Express Entry Year-End Report 2021

Acronym Glossary

CEC
Canadian Experience Class
CLB
Canadian Language Benchmarks
CRS
Comprehensive Ranking System
EE
Express Entry
FSTP
Federal Skilled Trades Program
FSWP
Federal Skilled Worker Program
IRCC
Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada
ITA
Invitation to Apply
MI
Ministerial Instructions
NCLC
Niveaux de compétence linguistique canadiens
NOC
National Occupation Classification
PNP
Provincial/Territorial Nominee Program

Overview of Express Entry

Launched in January 2015, Express Entry (EE) is Canada’s flagship application management system for the Federal High Skilled economic immigration programs (Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP), Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP) and Canadian Experience Class (CEC)) and a portion of the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP). As described below, EE provides the Government of Canada with the means to manage the intake of applications for permanent residence under these key economic immigration programs, while also facilitating the selection of individuals who are most likely to succeed in Canada.

As with previous reports, the EE Year-End Report 2021 provides an overview of EE and presents data from across all stages of the EE continuum, including profile submissions, invitations to apply (ITAs), applications, processing times, and admissions. Throughout the report, historical and gender-disaggregated dataFootnote 1 is presented alongside the 2021 figures to provide additional context.

How Express Entry works

The EE system manages applications for permanent residence in two steps. First, individuals express their interest in immigrating to Canada by completing an online profile, which is screened electronically to determine if the individual is eligible for the FSWP, the FSTP, or the CEC. Individuals who meet the eligibility criteria for at least one of these programsFootnote 2 are placed in the EE pool and assigned a Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) score, which is determined by comparing information in their profile to scoring criteria that is publicly available on the Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship (IRCC) website. Candidates in the pool are ranked against one another according to their CRS score. Potential candidates can estimate their scores using a CRS tool, also available on the IRCC website.

Second, Ministerial Instructions (MIs) are regularly published on IRCC’s website specifying the number of ITAs for permanent residence that will be sent to candidates in the EE pool on a specific date. Some MIs also specify the economic immigration program(s) to which candidates will be invited to apply. For each round, invitations are issued to candidates who are eligible to be invited in that round, in descending CRS score rank order, until the maximum number of invitations specified in the associated MIs is met. The profiles of candidates who do not receive an ITA, or decline an ITA, remain in the pool for up to 12 months.

Candidates that receive an ITA have 60 days to either decline the invitation or submit an online application for permanent residence to IRCC. Candidates who receive an ITA but take no action within the 60-day period are withdrawn from the pool. Upon receipt, an immigration officer assesses the application to verify the applicant’s CRS score, program eligibility, and admissibility. If the immigration officer is satisfied that all conditions have been met and that the applicant is not inadmissible, they are approved for a permanent resident visa. Applicants and their accompanying family members become permanent residents when they are admitted to Canada. The processing standard for applications sourced via EE is six months for 80% of cases. Processing time is measured from the day a complete application is received until a final decision is made by an immigration officer.

The CRS is the backbone of the EE application management system. A CRS score comprises two components: core points and additional points. These factors help predict a candidate’s potential for success in the Canadian labour market. The maximum CRS score a candidate can achieve is capped at 1,200 points – 600 points under the core component and 600 points under the additional points component. All information provided at the profile stage for the purpose of generating a CRS score is self-reported and must be supported with appropriate documentation from the candidate at the application stage, or the application could be refused.

Under the core points, the person’s human capital characteristics (e.g., age, education, official language proficiency, work experience) are scored. A candidate who indicates they would apply with an accompanying spouse can receive a maximum of 560 points for their own core characteristics and is awarded up to a maximum of 40 points, depending on the human capital characteristics of their spouse. A candidate without an accompanying spouse can receive a maximum of 600 points under the core component. Under the additional points component, a candidate can receive points for having a provincial/territorial nomination (600 points), arranged employment (50 or 200 points), Canadian post-secondary education credentials (15 or 30 points), French-language proficiency (25 or 50 points), or a sibling in Canada (15 points).Footnote 3 Additional points increase the probability that a given candidate will receive an ITA, but cannot alone ensure it – with the exception of the points for a provincial/territorial nomination, which are enough to virtually guarantee an ITA, through either a general or PNP-specific round.

Candidates in the EE pool can, and in some cases must, update their profile to reflect any change in circumstances, and this action can trigger a recalculation of their CRS score. Some updates are automatically triggered when milestones, such as a birthday or expiry of language test results, are reached. Candidates can take steps to increase their CRS score, thereby increasing the probability they will be selected to receive an ITA. For example, a candidate could increase their proficiency in an official language, secure arranged employment, or provide an educational credential assessment for education acquired abroad.

What’s new in 2021?

In 2021, IRCC continued to leverage the flexibility and responsiveness of the EE system to adapt to the conditions presented by the COVID-19 pandemic and to support the Department in meeting the Government of Canada’s 2021-2023 Immigration Levels Plan. The validity period of an ITA for permanent residence, which had been increased from 60 to 90 days in 2020, was returned to 60 days in 2021 to support IRCC in processing higher volumes of applications in an expedited fashion.

In 2021, IRCC continued to target ITAs at CEC- and PNP-eligible candidates, who are more likely to be physically located in Canada and therefore less impacted by pandemic-related border restrictions; this included one invitation round on February 13, 2021, through which more than 27,000 ITAs were issued to all CEC-eligible candidates in the pool at that time, over 90% of whom were already in Canada and employed. No candidates were invited to apply to the FSWP or FSTP in 2021. Despite the impacts of COVID-19, 2021 saw more ITAs issued via EE than in any previous year.

Travel restrictions throughout most of 2020 and 2021 delayed the processing of overseas applications, which led to significant growth in the Federal High Skilled immigration programs processing inventory. To manage the large processing inventory and position IRCC to process existing applications in a timely manner, the Department paused EE ITAs to Federal High Skilled immigration programs beginning September 20, 2021, while continuing to issue ITAs to the PNP. This pause was temporary; ITAs to Federal High Skilled immigration programs resumed in July 2022 once the processing inventory had been reduced enough to create space for new intake.

The Minister of IRCC’s mandate letter, released in December 2021, included a commitment to expanding pathways to permanent residence for international students and temporary foreign workers through the EE system.

Upcoming enhancements to Express Entry

On June 23, 2022, legislative amendments were made to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act that authorize the Minister of IRCC to invite foreign nationals to apply for permanent residence through EE on a new basis – their eligibility to be members of a category that supports an identified economic goal. This new authority will increase flexibility to select those with the skills and attributes needed to respond to Canada’s evolving economic needs and Government priorities. Categories will be established, change over time, and will be informed by data and labour market information, as well as engagement with provincial and territorial partners and through stakeholder consultations.

The first use of this upcoming enhancement to the EE system, referred to as “category-based selection” is anticipated to take place in 2023. More information on category-based selection will be presented in future year-end reports.

Who submitted an Express Entry profile?

In 2021, 443,004 EE profiles were submitted through the system, which represents an increase of 23% from 2020 and 33% from 2019 (Figure 1). The proportion of the profiles submitted in 2021 that were eligible for at least one of the federal immigration programs managed by EE (74%) was unchanged from that observed in 2020.

Figure 1: Profile submissions to Express Entry, 2019-2021

EE report 2021 - figure 1 as decribed below
Text version: Figure 1: Profile submissions to Express Entry, 2019-2021

In 2019, 332,331 total Express Entry profiles were submitted, including 239,115 eligible profiles and 93,216 ineligible profiles.

In 2020, 360,998 total Express Entry profiles were submitted, including 266,658 eligible profiles and 94,340 ineligible profiles.

In 2021, 443,004 total Express Entry profiles were submitted, including 326,257 eligible profiles and 116,747 ineligible profiles.

As displayed in Table 1, in 2021, more profiles were submitted by men (248,495) than women (194,370). Women submitted a slightly higher proportion of total profiles in 2021 (44%), continuing an upwards trend from 2020 (43%) and 2019 (41%). The proportions of profile submissions by men (71%) and women (77%) that were eligible for at least one program were unchanged from 2020. Women have consistently submitted a slightly higher proportion of eligible profiles, including 76% vs 69% in 2019.

Table 1: Profile submissions to Express Entry, by gender, 2019-2021
Profile outcome 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men
Eligible 135,359 69% 147,668 71% 176,863 71%
Ineligible 59,572 31% 59,541 29% 71,632 29%
Total 194,931 100% 207,209 100% 248,495 100%
Women
Eligible 103,713 76% 118,947 77% 149,338 77%
Ineligible 33,588 24% 34,738 23% 45,032 23%
Total 137,301 100% 153,685 100% 194,370 100%
TotalFootnote *
Eligible 239,115 72% 266,658 74% 326,257 74%
Ineligible 93,216 28% 94,340 26% 116,747 26%
TotalFootnote * 332,331 100% 360,998 100% 443,004 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_MAIN as of January 11, 2022
Note that the data is operational and may vary slightly compared to previous years’ reported numbers.

Who got into the Express Entry pool?

The distributions of CRS scores for eligible candidate profiles at the time of submission are presented in Table 2. In each year, the CRS scores consistently remain concentrated in the 301-500 range even as the total number of eligible profiles submitted has increased. It is important to note that the EE pool is dynamic, and that the distribution of CRS scores changes every time an eligible profile is submitted, updated, or expires.

Table 2: Comprehensive Ranking System score distribution of total eligible profiles submitted to Express Entry, at time of submission, 2019-2021
CRS score range 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
701-1200 7 <1% 15 <1% 79 <1%
651-700 35 <1% 38 <1% 38 <1%
601-650 96 <1% 146 <1% 133 <1%
551-600 426 <1% 672 <1% 786 <1%
501-550 3,797 2% 6,053 2% 6,847 2%
451-500 53,532 22% 71,232 27% 69,195 21%
401-450 67,444 28% 73,812 28% 86,626 27%
351-400 69,614 29% 72,129 27% 99,623 31%
301-350 37,592 16% 36,112 14% 50,759 16%
251-300 4,783 2% 4,856 2% 7,583 2%
201-250 1,133 <1% 1,081 <1% 2,928 1%
151-200 492 <1% 390 <1% 1,239 <1%
101-150 140 <1% 113 <1% 367 <1%
1-100 24 <1% 9 <1% 54 <1%
Total 239,115 100% 266,658 100% 326,257 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_MAIN as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Among individuals who submitted eligible profiles in 2021, a majority (58%) did not meet criteria for any additional points at the time of submission – this represents a gradual reduction since 2019 (69%) (Table 3).Footnote 4 Candidates continued to most often meet criteria for Education in Canada (21%) and Siblings in Canada (13%) points, with the proportion of eligible profile submissions that receive Education in Canada points growing steadily since 2019. The shares of candidates in the EE pool who met criteria for additional points for having a sibling in Canada, arranged employment and for being proficient in FrenchFootnote 5 has remained stable over the last three years, following the introduction of these point types in June 2017.

Table 3: Eligible profiles submitted to Express Entry by additional point type, 2019-2021
Additional point type 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
No additional points 164,740 69% 168,564 63% 190,668 58%
Arranged employment 12,841 5% 18,091 7% 20,924 6%
Education in Canada 30,055 13% 45,530 17% 69,148 21%
French-language proficiency 9,356 4% 12,806 5% 18,140 6%
Siblings in Canada 29,670 12% 33,403 13% 41,617 13%
Total 239,115 100% 266,658 100% 326,257 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_MAIN as of January 11, 2022
Note that the data is operational and may vary slightly compared to previous years’ reported numbers.
The number of profiles with each additional point type do not sum to the total number of profiles, and the percentages by additional point type do not add to 100%, because a candidate may receive a maximum of 600 additional points. Candidates with provincial nominations (worth 600 points) may therefore meet criteria for, but not receive, other types of additional points.

In 2021, a higher number and proportion of men (54%) than women (46%) did not meet criteria for any additional points at the time of submitting an eligible profile, although this difference has diminished somewhat since 2019 (Table 4).

Table 4: Eligible profiles submitted to Express Entry with no additional points by gender, 2019-2021
Eligible profiles with no additional points 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 92,671 56% 92,442 55% 102,937 54%
Women 72,044 44% 76,099 45% 87,696 46%
TotalFootnote * 164,740 100% 168,564 100% 190,668 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_MAIN as of January 11, 2022
Note that the data is operational and may vary slightly compared to previous years’ reported numbers.

Education in Canada and Siblings in Canada were the most common additional point types for which both men and women met criteria in 2021 (Tables 5-8). While men and women met criteria for most additional point types in relatively equal proportions, a considerably higher number of men (67%) than women (33%) met the criteria for additional points for having arranged employment.

Table 5: Eligible profiles submitted to Express Entry with additional points for Arranged Employment by gender, 2019-2021
Eligible profiles with Arranged Employment points 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 9,111 71% 12,301 68% 14,002 67%
Women 3,728 29% 5,788 32% 6,921 33%
TotalFootnote * 12,841 100% 18,091 100% 20,924 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_MAIN as of January 11, 2022
Note that the data is operational and may vary slightly compared to previous years’ reported numbers.

Table 6: Eligible profiles submitted to Express Entry with additional points for Education in Canada by gender, 2019-2021
Eligible profiles with Education in Canada points 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 17,298 58% 25,767 57% 37,645 54%
Women 12,749 42% 19,751 43% 31,490 46%
TotalFootnote * 30,055 100% 45,530 100% 69,148 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_MAIN as of January 11, 2022
Note that the data is operational and may vary slightly compared to previous years’ reported numbers.

Table 7: Eligible profiles submitted to Express Entry with additional points for French-language proficiency by gender, 2019-2021
Eligible profiles with French-language proficiency points 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 4,940 53% 6,475 51% 9,091 50%
Women 4,413 47% 6,331 49% 9,046 50%
TotalFootnote * 9,356 100% 12,806 100% 18,140 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_MAIN as of January 11, 2022
Note that the data is operational and may vary slightly compared to previous years’ reported numbers.

Table 8: Eligible profiles submitted to Express Entry with additional points for Sibling in Canada by gender, 2019-2021
Eligible profiles with Sibling in Canada points 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 15,676 53% 17,118 51% 20,839 50%
Women 13,986 47% 16,278 49% 20,768 50%
TotalFootnote * 29,670 100% 33,403 100% 41,617 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_MAIN as of January 11, 2022
Note that the data is operational and may vary slightly compared to previous years’ reported numbers

Who was invited to apply for permanent residence through Express Entry?

As displayed in Table 9, IRCC held 42 ITA rounds and issued 114,431 invitations in 2021, an increase of 6% from the 107,350 invitations issued in 2020. In 2021, the great majority (87%) of the total invitations issued were under the CEC – a significant increase from 2020 (54%) and 2019 (36%) – with the remainder issued under the PNP. This reflects the ITA rounds strategy adopted by the Department to meet immigration targets in the context of ongoing pandemic-related border restrictions. No invitations were issued under the FSWP or the FSTP in 2021.

All 42 rounds of invitations held in 2021 were program-specific, meaning that only candidates eligible for a specific program were invited to apply for permanent residence; no general invitation rounds were held. 17 of these rounds invited candidates who were CEC-eligible, while the other 25 rounds invited candidates who had received provincial nominations. CRS cut-off scores ranged from 682 to 813 for PNP-specific rounds (median = 739), and from 75 to 462 for CEC-specific rounds ranged (median = 401). While the CRS cut-off scores of CEC-specific rounds decreased throughout the year, those of the PNP-specific rounds remained generally stable. All rounds of invitations were conducted in line with the associated MIs.

Table 9: Invitations to apply issued to candidates by economic immigration program, 2021
ITA date Round typeFootnote * CRS cut-off CEC # PNP # FSWP # FSTP # Total ITAs
2021-01-06 PNP 813 0 250 0 0 250
2021-01-07 CEC 461 4,750 0 0 0 4,750
2021-01-20 PNP 741 0 374 0 0 374
2021-01-21 CEC 454 4,626 0 0 0 4,626
2021-02-10 PNP 720 0 654 0 0 654
2021-02-13 CEC 75 27,332 0 0 0 27,332
2021-03-08 PNP 739 0 671 0 0 671
2021-03-17 PNP 682 0 183 0 0 183
2021-03-18 CEC 449 5,000 0 0 0 5,000
2021-03-31 PNP 778 0 284 0 0 284
2021-04-01 CEC 432 5,000 0 0 0 5,000
2021-04-14 PNP 753 0 266 0 0 266
2021-04-17 CEC 417 6,000 0 0 0 6,000
2021-04-28 PNP 717 0 381 0 0 381
2021-04-29 CEC 400 6,000 0 0 0 6,000
2021-05-12 PNP 752 0 557 0 0 557
2021-05-13 CEC 401 4,147 0 0 0 4,147
2021-05-20 CEC 397 1,842 0 0 0 1,842
2021-05-26 PNP 713 0 500 0 0 500
2021-05-31 CEC 380 5,956 0 0 0 5,956
2021-06-09 PNP 711 0 940 0 0 940
2021-06-10 CEC 368 6,000 0 0 0 6,000
2021-06-23 PNP 742 0 1,002 0 0 1,002
2021-06-24 CEC 357 6,000 0 0 0 6,000
2021-07-07 PNP 760 0 627 0 0 627
2021-07-08 CEC 369 4,500 0 0 0 4,500
2021-07-21 PNP 734 0 462 0 0 462
2021-07-22 CEC 357 4,500 0 0 0 4,500
2021-08-04 PNP 760 0 512 0 0 512
2021-08-05 CEC 404 3,000 0 0 0 3,000
2021-08-18 PNP 751 0 463 0 0 463
2021-08-19 CEC 403 3,000 0 0 0 3,000
2021-09-01 PNP 764 0 635 0 0 635
2021-09-14 CEC 462 2,000 0 0 0 2,000
2021-09-15 PNP 732 0 521 0 0 521
2021-09-29 PNP 742 0 761 0 0 761
2021-10-13 PNP 720 0 681 0 0 681
2021-10-27 PNP 744 0 888 0 0 888
2021-11-10 PNP 685 0 775 0 0 775
2021-11-24 PNP 737 0 613 0 0 613
2021-12-10 PNP 698 0 1,032 0 0 1,032
2021-12-22 PNP 720 0 746 0 0 746
Total     99,653 14,778 0 0 114,431

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Overall, as displayed in Tables 10 and 11, men received 57% of the invitations issued in 2021 – similar to the share of eligible profile submissions made by men in that year. The proportion of invitations issued to men and women by program was identical: both genders received invitations to apply to the CEC most often (87%), followed by the PNP (13%) and none under the FSWP or FSTP. From 2019 to 2021, 21 invitations were issued to candidates who indicated another gender, an unspecified gender or unknown. Because of the small counts, the data presented in this section of the report is not broken down by these gender categories.

Table 10: Invitations to apply issued to candidates by economic immigration program – men, 2019-2021
Economic immigration program 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
CEC 18,184 37% 33,780 56% 57,498 87%
PNP 8,963 18% 8,909 15% 8,485 13%
FSWP 21,151 43% 17,856 29% 0 0%
FSTP 765 2% 194 < 1% 0 0%
Total 49,063 100% 60,739 100% 65,983 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 11: Invitations to apply issued to candidates by economic immigration program – women, 2019-2021
Economic immigration program 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
CEC 12,378 35% 24,415 52% 42,147 87%
PNP 5,965 16% 5,299 11% 6,293 13%
FSWP 17,654 49% 16,832 36% 0 0%
FSTP 235 < 1% 57 < 1% 0 0%
Total 36,232 100% 46,603 100% 48,440 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

The socio-demographic characteristics of the candidates invited to apply for permanent residence shifted significantly from 2019 to 2021, reflecting the impacts of focusing the ITA rounds strategy on inviting CEC-eligible candidates (Tables 12 to 16). From 2019 to 2021, the share of invitations issued to candidates aged 20-29 (the age category associated with the highest number of points under the CRS) increased from just over half to almost two-thirds. A smaller proportion of invitations were issued to candidates with masters and entry-to-practice graduates; however, overall candidates who received invitations to apply remained highly educated, with 75% claiming to hold a post-secondary educational credential of at least three years. First official language proficiency has declined: whereas in 2019 the most common (45%) Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB)/Niveaux de compétence linguistique canadiens (NCLC) level among invited candidates was 9, in 2021 the most common (41%) level was 7. In 2021, the vast majority (92%) of invitations went to candidates with at least one year of eligible Canadian work experience, while fewer candidates with significant foreign work experience were invited to apply.

Table 12: Invitations to apply issued to candidates by age, 2019-2021
Candidate age 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
<20 4 < 1% 3 < 1% 9 < 1%
20-29 47,165 55% 67,933 63% 73,689 64%
30-34 26,692 31% 25,726 24% 21,518 19%
35-39 8,078 9% 9,158 9% 10,870 9%
40-44 2,260 3% 3,011 3% 5,240 5%
45+ 1,101 1% 1,519 1% 3,105 3%
Total 85,300 100% 107,350 100% 114,431 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 13: Invitations to apply issued to candidates by highest level of education, 2019-2021
Education level 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
High school or less 1,158 1% 923 1% 3,404 3%
One or two year post-secondary credential 4,395 5% 7,552 7% 25,476 22%
Post-secondary credential of three years or longer 35,780 42% 49,661 46% 61,226 54%
Master's Degree or entry-to-practice professional degree 40,673 48% 45,521 42% 22,215 19%
PhD 3,294 4% 3,693 3% 2,110 2%
Total 85,300 100% 107,350 100% 114,431 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 14: Invitations to apply issued to candidates by first official language proficiency level, 2019-2021
First official language Level 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
CLB/NCLC 4 94 < 1% 18 < 1% 31 < 1%
CLB/NCLC 5 1,051 1% 761 1% 5,161 5%
CLB/NCLC 6 1,934 2% 2,614 2% 13,551 12%
CLB/NCLC 7 17,990 21% 28,187 26% 47,271 41%
CLB/NCLC 8 13,613 16% 21,453 20% 25,457 22%
CLB/NCLC 9 38,146 45% 37,483 35% 14,959 13%
CLB/NCLC 10 12,472 15% 16,834 16% 8,001 7%
Total 85,300 100% 107,350 100% 114,431 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of September 29 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 15: Invitations to apply issued to candidates by amount of Canadian work experience, 2019-2021
Years of Canadian work experience 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
No work experience or less than one year 47,733 56% 41,958 39% 10,660 9%
1 year 26,054 31% 43,334 40% 74,375 65%
2 years 8,951 10% 17,883 17% 23,465 21%
3 years 1,618 2% 3,035 3% 4,119 4%
4 years 504 1% 616 1% 1,021 1%
5 years or more 440 1% 524 < 1% 791 1%
Total 85,300 100% 107,350 100% 114,431 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 16: Invitations to apply issued to candidates by amount of foreign work experience, 2019-2021
Years of foreign work experience 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
No work experience or less than one year 17,762 21% 33,751 31% 66,344 58%
1 year 6,101 7% 8,310 8% 7,482 7%
2 years 4,995 6% 5,619 5% 5,621 5%
3 years 15,189 18% 18,605 17% 6,661 6%
4 years 11,016 13% 12,227 11% 5,515 5%
5 years or more 30,237 35% 28,838 27% 22,808 20%
Total 85,300 100% 107,350 100% 114,431 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 17 provides information on (a) invitations issued to candidates who were assigned additional points in each category and (b) invitations issued to candidates who met relevant criteria for the category but were not necessarily assigned points.Footnote 6 (A maximum of 600 total additional points can be assigned under the CRS; candidates who have already been assigned 600 points for a provincial nomination cannot be assigned other additional points, even if they meet the criteria.) For example, in 2021, 20,299 ITAs were issued to candidates who met criteria for arranged employment points, but only 18,473 of these candidates were actually assigned the associated points. Data are provided for both conditions to facilitate comparison, as well as to reflect the fuller characteristics of candidates who were invited to apply for permanent residence.Footnote 7

In 2021, slightly over one quarter of ITAs (27%) were issued on the basis of human capital attributes alone (i.e., to candidates who did not meet criteria for any additional points). This figure is down from 28% in 2020 and 40% in 2019, and indicates that additional points are increasingly important to a candidate’s chances of receiving an invitation.

Despite the increase in additional points for French-language proficiency in 2020, fewer invitations were sent to candidates who were assigned and met criteria for that points category in 2021; this is likely due to the shift to CEC-specific rounds, as historically, most French-speaking candidates have been eligible to be invited under the FSWP but not the CEC.

Table 17: Invitations to apply issued to candidates (a) assigned additional points, and (b) that met relevant criteria of additional points -not mutually exclusive, 2019-2021
Additional point typeFootnote * 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
(a) Assigned additional points
No Additional Points 34,140 40% 30,376 28% 30,796 27%
Provincial Nominee 14,928 18% 14,209 13% 14,778 13%
Arranged Employment 9,285 11% 15,453 14% 18,473 16%
Education in Canada 20,546 24% 41,470 39% 67,410 59%
French-language proficiency 4,187 5% 6,157 6% 1,282 1%
Siblings in Canada 8,052 9% 11,105 10% 9,242 8%
(b) Met criteria for points
No Additional Points 34,140 40% 30,376 28% 30,796 27%
Provincial Nominee 14,928 18% 14,209 13% 14,778 13%
Arranged Employment 10,905 13% 17,249 16% 20,299 18%
Education in Canada 23,853 28% 45,548 42% 70,184 61%
French-language proficiency 5,518 6% 7,105 7% 2,517 2%
Siblings in Canada 10,001 12% 12,827 12% 11,551 10%
Total 85,300 100% 107,305 100% 114,431 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Tables 18 to 21 provide information on invitations issued to men and women who met the criteria to receive each additional point type. The figures generally align with the overall breakdown of ITAs by gender (57% men, 43% women), with the exception of arranged employment; roughly two-thirds of candidates with eligible job offers who receive invitations are men.

Table 18: Invitations to apply issued to candidates that met the criteria for Arranged Employment points by gender, 2019-2021
ITAs to those that met criteria for
Arranged Employment points
2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 7,632 70% 11,308 66% 13,352 66%
Women 3,273 30% 5,939 34% 6,946 34%
TotalFootnote * 10,905 100% 17,249 100% 20,299 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 19: Invitations to apply issued to candidates that met the criteria for Education in Canada points by gender, 2019-2021
ITAs to those that met criteria for
Education in Canada points
2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 13,877 58% 25,908 57% 38,908 55%
Women 9,974 42% 19,634 43% 31,269 45%
TotalFootnote * 23,853 100% 45,548 100% 70,184 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 20: Invitations to apply issued to candidates that met the criteria for French-language proficiency points by gender, 2019-2021
ITAs to those that met criteria for
French-language proficiency points
2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 2,887 52% 3,528 50% 1,267 50%
Women 2,631 48% 3,577 50% 1,250 50%
TotalFootnote * 5,518 100% 7,105 100% 2,517 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 21: Invitations to apply issued to candidates that met the criteria for Siblings in Canada points by gender, 2019-2021
ITAs to those that met criteria for
Siblings in Canada points
2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men 5,255 53% 6,559 51% 6,311 55%
Women 4,743 47% 6,266 49% 5,240 45%
TotalFootnote * 10,001 100% 12,827 100% 11,551 100%

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of September 6, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

As seen in Table 22, in 2021, there were significant shifts from previous years in the most common primary occupations among candidates invited to apply for permanent residency through EE. The shift to CEC- and PNP-specific rounds of invitations resulted in a significantly higher number of candidates in National Occupation Classification (NOC) skill type B occupations (i.e., technical jobs and skilled trades that usually call for college diploma or apprentice training) receiving invitations in 2021, with food service supervisors, administrative assistants and retail sales supervisors comprising the most common occupations. Foreign nationals in skill type A occupations (i.e., professional jobs that usually call for a university degree), which were previously the most common occupations and mainly related to the technological field, continued to make up a significant proportion of the candidates invited to apply for permanent residence in 2021.

Table 22: Most common primary occupations, upon invitation to apply – total, 2019-2021
Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2019 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2020 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2021 #
2173 Software engineers and designers A 6,529 2173 Software engineers and designers A 6,665 6311 Food service supervisors B 13,097
2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 4,645 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 4,846 1241 Administrative assistants B 5,930
2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 3,819 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 4,661 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 5,020
1111 Financial auditors and accountants A 2,607 6311 Food service supervisors B 4,228 2173 Software engineers and designers A 4,916
1241 Administrative assistants B 2,407 1241 Administrative assistants B 4,041 6322 Cooks B 4,624
1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting A 1,838 1111 Financial auditors and accountants A 2,623 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 3,878
1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations A 1,808 1221 Administrative officers B 2,366 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 3,056
1221 Administrative officers B 1,694 1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations A 2,327 2282 User support technicians B 3,001
4011 University professors and lecturers A 1,684 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 2,128 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 2,977
0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers 0 1,588 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 2,119 1221 Administrative officers B 2,723
1112 Financial and investment analysts A 1,549 2282 User support technicians B 2,043 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations B 2,539
6311 Food service supervisors B 1,544 4011 University professors and lecturers A 1,823 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers 0 2,332
1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 1,484 2172 Database analysts and data administrators A 1,767 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 2,172
2132 Mechanical engineers A 1,416 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers 0 1,699 4214 Early childhood educators and assistants B 1,650
2172 Database analysts and data administrators A 1,312 1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting A 1,680 6235 Financial sales representatives B 1,594
Other 49,376 Other 62,334 Other 54,922
Total 85,300 Total 107,350 Total 114,431

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.
Skill Type 0: management jobs
Skill Level A: professional jobs that usually call for a degree from a university
Skill Level B: technical jobs and skilled trades that usually call for a college diploma or training as an apprentice

While their most common primary occupations at the time of invitation in 2021 were identical (food service supervisor), men and women’s other top occupations differed to some extent (Tables 23 to 24). Of the 15 most common primary occupations of men and women invited to apply, all but four are shared, although their order of precedence differs; their skill levels are similar as well, with nine of the top 15 occupations being skill type B for both men and women. The four top occupations amongst men that are not in the top 15 for women include: supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations; machinists and machining and tooling inspectors; computer and information systems managers; and other services supervisors. The four top occupations amongst women that are not in the top 15 for men include: early childhood educators and assistants; accounting technicians and bookkeepers; professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations; and financial sales representatives.

Table 23: Most common primary occupations, upon invitation to apply – men, 2019-2021
Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2019 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2020 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2021 #
2173 Software engineers and designers A 4,845 2173 Software engineers and designers A 5,005 6311 Food service supervisors B 5,176
2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 3,214 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 3,563 2173 Software engineers and designers A 3,806
2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 2,835 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 3,335 6322 Cooks B 3,118
2132 Mechanical engineers A 1,284 6311 Food service supervisors B 1,754 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 3,096
1111 Financial auditors and accountants A 1,277 2282 User support technicians B 1,350 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 2,993
1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting A 1,055 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 1,269 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 2,234
0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 1,002 2132 Mechanical engineers A 1,228 2282 User support technicians B 1,948
1112 Financial and investment analysts A 911 1111 Financial auditors and accountants A 1,182 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations B 1,832
4011 University professors and lecturers A 897 2172 Database analysts and data administrators A 1,126 1241 Administrative assistants B 1,710
2172 Database analysts and data administrators A 877 1241 Administrative assistants B 1,119 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers 0 1,469
0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers 0 787 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations B 1,091 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 1,399
0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers 0 746 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers 0 1,063 7231 Machinists and machining and tooling inspectors B 1,276
2282 User support technicians B 740 0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 1,031 0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 1,073
2133 Electrical and electronics engineers A 719 4011 University professors and lecturers A 999 1221 Administrative officers B 946
6322 Cooks B 711 6322 Cooks B 958 6316 Other services supervisors B 932
Other 27,163 Other 34,666 Other 32,975
Total 49,063 Total 60,739 Total 65,983

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.
Skill Type 0: management jobs
Skill Level A: professional jobs that usually call for a degree from a university
Skill Level B: technical jobs and skilled trades that usually call for a college diploma or training as an apprentice

Table 24: Most common primary occupations, upon invitation to apply – women, 2019-2021
Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2019 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2020 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2021 #
1241 Administrative assistants B 1,787 1241 Administrative assistants B 2,922 6311 Food service supervisors B 7,921
2173 Software engineers and designers A 1,683 6311 Food service supervisors B 2,474 1241 Administrative assistants B 4,218
2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 1,430 2173 Software engineers and designers A 1,660 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 1,924
1111 Financial auditors and accountants A 1,330 1221 Administrative officers B 1,534 1221 Administrative officers B 1,776
1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations A 1,134 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 1,511 4214 Early childhood educators and assistants B 1,580
1221 Administrative officers B 1,119 1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations A 1,462 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 1,578
2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 984 1111 Financial auditors and accountants A 1,441 6322 Cooks B 1,506
1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 860 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 1,252 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 1,382
6311 Food service supervisors B 837 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 1,098 2173 Software engineers and designers A 1,110
0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers 0 801 0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers 0 885 2282 User support technicians B 1,052
4011 University professors and lecturers A 787 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 850 1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations A 945
1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting A 783 4011 University professors and lecturers A 824 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 885
1112 Financial and investment analysts A 638 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 801 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers 0 863
4021 College and other vocational instructors A 571 1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting A 801 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 822
0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 570 6235 Financial sales representatives B 737 6235 Financial sales representatives B 796
Other 20,918 Other 26,351 Other 20,082
Total 36,232 Total 46,603 Total 48,440

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.
Skill Type 0: management jobs
Skill Level A: professional jobs that usually call for a degree from a university
Skill Level B: technical jobs and skilled trades that usually call for a college diploma or training as an apprentice

Table 25 displays the most common occupations among candidates who were assigned arranged employment points and were invited to apply. An increasing number of these occupations are skill type B.

Table 25: Most common occupations of candidates assigned Arranged Employment points, upon invitation to apply – total, 2019-2021
Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2019 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2020 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2021 #
2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 917 6311 Food service supervisors B 917 6311 Food service supervisors B 1,997
2173 Software engineers and designers A 870 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 870 6322 Cooks B 1,601
6311 Food service supervisors B 838 2173 Software engineers and designers A 838 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 1,377
6322 Cooks B 692 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 692 2173 Software engineers and designers A 1,032
2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 647 6322 Cooks B 647 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 677
4011 University professors and lecturers A 501 1241 Administrative assistants B 501 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 615
0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services 0 364 0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 364 1241 Administrative assistants B 560
0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 336 4011 University professors and lecturers A 336 0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 558
5241 Graphic designers and illustrators B 331 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 331 1221 Administrative officers B 531
1241 Administrative assistants B 218 0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services 0 218 4214 Early childhood educators and assistants B 491
6211 Retail sales supervisors B 209 1221 Administrative officers B 209 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 440
1221 Administrative officers B 192 0016 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities 0 192 4011 University professors and lecturers A 298
0016 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities 0 180 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 180 8252 Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and specialized livestock workers B 281
0015 Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c. 0 157 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations B 157 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations B 277
8252 Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and livestock workers B 142 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 142 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 269
Other 4,311 Other 10,655 Other 9,295
Total 10,905 Total 17,249 Total 20,299

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.
Skill Type 0: management jobs
Skill Level A: professional jobs that usually call for a degree from a university
Skill Level B: technical jobs and skilled trades that usually call for a college diploma or training as an apprentice

Table 26 and 27 show the most common occupations for candidates with arranged employment points who received ITAs, broken down by gender. The most common occupations among invited women with arranged employment points included more skill type B occupations in comparison to their male counterparts. While women’s top occupation (food service supervisors) remained the same from 2019 to 2021, men’s top occupation shifted from computer programmers and interactive media developers in 2020 to cooks in 2021. The top six occupations for men remained the same from 2020 to 2021, but there were shifts in the order of precedence reflecting the growth of skill type B occupations. Five of the top six occupations for women remained the same from 2020 to 2021 with shifts in the order of precedence, with skill type B occupations becoming increasingly common.

Table 26: Most common occupations of candidates assigned Arranged Employment points, upon invitation to apply – men, 2019-2021
Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2019 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2020 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2021 #
2173 Software engineers and designers A 788 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 1,342 6322 Cooks B 1,401
2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 770 2173 Software engineers and designers A 1,209 6311 Food service supervisors B 1,220
2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 547 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 868 2173 Software engineers and designers A 1,114
6322 Cooks B 444 6311 Food service supervisors B 831 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 1,092
6311 Food service supervisors B 346 0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 487 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 739
4011 University professors and lecturers A 331 6322 Cooks B 446 0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 574
0213 Computer and information systems managers 0 294 0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services 0 390 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 549
0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services 0 292 4011 University professors and lecturers A 358 7271 Carpenters B 247
5241 Graphic designers and illustrators B 268 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 342 8252 Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and livestock workers B 233
0016 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities 0 159 0016 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities 0 249 1241 Administrative assistants B 227
6211 Retail sales supervisors B 139 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations B 213 4011 University professors and lecturers A 213
0015 Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c. 0 120 1241 Administrative assistants B 208 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations B 205
8252 Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and livestock workers B 101 0015 Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c. 0 187 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 204
7271 Carpenters B 97 5241 Graphic designers and illustrators B 173 0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services 0 200
1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations B 89 1221 Administrative officers B 147 5241 Graphic designers and illustrators B 194
Other 2,847 Other 3,858 Other 4,940
Total 7,632 Total 11,308 Total 13,352

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.
Skill Type 0: management jobs
Skill Level A: professional jobs that usually call for a degree from a university
Skill Level B: technical jobs and skilled trades that usually call for a college diploma or training as an apprentice

Table 27: Most common Arranged Employment occupations, upon invitation to apply – women
Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2019 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2020 # Primary occupation and NOC skill type 2021 #
6311 Food service supervisors B 492 6311 Food service supervisors B 1,166 6311 Food service supervisors B 1,778
6322 Cooks B 248 1241 Administrative assistants B 407 6322 Cooks B 641
4011 University professors and lecturers A 170 1221 Administrative officers B 293 1241 Administrative assistants B 438
2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 147 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 259 4214 Early childhood educators and assistants B 416
1241 Administrative assistants B 139 4214 Early childhood educators and assistants B 250 1221 Administrative officers B 290
1221 Administrative officers B 119 6322 Cooks B 231 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 262
4214 Early childhood educators and assistants B 100 4011 University professors and lecturers A 200 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 197
2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 100 6211 Retail sales supervisors B 189 4011 University professors and lecturers A 161
2173 Software engineers and designers A 82 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 177 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 157
0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services 0 72 2173 Software engineers and designers A 168 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers A 151
6211 Retail sales supervisors B 70 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 164 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants A 143
0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 70 0631 Restaurant and food service managers 0 139 2173 Software engineers and designers A 127
1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers B 70 0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services 0 100 4217 Other religious occupations B 100
5241 Graphic designers and illustrators B 63 5241 Graphic designers and illustrators B 91 6332 Bakers B 99
1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations A 47 1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations A 83 8252 Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and specialized livestock workers B 87
Other 1,284 Other 2,022 Other 1,899
Total 3,273 Total 5,939 Total 6,946

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.
Skill Type 0: management jobs
Skill Level A: professional jobs that usually call for a degree from a university
Skill Level B: technical jobs and skilled trades that usually call for a college diploma or training as an apprentice

The four most common countries of residence among candidates who received an ITA remained the same from 2019 to 2021 (Table 28). The proportion of ITAs that were issued to candidates who indicated Canada as their country of residence grew from 63% in 2020 to 90% in 2021, reflecting the growth in ITAs under the CEC. Over the same period, the proportion of invited candidates who indicated India as their country of residence dropped from 10% to 3%, and the share of invited candidates residing in the United States fell from 7% to less than 1%.

Table 28: Most common countries of residence among candidates who received an invitation to apply – total, 2019-2021
Country of residence 2019 # Country of residence 2020 # Country of residence 2021 #
Canada 40,522 Canada 67,632 Canada 102,806
India 15,137 India 11,235 India 3,826
United States of America 9,964 United States of America 7,272 Nigeria 1,432
Nigeria 3,812 Nigeria 4,066 United States of America 806
United Arab Emirates 1,707 United Arab Emirates 1,415 People's Republic of China 687
Pakistan 1,183 Pakistan 1,297 United Arab Emirates 465
Morocco 862 Australia 1,076 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 348
People's Republic of China 782 Lebanon 979 Pakistan 269
Australia 776 People's Republic of China 962 Morocco 235
United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 728 Morocco 852 Lebanon 215
Other 9,827 Other 10,564 Other 3,342
TotalFootnote * 85,300 TotalFootnote * 107,350 TotalFootnote * 114,431

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

As displayed in Tables 29 and 30, the most common countries of residence were similar for both men and women in 2019, 2020 and 2021. In 2021, a smaller proportion of women (89%) than men (98%) indicated Canada as their country of residence.

Table 29: Most common countries of residence among candidates who received an invitation to apply – men, 2019-2021
Country of residence 2019 # Country of residence 2020 # Country of residence 2021 #
Canada 24,713 Canada 40,076 Canada 59,692
India 7,821 India 5,772 India 2,163
United States of America 6,441 United States of America 4,551 Nigeria 619
Nigeria 1,597 Nigeria 1,544 United States of America 544
United Arab Emirates 898 Pakistan 741 People's Republic of China 284
Pakistan 672 United Arab Emirates 702 United Arab Emirates 246
Morocco 467 Australia 625 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 213
Australia 457 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 443 Pakistan 172
United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 399 Morocco 430 Morocco 124
People's Republic of China 327 People's Republic of China 429 Australia 100
Other 5,271 Other 5,426 Other 1,826
Total 49,063 Total 60,739 Total 65,983

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 30: Most common countries of residence among candidates who received an invitation to apply – women, 2019-2021
Country of residence 2019 # Country of residence 2020 # Country of residence 2021 #
Canada 15,808 Canada 27,549 Canada 43,106
India 7,316 India 5,462 India 1,663
United States of America 3,522 United States of America 2,721 Nigeria 813
Nigeria 2,215 Nigeria 2,522 People's Republic of China 403
United Arab Emirates 807 United Arab Emirates 713 United States of America 262
Pakistan 511 Lebanon 586 United Arab Emirates 219
People's Republic of China 455 Pakistan 556 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 135
Morocco 395 People's Republic of China 533 Lebanon 134
United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 329 Australia 451 Morocco 111
Australia 319 Federal Republic of Cameroon 444 Pakistan 97
Other 4,555 Other 5,066 Other 1,497
Total 36,232 Total 46,603 Total 48,440

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

As displayed in Table 31, the top two countries of citizenship among candidates who received an ITA did not change from 2020 to 2021. India was the most common country of citizenship by a significant and growing margin (from 47% in 2020 to 57% in 2021). Looking at the top 10 most common country of citizenship among candidates who received an ITA, notable changes from 2020 to 2021 include: the Republic of Korea climbing from eighth to third most common country of citizenship; the number of applicants from Nigeria halving from 6,550 in 2020 to 3,123 in 2021 and dropping from third to fourth most common country of citizenship; the United States falling out of the top 10 from 2020 to 2021; and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam climbing into the top 10. From 2020 to 2021, the proportion of citizenships outside the top 10 (i.e. “Other” in Table 30), decreased from 24% in 2020 to 18% in 2021, indicating that the citizenship profile of invited candidates is becoming more homogeneous.

Table 31: Most common country of citizenship among candidates who received an invitation to apply– total, 2019-2021
Country of residence 2019 # Country of residence 2020 # Country of residence 2021 #
India 40,314 India 50,890 India 65,565
Nigeria 5,882 People's Republic of China 8,954 People's Republic of China 9,592
People's Republic of China 5,680 Nigeria 6,550 Korea, Republic of 3,131
Pakistan 2,512 Pakistan 2,824 Nigeria 3,123
United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 2,122 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 2,709 Brazil 2,877
Brazil 1,806 Brazil 2,446 Philippines 2,429
United States of America 1,552 Iran 1,937 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 2,298
Iran 1,475 Korea, Republic of 1,653 Iran 1,700
France 1,461 United States of America 1,648 Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1,514
Korea, Republic of 1,224 Republic of Ireland 1,568 Republic of Ireland 1,348
Other 21,272 Other 26,171 Other 20,854
TotalFootnote * 85,300 TotalFootnote * 107,350 TotalFootnote * 114,431

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

India and the People’s Republic of China were the most common countries of citizenship for both men and women who were invited to apply for permanent residence in 2021; however, a smaller proportion of invited women (53%) than invited men (61%) held Indian citizenship, while a larger proportion of invited women (11%) than invited men (6%) held Chinese citizenship (Tables 32 and 33). Nine of top 10 countries of citizenship were the same for men and women who received an ITA, with the sole exception of Pakistan for men and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam for women.

Table 32: Most common country of citizenship among candidates who received an invitation to apply– men, 2019-2021
Country of citizenship 2019 # Country of citizenship 2020 # Country of citizenship 2021 #
India 24,905 India 31,835 India 39,996
Nigeria 2,747 People's Republic of China 3,750 People's Republic of China 4,235
People's Republic of China 2,500 Nigeria 2,816 Brazil 1,750
Pakistan 1,669 Pakistan 1,904 Nigeria 1,559
United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 1,293 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 1,640 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 1,431
Brazil 1,053 Brazil 1,423 Korea, Republic of 1,339
Iran 888 Iran 1,130 Iran 1,028
United States of America 885 Republic of Ireland 953 Philippines 1,013
France 759 United States of America 912 Pakistan 885
Republic of Ireland 695 France 854 Republic of Ireland 796
Other 11,669 Other 13,522 Other 11,951
Total 49,063 Total 60,739 Total 65,983

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 33: Most common country of citizenship among candidates who received an invitation to apply– women, 2019-2021
Country of citizenship 2019 # Country of citizenship 2020 # Country of citizenship 2021 #
India 15,406 India 19,051 India 25,568
People's Republic of China 3,180 People's Republic of China 5,203 People's Republic of China 5,355
Nigeria 3,135 Nigeria 3,734 Korea, Republic of 1,792
Pakistan 843 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 1,069 Nigeria 1,564
United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 829 Brazil 1,023 Philippines 1,416
Brazil 753 Korea, Republic of 1,010 Brazil 1,127
France 702 Pakistan 920 United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 867
Korea, Republic of 672 Iran 807 Socialist Republic of Vietnam 848
United States of America 667 Philippines 777 Iran 672
Philippines 666 United States of America 735 Republic of Ireland 552
Other 9,379 Other 12,274 Other 8,679
Total 36,232 Total 46,603 Total 48,440

Source: MBR_FACT_EE_ITA as of January 11, 2022
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Who applied for permanent residence through Express Entry?

Excluding accompanying family members (i.e., considering only principal applicants), a notable increase of total applications were sourced through the EE in 2021 (102,452) (Table 34). That is a 35% increase from 2020 applications (75,941) and a 52% increase from 2019 (67,545). The proportion of the applications remained the same over the last three years between men and women, with a greater distribution of applications submitted by men (57%) than women (43%). The breakdown of applications by program was similar for men and women for all three years. Since 2020, applications to the CEC were the most common, whereas in 2019 the FSWP was the most common. 2021 had seen a significant decline in the FSTP with three total applications compared to its previous years, 2020 and 2019 with 169 and 726 total applications respectively.

Table 34: Applications (principal applicants) to economic immigration programs through Express Entry by gender, 2019-2021
Economic immigration program applications 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Men
PNP 7,344 60% 8,106 62% 7,250 57%
FSWP 16,381 53% 10,781 52% 3,900 47%
CEC 14,208 60% 24,492 58% 47,280 58%
FSTP 546 74% 130 77% 3 100%
Total 38,479 57% 43,509 57% 58,433 57%
Women
PNP 4,887 40% 4,923 38% 5,402 43%
FSWP 14,441 47% 9,973 48% 4,344 53%
CEC 9,542 40% 17,495 42% 34,271 42%
FSTP 195 26% 39 23% 0 0%
Total 29,065 43% 32,430 43% 44,017 43%
Grand total
PNP 12,231 100% 13,029 100% 12,652 100%
FSWP 30,822 100% 20,754 100% 8,245 100%
CEC 23,751 100% 41,989 100% 81,552 100%
FSTP 741 100% 169 100% 3 100%
TotalFootnote * 67,545 100% 75,941 100% 102,452 100%

Source: COGNOS (MBR) extracted as of October 7, 2022.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

As displayed in Table 35, Ontario has remained the most popular province in the last three years with nearly two thirds of principal applicants indicating Ontario as the province of destination.

Table 35: Applications received through Express Entry by Province/Territory of destination, principal applicants, 2019-2021
Province/Territory of destination 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
Alberta 6,441 10% 5,740 8% 7,633 7%
British Columbia 13,543 20% 16,012 21% 23,421 23%
Manitoba 1,498 2% 1,366 2% 1,791 2%
New Brunswick 662 1% 781 1% 1,354 1%
Newfoundland and Labrador 124 < 1% 156 0.2% 261 < 1%
Northwest Territories 33 < 1% 25 < 1% 58 < 1%
Nova Scotia 1,526 2% 1,568 2% 2,918 3%
Nunavut 10 < 1% 10 < 1% 9 < 1%
Ontario 41,932 62% 47,875 63% 62,360 61%
Prince Edward Island 462 1% 426 1% 724 1%
Saskatchewan 1,280 2% 1,942 3% 1,826 2%
Yukon 33 < 1% 38 < 1% 90 < 1%
Unspecified 1 < 1% 2 < 1% 7 < 1%
Total 67,545 100% 75,941 100% 102,452 100%

Source: COGNOS (MBR) extracted as of October 7, 2022.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

How long did it take to process Express Entry applications?

Table 36 displays the time, in months, that IRCC took to process 80% of applications under each program. In 2021, IRCC did not meet the processing standard of finalizing 80% of all applications sourced via EE within six months. 2021’s overall processing time was nine months, matching the 2020 overall processing time and reflecting the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on IRCC’s operations and processing capacity. The processing time for CEC applications (representing the vast majority of applications received in 2021) remained at seven months, whereas processing time for other programs was significantly higher. As an alternative measure of processing times, 59% of applications finalized in the 12-month period ending on December 31, 2021, were completed within the six-month service standard. This is an increase from 54% in 2020, meaning a larger proportion of applications are being processed within the six-month service standard.

Table 36: Processing timesFootnote * of Express Entry applications finalized by economic immigration program, in months, 2019-2021
Economic immigration program 2019 (months) 2020 (months) 2021 (months)
CEC 7 7 7
FSWP 8 13 26
PNP 8 10 21
FSTP 12 16 23
All programs 8 9 9

Source: COGNOS (MBR) extracted as of March 17, 2022.

Who was admitted through Express Entry and where is their intended destination?

In 2021, 155,810 principal applicants and their accompanying family members were admitted into Canada as permanent residents through EE (Table 37). By comparison, 63,888 principal applicants and their accompanying family members were admitted in 2020 and 109,601 were admitted in 2019.

In 2021, the vast majority (84%) of EE-sourced admissions were through the CEC, a significant increase from 2019 (28%). 11% of admissions were through the PNP, which saw a slight decrease from 18% in 2019. Individuals admitted under the FSWP decreased from 53% to 5%, and FSTP admissions also dropped from about 1% to 0.3%.

Table 37: Admissions (total persons) through Express Entry by economic immigration program, 2019-2021
Economic immigration program 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
PNP 20,013 18% 14,097 22% 16,708 11%
FSWP 58,184 53% 24,259 38% 8,156 5%
CEC 30,226 28% 24,967 39% 130,446 84%
FSTP 1,178 1% 565 1% 500 < 1%
Total 109,601 100% 63,888 100% 155,810 100%

Source: IRCC, CDO, Permanent Residents, January 31, 2022 Data.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

As displayed in Tables 38 and 39, and in line with 2020 admissions, the pattern of principal applicant admissions by program was similar for men and women in 2021: male and female principal applicants were most often admitted under the CEC and least often admitted under the FSTP. From 2019 to 2021, three principal applicants who indicated another gender, an unspecified gender or unknown were admitted to Canada. Because of the small counts, the data presented in tables 38 and 39 is not broken down by these gender categories.

Table 38: Admissions (principal applicant) through Express Entry by economic immigration program – men, 2019-2021
Economic immigration program 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
CEC 12,923 36% 10,682 47% 54,909 87%
PNP 5,782 16% 4,499 20% 5,397 9%
FSTP 511 1% 214 1% 232 < 1%
FSWP 16,406 46% 7,454 33% 2,478 4%
Total 35,622 100% 22,849 100% 63,016 100%

Source: IRCC, CDO, Permanent Residents, January 31, 2022 Data.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Table 39: Admissions (principal applicant) through Express Entry by economic immigration program – women, 2019-2021
Economic immigration program 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
CEC 8,517 33% 7,372 45% 39,386 88%
PNP 3,257 12% 2,738 17% 3,086 7%
FSTP 132 1% 61 < 1% 83 < 1%
FSWP 14,169 54% 6,307 38% 2,151 5%
Total 26,075 100% 16,478 100% 44,706 100%

Source: IRCC, CDO, Permanent Residents, January 31, 2022 Data.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

As reported in Table 40, India has remained, by a large margin, the most common country of citizenship among principal applicants and their accompanying family members admitted to Canada through EE. The proportion of individuals admitted through EE who held Chinese citizenship increased from 5% in 2019 to 8% in 2021, while the proportion of Nigerian nationals decreased from 8% in 2019 to 4% in 2021.

Table 40: Admissions (total persons) through Express Entry by most common countries of citizenship, 2019-2021
Country of Citizenship 2019 # 2019 % 2020 # 2020 % 2021 # 2021 %
India 50,848 46% 27,639 43% 82,936 53%
China, People's Republic of 5,753 5% 4,318 7% 11,701 8%
Nigeria 8,428 8% 3,919 6% 5,795 4%
Brazil 2,518 2% 1,961 3% 5,650 4%
United States of America 3,942 4% 2,346 4% 4,280 3%
Korea, Republic of 1,645 2% 1,041 2% 3,851 2%
United Kingdom and Overseas Territories 2,556 2% 1,674 3% 3,547 2%
Philippines 1,331 1% 820 1% 2,937 2%
Iran 1,417 1% 1,132 2% 2,385 2%
Ireland, Republic of 1,009 1% 707 1% 2,101 1%
France 1,401 1% 1,039 2% 1,706 1%
Pakistan 4,691 4% 2,294 4% 1,683 1%
Mexico 692 1% 616 1% 1,661 1%
Vietnam 655 1% 453 1% 1,619 1%
Ukraine 881 1% 508 1% 1,408 1%
Other Country of Citizenship 21,834 20% 13,421 21% 22,550 14%
Total 109,601 100% 63,888 100% 155,810 100%

Source: IRCC, CDO, Permanent Residents, January 31, 2022 Data.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Similar to the pattern observed at the application stage, and as in 2019 and 2020, the majority of persons admitted in 2021were destined for Ontario (Table 41).

Table 41: Admissions (total persons) through Express Entry by Province/Territory of destination, 2019-2021
Province/Territory of destination 2019 # 2020 # 2021 #
Newfoundland and Labrador 245 159 332
Prince Edward Island 546 445 875
Nova Scotia 3,346 1,553 3,155
New Brunswick 1,691 820 1,393
Ontario 69,986 37,505 96,535
Manitoba 2,521 1,516 2,800
Saskatchewan 3,108 1,249 2,716
Alberta 8,019 7,000 12,082
British Columbia 20,050 13,575 35,735
Yukon 40 30 102
Northwest Territories 39 30 72
Nunavut 10 6 13
Total 109,601 63,888 155,810

Source: IRCC, CDO, Permanent Residents, January 31, 2022 Data.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

The concentration of admitted individuals destined for Ontario was significantly less pronounced among the individuals who were selected through the PNP (Table 42), compared to those who were admitted through the FSWP, the CEC, and the FSTP (Table 43).

Table 42: Admissions (total persons) through the Provincial Nominee Program in Express Entry by Province/TerritoryFootnote * of destination, 2019-2021
Province/Territory of destination 2019 # 2020 # 2021 #
Newfoundland and Labrador 50 65 34
Prince Edward Island 459 405 388
Nova Scotia 2,626 1,217 1,441
New Brunswick 1,330 540 714
Ontario 6,118 2,767 3,895
Manitoba 1,487 869 1,473
Saskatchewan 2,049 803 1,439
Alberta 646 2,900 2,579
British Columbia 5,210 4,512 4,717
Yukon 22 12 12
Northwest Territories 16 7 16
Total 20,013 14,097 16,708

Source: IRCC, CDO, Permanent Residents, January 31, 2022 Data.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change

Table 43: Admissions (total persons) through the Federal Skilled Worker Program, Canadian Experience Class and Federal Skilled Trades Program in Express Entry by Province/Territory of destination, 2019-2021
Province/Territory of destination 2019 # 2020 # 2021 #
Newfoundland and Labrador 195 94 298
Prince Edward Island 87 40 487
Nova Scotia 720 336 1,714
New Brunswick 361 280 679
Ontario 63,868 34,738 92,640
Manitoba 1,034 647 1,327
Saskatchewan 1,059 446 1,277
Alberta 7,373 4,100 9,503
British Columbia 14,840 9,063 31,018
Yukon 18 18 90
Northwest Territories 23 23 56
Nunavut 10 6 13
Total 89,588 49,791 139,102

Source: IRCC, CDO, Permanent Residents, January 31, 2022 Data.
Data is operational and as such should be considered preliminary and subject to change.

Conclusion

In 2021, the seventh year of its operation, the EE application management system continued to provide a pathway to permanent residence for a range of highly-skilled candidates who demonstrated the potential to successfully integrate and contribute to Canada’s economy. IRCC leveraged the responsiveness and adaptability of the EE system by managing application inventories and maximizing economic immigrant admissions to help meet the Government of Canada’s immigration targets and support Canada’s ongoing recovery from the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Going forward, the EE system will be a key component of IRCC’s Strategy to Expand Transitions to Permanent Residency, which was tabled in Parliament on September 20, 2022 and supports the achievement of the Minister’s mandate commitment to expand permanent residence pathways for international students and temporary foreign workers. The strategy aims to reform the EE system, including by increasing its flexibility as immigration selection tool through recent changes to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. The Department will continue to monitor EE and to explore ways the system could be used to ensure that Canada continues to derive maximum benefit from economic immigration in a rapidly evolving environment.

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