Atia, M., Chemical changes after irradiation and post-irradiation storage in Tilapia and Spanish mackerel, J Food Sci., 61 (4) pp.729-733, 1996.
  2. Basson, RA., Advances in Radiation Chemistry of Food and Food Components - An Overview, in Recent Advances in Food Irradiation, Elias, PS and Cohen, A.J.C. (Eds), Elsevier Biomedical, 1983.
  3. Brooke, RO., Ravesi, E.M., Gadbois, D.F. and Steinberg, M.A., Effects of radiation pasteurization on amino acids and vitamins in clams, Food Technology, pp.116-120, July, 1964.
  4. Brooke, R.O., Ravesi, E.M., Gadbois, D.F. and Steinberg, M.A., Effects of radiation pasteurization on amino acids and vitamins in haddock fillets, Food Technology, pp.99- 102, November, 1966.
  5. Canadian Irradiation Centre and Research Centre in Sciences Applied to Food, A Feasibility study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimp (Penaeus monodon), as presented to the petitioner, April, 1993.
  6. Codex Aliment arius, (Vol. 4), "General Principles for the Addition of Essential Nutrients to Foods", CAC/GL 09-1987, 1994.
  7. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Report #109, Ionizing Energy in Food Processing and Pest Control, I. Wholesomeness of Food Treated with Ionizing Energy, 1986.
  8. Diehl, J.F., International Status of Food Irradiation, Food Technology in Australia, 36(8): 356, p.358-366, 1984.
  9. Diehl, J.F., Safety of Irradiated Foods, 2nd. ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., p. 273, 1995.
  10. Diehl, J.F, Hasselman, C., and Kilcast, D., Regulation of food irradiation in the European Community: is nutrition an issue?, Food Control, pp.212-219, Oct., 1991.
  11. de Groot, A.P., van der Mijll Dekker, Slump, P., Vos, H.J., and Willems, J.J.L., Composition and Nutritive Value of Radiation-Pasteurized Chicken, Report # R3787, Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research, The Netherlands, 1972.
  12. Délincée, H., Recent advances in radiation chemistry of proteins, in Recent Advances in Food Irradiation, ed. P.S. Elias and A.J. Cohen, Elsevier Biomedical Press, 1983.
  13. Fox, J.B., Thayer, D.W., Jenkins, R.K., Phillips, J.G., Ackerman, S.A., Beecher, E.R., Holden, J.M., Morrows, F.D., and Quirbach, D.M., Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the B Vitamins of Pork Chops and Chicken Breasts, Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 55(4), p. 689-703, 1989.
  14. Harris, R.S. General discussion on the stability of nutrients, Chapter 1 in Karmas, E. and Harris, R.S. (eds), Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing, 3rd ed., New York: AVI Publishing, 1988.
  15. Hau, L.-B. and M.-S. Liew, Effects of gamma-irradiation and cooking on vitamins B6 and B12 in grass prawns (Penaeus monodon), Radiat. Phys. Chem. 42(1-3), p.297-300, 1993.
  16. Hau, L.-B., Liew, M.-H., and Yeh, L.-T., Preservation of grass prawns by ionizing radiation, J Food Prot., 55, 3, pp.198-202, 1992.
  17. Health Canada, Canadian Nutrient File, 1997.
  18. Josephson, E.S., Thomas, N.H. and Calhoun, W.K., Nutritional aspects of food irradiation: An overview, J. Food Proc. Pres. 2, p.299-313, 1978.
  19. Karmas, E., The major food groups, their nutrient content and the principles of food processing,, Chapter 2 in Karmas, E. and Harris, R.S. (eds), Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing, 3rd ed., New York: AVI Publishing, 1988.
  20. King, F.J., Mendelsohn, J.M., Gadbois, D.F., and Bernsteinas, J.B., Some chemical changes in irradiated seafoods, Radiation Res. Rev., 3, pp.399-415, 1972.
  21. 21. Lee, K.-F. and Hau, L.-B., Effect of (-irradiation and post irradiation cooking on thiamin, riboflavin and niacin contents of grass prawns (Penaeus monodon), Food Chemistry, 55, 4, pp.379-382, 1996.
  22. Liu, M.-S., Chen, R.-Y., Tsai, M.-J. and Yang, J.-S., Effect of gamma irradiation on the keeping quality and nutrients of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys moitrix) stored at 1°C, J Sci Food Agric, 57, pp.555-563, 1991.
  23. Liuzzo, J.A., Novak, A.F., Grodner, R.M., and Rao, M.R.R., Radiation pasteurization of gulf shellfish, Annual report for the period January - December, 1969, United States Atomic Energy Commission, ORO-615, pp.1-42, 1970.
  24. Lund, D., Effects of heat processing on nutrients, Chapter 12 in Karmas, E. and Harris, R.S. (eds), Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing, 3rd ed., New York: AVI Publishing, 1988.
  25. Meister, K.A., Irradiated Foods, American Council on Science and Health, 1985.
  26. Miller, S.A., Licciardello, J.J., Nickerson, J.T.R. and Goldblith, S.A., A literature survey on the effects of ionizing radiations on seafoods with respect to wholesomeness aspects, Report # 9656, Contract AT(30-1)-2580, United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1958.
  27. Murray, T.K., Nutritional aspects of food irradiation, in Recent Advances in Food Irradiation, Elias, P.J. and A.J. Cohen, eds., Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, p. 203- 216, 1983.
  28. Nova Scotia Heart Health Program, Report of the Nova Scotia Nutrition Survey, 1993.
  29. Proctor, B.E. and Bhatia, D.S., Effect of high-voltage cathode rays on amino acids in fish muscle, Food Technology, pp.357-360, Sept., 1950.
  30. Reber, E.F., and Bert, M.H., Protein Quality of Irradiated Shrimp, J. Am. Dietetic Association, 53, p.41-42, 1968.
  31. Santé Québec, Rapport de l'Enquête québécoise sur la nutrition, Gouvernement du Québec, 1995.
  32. Shamsuzzaman, K., Nutritional Aspects of Irradiated Shrimp, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., 1989.
  33. Srinivas, H., Vakil, U.K., and Sreenivasan, A., Nutritional and Compositional Changes in Dehydro-Irradiated Shrimp, J. Food Science, 39, p.807-811, 1974.
  34. Srinivas, H., Vakil, U.K., and Sreenivasan, A., Evaluation of Protein Quality of Irradiated Foods using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. and Rat Assay, J. Food Science, 40, p.65-69. 1975.
  35. Thomas, M.H. and Josephson, E.S., Radiation preservation of foods and its effects on nutrients, Sci. Teacher 37, p. 59-63, 1970.
  36. Urbain, W.M., Radiation Chemistry of Proteins, Chapter 4 in Radiation Chemistry of Major Food Components, ed. P.S. Elias and A.J. Cohen, Elsevier, New York, 1977.
  37. Van Logten, M.J., den Tonkelaar, E.M. and van Esch, G.J., The wholesomeness of irradiated shrimp, Fd Cosmet. Toxicol., vol.10, pp.781-788, 1972.
  38. World Health Organisation, Safety and Nutritional Adequacy of Irradiated Food, p.139, 1994.
  39. Yeh, L.-T. and Hau, L.-B., Preservation of Grass Shrimp by Low Dose Radiation, J. of Chinese Agricultural Chemistry Society, 26(1), p.92-102, 1988.

Appendix II Safety of Irradiated Shrimp

Toxicological studies considered in assessing the safety of irradiated shrimp.

  1. Chauhan, Pawan S., Aravindakshan, M., Aiyar, A.S., & Sundaram, K. 1975. Studies on Dominant Lethal Mutations in Third Generation Rats Reared on an Irradiated Diet. Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 28(3): 215-223.
  2. Chauhan, P.S., Aravindakshan, M., Aiyar, A.S., Sundaram, K. 1975. Dominant Lethal Mutations in Male Mice Fed Gamma-Irradiated Diet. Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol., 13: 433-436.
  3. Vakil, U.K. Monograph from Food Irradiation Now re Wholesomeness Studies with Feeding Dehydro-Irradiated Shrimps to Rats (summary only).
  4. Van Logten, M.J., Den Tonkelaar, E.M., Van Esch, G.J., and Kroes, R. 1972. The Wholesomeness of Irradiated Shrimps. Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol., 10: 781-788.
  5. Aravindakshan, M., Chaubey, R.C., Chauhan, P.S., Aiyar, A.S., and Sundaram, K. 1976. Multigeneration feeding study with an irradiated animal feed. Proceedings Symp. "Use of Radiation and Radioisotopes in Studies of Animal Production," Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, Bombay.
  6. Tucker, W.E. 1962. Thyroiditis in a group of laboratory dogs. Am. J. Clin. Path., 38: 70-74.
  7. Raica, N. Jr. and Howie, D.L. Review of the United States Army Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food Program (1955-1966). Food Irradiation. Proc. Symp. Karlsruhe, SM-73/5, Vienna, IAEA, 1966, pp. 119-135.
  8. Watson, D.F., Libke, K.G., Smibert, R.M. 1963. Feeding of dogs, rabbits and hamsters with irradiated shrimp and its effect upon thyroid activity. Progress Report No. 11, Contract No. MD-784, OTSG.
  9. Reber, E.F., Malhotra, O.P., Simon, J., Kreier, J.P., Beamer, P.D., and Norton, H.W. 1961. The effects of feeding irradiated flour to dogs. II. Reproduction and pathology. J. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 3: 568.
  10. Wills, Pamela. Commercial Application of Freezing-Irradiation Combination Process for Pasteurization of Two Specific Batches of Cooked, Peeled Shrimps (IAEA-SM-250/1)
  11. Anderson, M.P. et al. 1978. Pathology of Laboratory Animals. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Figure 1: The Proposed Overall Treatment for Irradiation of Shrimp

The Proposed Overall Treatment for Irradiation of Shrimp
  • Adhere to applicable International Codes of Practice for Fresh or Frozen Shrimps (CAC/RCP 17-1978).
  • Adhere to appropriate GMP's.
  • Adhere to appropriate GMP's.
  • Further prepared could include breaded, blanched, marinated, seasoned, ready-to-cook, ready-to-eat. Any added ingredients must be approved for irradiation.
  • Packaging material should be approved for irradiation. Commonly used packaging materials are generally satisfactory. Geometrical aspects should be well defined, uniform and compatible with dose delivery capabilities of the irradiation facility.
  • Adhere to validated treatment protocol, consistent with Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food (CAC Codex Stan 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food (CAC/RCP 19- 1979 Rev 1).
  • Appropriate labelling is attached.
  • For fresh shrimp maintain temperature below 3 deg C.
  • For frozen shrimp maintain product frozen at all times. Normal handling (-18 deg C) is satisfactory.

1 The petition refers to the irradiation of shrimp that is packaged to be ready for sale at retail or food-service, ready for cooking by consumers or food-service cooks, or ready for further processing by a processor operating under a GMP or HACCP plan.

2 Shrimp exposed to fresh water at any stage in their development may become infected with a lung fluke parasite known as paragononus sp which is endemic to fresh water in south east Asia. This parasite is relatively sensitive to irradiation, and would be eliminated by the minimum proposed dose, however, it may be prudent to monitor fresh irradiated shrimp for this parasite, if the shrimp have been exposed to fresh water environment. Frozen and dried shrimp are not likely to pose a health risk due to this parasite.

3 Standard Practice for application of Dosimetry in the Characterization and operation of a Gamma Irradiation Facility for Food Processing (Designation E 1204-87) in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 12.02, 1987; Standard Guide for selection and application of Dosimetry Systemsfor Radiation Processing of Food(Designation E 1261-88) in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 12.0, 1988; Standard Practice for Dosimetry and Bremsstralung Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing (Designation E 1431-91) in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 12.02, 1991; and Standard Guide for the Irradiation of Fresh and Frozen Meats and Poultry (to control pathogens) (Designation F 1356-91) in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 12.02, 1993.

4 4Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods, CODEX STAN 106-1983, in Codex Alimentarius, Vol. 1, Section 8 (Rome: FAO/WHO, 1992, pp. 311-315. Recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used in the treatment of foods, CAC/RCP 19-1979 (Rev. 1) in Codex Alimentarius, Vol. 1, Section 8.1 (Rome: FAO/WHO, 1992), pp. 317-323.

5 International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. 1988. Provisional guidelines for the irradiation of fresh and frozen red meats and poultry.

6 Chadwick, K. H. and Oosterheert, W. F. 1986. Dosimetry concepts and measurement in food irradiation processing Int. J. Rad. Appl. Instr.(Part A), 37(1), 47-52.

7 Included as a part of the submission is a well-documented report by K. Shamsuzzaman entitled Chemical Aspects of Irradiated Shrimp: A Review (1989) (24 Tables, 5 Figures, 77 References).

8 Snauwaert, F., P. Tobback, E. Maes. 1973. Carotenoid stability during radurization of the Brown Shrimp (Crangon vulgaris). Lebnsm-Wiss. U. Technol. 6: 7-10.

9 Kumta, U. S., and A. Sreenivasan. 1966. Food irradiation research and pilot facilities in operation or planned in India. In Food Irradiation. Symposium proceedings Karlsruhe, June 6-10, 1966.

10 Wills, P. A. 1981. Commercial application of freezing-irradiation combination process for pasteurization of two specific batches of cooked, peeled shrimps. In Combination Processes in Food Irradiation, Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 24-28 1980. IAEA, Vienna pp. 291-294.

11 Urbain, W., 1986. Marine and Freshwater Animal Foods. In Food Irradiation. Academic Press Inc., New York, pp. 145-169.

12 Vyncke, W. and Declerck, D. (1976) Influence of gas permeability of packaging materials on the shelf-life of irradiated and non-irradiated brown shrimps (Cragnon vulgaris Fabr.) Lebensm-Wiss. & Technol. 5(5): 151-154.

13 King, F. J.,Mendelsohn, J. M., Gadbois, D. F. and Bernsteinas, J. B. 1972. Some chemical changes in irradiated seafoods. Rad. Res. Rev. 3, 399-415.

14 Brin, M,. A. S. Ostashever, and H. Kalinsky, 1961 The effects of feeding pork, bread, green beans and shrimp to rats on growth and on five enzymes in blood. Toxicol, Appl. Pharmacol. 3: 606-617.

15 Van Logten, M. J., E. M. Den Tonkelaar and G. J. Van Esch, and R. Kroes, 1972. The wholesomeness of irradiated shrimps. Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol. Vol. 10, pp. 781-788, Pergamon Press, Great Britain

16 Vakil, U. K.,1975 Wholesomeness of dehydro-irradiated shrimps. Food Irradiation Information 4(Suppl.): 49 (Pre-publication Report Summary).

17 Arvindakshan, M., R. C. Chaubey, P. S. Chauhan, A. S. Aiyar and K. Sundaram. 1976. Multi-generation feeding study with an irradiated animal feed. Reprint from Proceedings of the Symposium on Use of Radiation and Radioisotopes in Studies of Animal Production. Izatnagar, December 16-18, 1975.

18 Chauhan, P. S., M. Aravindakshan, A. S. Aiyar, and K. Sundaram. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed (-irradiated diet. Fd. Cosmet.Toxicol. 13: pp.433-436 Pergamon Press Great Britain.

19 Chauhan, P. S., M. Aravindakshan, A. S. Aiyar, and K. Sundaram. Studies on dominant lethal mutations in third generation rats reared on an irradiated diet 1975. Int. Radiat. Biol., 28:(3) 215-223.

20 Canadian Nutrient File

21 Novak, A.F., Liuzzo, J.A., Grodner, R.M., Lovell, R.T., Kopfler, F.C., Scalia, R.F., Stocks, P.K. and Territo, K. 1964. Radiation pasteurization of shrimp. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Isotopes Development, Contract No. AT-(40-1)-2951.

22 Items 5 and 6 are reserved for Mangoes and Poultry respectively.

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