Wheat & Triticale - Priority food allergens
Allergic reactions are adverse reactions that occur when the body's immune system overreacts to a particular allergen. These reactions may be caused by food, insect stings, latex, medications and other substances. In Canada, the priority food allergens are peanuts, tree nuts (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts and walnuts), sesame seeds, milk, eggs, fish, crustaceans and molluscs, soy, wheat or triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye grains), and mustard. Sulphites (a food additive), which do not cause true allergic reactions, are generally grouped with the priority allergens because sulphite-sensitive individuals may react to sulphites with allergy-like symptoms.
What are the symptoms of an allergic or allergic-type reaction?
When someone comes in contact with a food allergen or added sulphites, the symptoms of an allergic or allergic-type reaction may develop quickly and rapidly progress from mild to severe. The most severe form of an allergic reaction is called anaphylaxis. Symptoms can include breathing difficulties, a drop in blood pressure or shock, which may result in loss of consciousness and even death. A person experiencing an allergic reaction may have any combination of the following signs or symptoms:
- Skin: hives, swelling (face, lips, tongue), itching, warmth, redness;
- Respiratory: coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain or tightness, throat tightness, hoarse voice, nasal congestion or hay fever-like symptoms (runny, itchy nose and watery eyes, sneezing), trouble swallowing;
- Gastrointestinal: nausea, pain or cramps, vomiting, diarrhea;
- Cardiovascular: paler than normal skin colour/blue skin colour, weak pulse, dizziness or light headedness, loss of consciousness, shock;
- Other: anxiety, sense impending of doom, headache, uterine cramps, metallic taste.
How are severe allergic reactions treated?
Currently there is no cure for food allergies. The only option for managing the risk is to completely avoid the specific allergen. Appropriate emergency treatment for anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction) includes an injection of epinephrine, which is available in an auto-injector device. Epinephrine is the only medication that can stop an allergic reaction from progressing and must be administered as soon as symptoms of a severe allergic reaction appear. Antihistamines, if used, should be given AFTER epinephrine has been administered. The injection must be followed by further treatment and observation in a hospital emergency room. If your allergist has diagnosed you with a food allergy and prescribed epinephrine, carry it with you all the time and know how to use it. Follow the advice of your allergist on how to use an auto-injector device.
Frequently asked questions about wheat allergies
I have a wheat allergy. How can I avoid a wheat-related reaction?
- Read food labels.
Avoid all food and products that contain wheat and any product whose label carries a precautionary statement warning that the product might have wheat in it such as “may contain” wheat or similar wording. When provided by a manufacturer, precautionary statements are usually found after the list of ingredients or "Contains" statement if there is one. By December 2021 any precautionary statements will have to appear in this location only.
If wheat is part of the product formulation, it must be declared in the list of ingredients or in a separate “contains” statement immediately following the list of ingredients.
- Avoid any products that do not have an ingredient list.
- Read labels every time you shop. Manufacturers may occasionally change their recipes or use different ingredients for varieties of the same product.
What is the difference between a wheat allergy and celiac disease?
Wheat allergy and celiac disease are two different conditions. A wheat allergy occurs when a person's immune system reacts abnormally to wheat proteins; it can be life-threatening. When a person with celiac disease eats food containing the protein gluten (found in wheat and some other grains), it results in immune-mediated damage to the lining of the small intestine, which stops the body from absorbing nutrients. This can lead to anemia, chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, abdominal cramping, bloating and eventually malnutrition. If you are unsure whether you have a wheat allergy or celiac disease, consult an allergist or a physician.
What is triticale?
Triticale is a hybrid grain created by crossing wheat and rye. Although not typically available commercially, people with wheat allergy should avoid triticale as well.
Can a wheat allergy be outgrown?
A wheat allergy develops most commonly in infants and tends to disappear within five years. Adults who develop a wheat allergy, however, are likely to retain it. Consult your allergist before reintroducing your child to wheat products.
What about exercise and wheat allergy?
A rare and poorly understood condition known as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis is most commonly linked to wheat, although other foods have also been known to trigger this condition. People with this condition can experience anaphylactic reactions when they exercise soon after eating a particular food allergen. They do not react, however, if they delay exercise by several hours.
What do I do if I am not sure whether a product contains wheat?
If you have a wheat allergy, do not eat, drink or use the product. Obtain ingredient information from the manufacturer.
Does product size affect the likelihood of an allergic reaction?
Product size does not affect the likelihood of a reaction; however, the same brand of product may be safe to consume for one product size but not another. This is because product formulation may vary between different product sizes of the same product or be produced in a different facility. Always read the ingredient lists carefully.
Other names for wheat
In the past, some products have used other names for wheat on their labels. These names are not permitted without the word wheat also appearing on the label, based on the enhanced labelling requirements for food allergens, gluten sources and added sulphites. However, if you have a wheat allergy and see one of the following in the list of ingredients on a product you should not eat it.
- Graham, high-gluten and high-protein flour
- Spelt (dinkel, farro)
Examples of foods and products that contain or often contain wheat
- Breads and baked goods
- Baking mixes, powder
- Batter-fried foods
- Beer (due to the absence of ingredient list in standardized beer, the presence of wheat does not have to be labeled in beers)
- Cereal-based coffee substitutes (chicory, barley)
- Chicken and beef broth (cans and bouillon cubes)
- Host (communion, altar bread and wafers)
- Hydrolyzed plant protein
- Imitation bacon
- Pie fillings and puddings
- Sauces, e.g., chutney, soy and tamari sauce
Avoid food and products that do not have an ingredient list and read labels every time you shop.
Other possible sources of wheat
- Deli meats, hot dogs and surimi
- Gelatinized starch, modified starch and food starch
- Ice cream
- Prepared ketchup and mustard
- Salad dressings
- Snack foods, e.g., crackers, cereal
Non-food sources of wheat
- Cosmetics and hair-care products
- Medications and vitamins
- Modeling compound e.g., PLAY-DOH
- Pet food and pet bedding
- Wreath decorations
Note: These lists are not complete and may change. Food and food products purchased from other countries, through mail-order or the Internet, are not always produced using the same manufacturing and labelling standards as in Canada.
What can I do?
Consult your allergist or physician in order to obtain the advice and support needed to help manage your condition. Contact your allergy association for further information.
If you or anyone you know has food allergies and would like to receive information about food being recalled due to improper allergen labelling, sign up for the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) e-mail “Food Recalls and Allergy Alerts” notification service available. When you sign up you will automatically receive timely food recall notifications.
Allergists recommend that if you do not have your auto-injector device with you that you do not eat. If the label indicates that a product “contains” or “may contain” wheat, do not eat it. If you do not recognize an ingredient, if there is no ingredient list available or if you don't understand the language written on the packaging, avoid the product.
Watch out for allergen cross-contamination!
Cross-contamination is the accidental transfer of an ingredient (food allergen) to a product that does not normally have that ingredient in it. Through cross-contamination, a food that should not contain the allergen could become dangerous to eat for those who are allergic.
Cross-contamination can happen:
- during food manufacturing through shared production and packaging equipment;
- at retail through shared equipment, e.g., bulk grains;
- during food preparation at home, daycares, schools or in restaurants through equipment, utensils and hands.
What is the Government of Canada doing about priority food allergens, gluten sources and added sulphites?
The Government of Canada is committed to providing Canadians with the information they need to make safe and healthy food choices. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Health Canada work closely with municipal, provincial and territorial partners and industry to meet this goal.
The CFIA enforces Canada's labelling laws and works with associations, distributors, food manufacturers and importers to ensure complete and appropriate labelling of all foods. The CFIA recommends that food companies establish effective allergen controls to prevent the occurrence of undeclared allergens and cross-contamination. The CFIA has developed guidelines and tools to aid them in developing these controls. When the CFIA becomes aware of a potential hazard associated with a food, such as undeclared allergens, Health Canada is asked to assess the situation. When a serious risk is identified, the food product is recalled from the marketplace and a public warning is issued. The CFIA has also published several advisories to industry and consumers regarding allergens in food.
Health Canada has worked with the medical community, consumer associations, and the food industry to enhance labelling regulations for food allergens, gluten sources and added sulphites in pre-packaged food sold in Canada. Health Canada has amended the Food and Drug Regulations to require that the most common foods and food ingredients that may cause life-threatening or severe allergic reactions are always clearly identified by their common names on food labels allowing consumers to easily recognize them and make safe and informed food decisions.
More information on the regulations that enhance the labelling of food allergens, gluten sources and added sulphites can be found on the Health Canada website.
If you come across a food that you think is improperly labelled, contact the CFIA and provide information about the product.
Report a food safety or labelling concern.
Where can I get more information?
For more information on:
- food allergies
visit Health Canada's website.
For information on:
- subscribing to the “Food Recalls and Allergy Alerts” e-mail notification service
visit the CFIA website or call 1-800-442-2342/TTY 1-800-465-7735 (8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday to Friday).
For information on this and other Government of Canada programs and services call
- 1 800 O-Canada (1-800-622-6232)
- TTY 1-800-465-7735
Below are some organizations that can provide additional allergy information:
- Allergy/Asthma Information Association
- Food Allergy Canada
- Allergies Québec (French only)
- Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (English only)
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