# Dietary reference intakes tables: Equations to estimate energy requirement

These equations provide an estimate of energy requirement (EER). Relative body weight (that is, loss, stable, gain) is the preferred indicator of energy adequacy.

## Physical activity level category (PA CAT) definitions

Definitions

Physical activity level category (PA CAT) defined for inactive, low active, active and very active levels

Age group Physical activity level category (PA CAT)
Inactive Low active Active Very active
3 to <9 years 1.00 ≤ PAL <1.31 1.31 ≤ PAL < 1.44 1.44 ≤ PAL < 1.59 1.59 ≤ PAL < 2.50
9 to <14 years 1.00 ≤ PAL < 1.44 1.44 ≤ PAL < 1.59 1.59 ≤ PAL < 1.77 1.77 ≤ PAL < 2.50
14 to <19 years 1.00 ≤ PAL < 1.56 1.56 ≤ PAL < 1.73 1.73 ≤ PAL < 1.92 1.92 ≤ PAL < 2.50
19 years and older 1.00 ≤ PAL < 1.53 1.53 ≤ PAL < 1.68 1.68 ≤ PAL < 1.85 1.85 ≤ PAL < 2.50
Example of daily activities associated with physical activity level categories in adults. Activities of daily living, for example: 30 minutes walking plus 90 minutes light to moderate activity (household tasks, vacuuming, raking the lawn, etc.) Activities of daily living plus 60 to 80 minutes of walking at 5 to 7 km/h Activities of daily living plus 30 to 50 minutes of walking at 5 to 7 km/h, plus 45 minutes of moderate cycling, plus 40 minutes of doubles tennis Activities of daily living plus 45 minutes of moderate cycling, plus 25 minutes of jogging at 10 km/h, plus 40 minutes of doubles tennis

## Children 0 to 3 years

EER equations for infants and children 0 to 3 years are the same for all physical activity levels.

Age 0 to <3 months

Males

EER = –716.45 – (1.00 × age [y]) + (17.82 × height [cm]) + (15.06 × weight [kg]) + 200

Females

EER = –69.15 + (80.0 × age [y]) + (2.65 × height [cm]) + (54.15 × weight [kg]) + 180

Age 3 to <6 months

Males

EER = –716.45 – (1.00 × age [y]) + (17.82 × height [cm]) + (15.06 × weight [kg]) + 50

Females

EER = –69.15 + (80.0 × age [y]) + (2.65 × height [cm]) + (54.15 × weight [kg]) + 60

Age 6 to <12 months

Males

EER = –716.45 – (1.00 × age [y]) + (17.82 × height [cm]) + (15.06 × weight [kg]) + 20

Females

EER = –69.15 + (80.0 × age [y]) + (2.65 × height [cm]) + (54.15 × weight [kg]) + 20

Age 1 year to < 3 years

Males

EER = –716.45 – (1.00 × age [y]) + (17.82 × height [cm]) + (15.06 × weight [kg]) + 20

Females

EER = –69.15 + (80.0 × age [y]) + (2.65 × height [cm]) + (54.15 × weight [kg]) + 15

## Children and adolescents 3 to 18 years

There is a separate equation for each physical activity level category (PA CAT).

Age 3 years to < 4 years

Males

PA CAT Inactive

EER = –447.51 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (13.01 × height [cm]) + (13.15 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Low active

EER = 19.12 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (8.62 × height [cm]) + (20.28 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Active

EER = –388.19 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (12.66 × height [cm]) + (20.46 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Very active

EER = –671.75 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (15.38 × height [cm]) + (23.25 × weight [kg]) + 20

Females

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 55.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (8.43 × height [cm]) + (17.07 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Low active

EER = –297.54 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (12.77 × height [cm]) + (14.73 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Active

EER = –189.55 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (11.74 × height [cm]) + (18.34 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Very active

EER = –709.59 – (22.25 × age) + (18.22 × height [cm]) + (14.25 × weight [kg]) + 15

Age 4 years to <9 years

Males

PA CAT Inactive

EER = –447.51 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (13.01 × height [cm]) + (13.15 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Low active

EER = 19.12 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (8.62 × height [cm]) + (20.28 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Active

EER = –388.19 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (12.66 × height [cm]) + (20.46 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Very active

EER = –671.75 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (15.38 × height [cm]) + (23.25 × weight [kg]) + 15

Females

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 55.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (8.43 × height [cm]) + (17.07 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Low active

EER = –297.54 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (12.77 × height [cm]) + (14.73 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Active

EER = –189.55 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (11.74 × height [cm]) + (18.34 × weight [kg]) + 15

PA CAT Very active

EER = –709.59 – (22.25 × age) + (18.22 × height [cm]) + (14.25 × weight [kg]) + 15

Age 9 years to <14 years

Males

PA CAT Inactive

EER = –447.51 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (13.01 × height [cm]) + (13.15 × weight [kg]) + 25

PA CAT Low active

EER = 19.12 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (8.62 × height [cm]) + (20.28 × weight [kg]) + 25

PA CAT Active

EER = –388.19 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (12.66 × height [cm]) + (20.46 × weight [kg]) + 25

PA CAT Very active

EER = –671.75 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (15.38 × height [cm]) + (23.25 × weight [kg]) + 25

Females

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 55.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (8.43 × height [cm]) + (17.07 × weight [kg]) + 30

PA CAT Low active

EER = –297.54 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (12.77 × height [cm]) + (14.73 × weight [kg]) + 30

PA CAT Active

EER = –189.55 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (11.74 × height [cm]) + (18.34 × weight [kg]) + 30

PA CAT Very active

EER = –709.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (18.22 × height [cm]) + (14.25 × weight [kg]) + 30

Age 14 years to <19 years

Males

PA CAT Inactive

EER = –447.51 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (13.01 × height [cm]) + (13.15 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Low active

EER = 19.12 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (8.62 × height [cm]) + (20.28 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Active

EER = –388.19 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (12.66 × height [cm]) + (20.46 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Very active

EER = –671.75 + (3.68 × age [y]) + (15.38 × height [cm]) + (23.25 × weight [kg]) + 20

Females

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 55.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (8.43 × height [cm]) + (17.07 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Low active

EER = –297.54 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (12.77 × height [cm]) + (14.73 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Active

EER = –189.55 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (11.74 × height [cm]) + (18.34 × weight [kg]) + 20

PA CAT Very active

EER = –709.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (18.22 × height [cm]) + (14.25 × weight [kg]) + 20

## Adults 19 years and older

There is a separate equation for each physical activity level category.

Males

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 753.07 – (10.83 × age [y]) + (6.50 × height [cm]) + (14.10 × weight [kg])

PA CAT Low active

EER = 581.47 – (10.83 × age [y]) + (8.30 × height [cm]) + (14.94 × weight [kg])

PA CAT Active

EER = 1,004.82 – (10.83 × age [y]) + (6.52 × height [cm]) + (15.91 × weight [kg])

PA CAT Very active

EER = –517.88 – (10.83 × age [y]) + (15.61 × height [cm]) + (19.11 × weight [kg])

Females

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 584.90 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (5.72 × height [cm]) + (11.71 × weight [kg])

PA CAT Low active

EER = 575.77 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (6.60 × height [cm]) + (12.14 × weight [kg])

PA CAT Active

EER = 710.25 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (6.54 × height [cm]) + (12.34 × weight [kg])

PA CAT Very active

EER = 511.83 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (9.07 × height [cm]) + (12.56 × weight [kg])

## Pregnancy second and third trimester, any age

For the first trimester of pregnancy, use the appropriate non-pregnant equation.

There is a separate equation for each physical activity level category.

Underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2)

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 1,131.20 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (0.34 × height [cm]) + (12.15 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 300

PA CAT Low active

EER = 693.35 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (5.73 × height [cm]) + (10.20 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 300

PA CAT Active

EER = –223.84 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (13.23 × height [cm]) + (8.15 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 300

PA CAT Very active

EER = –779.72 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (18.45 × height [cm]) + (8.73 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 300

Normal weight pre-pregnancy BMI (18.5–24.9 kg/m2)

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 1,131.20 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (0.34 × height [cm]) + (12.15 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 200

PA CAT Low active

EER = 693.35 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (5.73 × height [cm]) + (10.20 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 200

PA CAT Active

EER = –223.84 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (13.23 × height [cm]) + (8.15 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 200

PA CAT Very active

EER = –779.72 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (18.45 × height [cm]) + (8.73 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 200

Overweight pre-pregnancy BMI (25.0–29.9 kg/m2)

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 1,131.20 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (0.34 × height [cm]) + (12.15 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 150

PA CAT Low active

EER = 693.35 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (5.73 × height [cm]) + (10.20 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 150

PA CAT Active

EER = –223.84 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (13.23 × height [cm]) + (8.15 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 150

PA CAT Very active

EER = –779.72 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (18.45 × height [cm]) + (8.73 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) + 150

Obese pre-pregnancy BMI (≥ 30.0 kg/m2)

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 1,131.20 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (0.34 × height [cm]) + (12.15 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) – 50

PA CAT Low active

EER = 693.35 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (5.73 × height [cm]) + (10.20 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) – 50

PA CAT Active

EER = –223.84 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (13.23 × height [cm]) + (8.15 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) – 50

PA CAT Very active

EER = –779.72 – (2.04 × age [y]) + (18.45 × height [cm]) + (8.73 × weight [kg]) + (9.16 × gestation [weeks]) – 50

## Breastfeeding, 0 to 6 months postpartum

There is a separate equation for each physical activity level category.

Ages less than 19 years

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 55.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (8.43 × height [cm]) + (17.07 × weight [kg]) + 540 – 140

PA CAT Low active

EER = –297.54 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (12.77 × height [cm]) + (14.73 × weight [kg]) + 540 – 140

PA CAT Active

EER = –189.55 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (11.74 × height [cm]) + (18.34 × weight [kg]) + 540 – 140

PA CAT Very active

EER = –709.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (18.22 × height [cm]) + (14.25 × weight [kg]) + 540 – 140

Ages 19 years and older

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 584.90 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (5.72 × height [cm]) + (11.71 × weight [kg]) + 540 – 140

PA CAT Low active

EER = 575.77 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (6.60 × height [cm]) + (12.14 × weight [kg]) + 540 – 140

PA CAT Active

EER = 710.25 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (6.54 × height [cm]) + (12.34 × weight [kg]) + 540 – 140

PA CAT Very active

EER = 511.83 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (9.07 × height [cm]) + (12.56 × weight [kg]) + 540 – 140

## Breastfeeding, 7 to 12 months postpartum

There is a separate equation for each physical activity level category.

Ages less than 19 years

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 55.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (8.43 × height [cm]) + (17.07 × weight [kg]) + 380

PA CAT Low active

EER = –297.54 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (12.77 × height [cm]) + (14.73 × weight [kg]) + 380

PA CAT Active

EER = –189.55 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (11.74 × height [cm]) + (18.34 × weight [kg]) + 380

PA CAT Very active

EER = –709.59 – (22.25 × age [y]) + (18.22 × height [cm]) + (14.25 × weight [kg]) + 380

Ages 19 years and older

PA CAT Inactive

EER = 584.90 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (5.72 × height [cm]) + (11.71 × weight [kg]) + 380

PA CAT Low active

EER = 575.77 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (6.60 × height [cm]) + (12.14 × weight [kg]) + 380

PA CAT Active

EER = 710.25 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (6.54 × height [cm]) + (12.34 × weight [kg]) + 380

PA CAT Very active

EER = 511.83 – (7.01 × age [y]) + (9.07 × height [cm]) + (12.56 × weight [kg]) + 380

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