Annual income of immigrants relative to the Canadian national average, 1981-2011

Summary

For the purpose of this analysis “Annual Income” for immigrants is taken from the Longitudinal Immigrant Database (IMDB) and is defined as the summation of income from Employment Earnings, Self-Employment Income, Employment Insurance benefits, and Investment Income (Capital Gains/Losses, Dividends, Interest and Investment Income). Note that income from Social Assistance is not included in this calculation of total income.

The Canadian average annual income is not available in the IMDB; however, for 2005–2011, a comparable Canadian average income measure for 2005–2011 has been produced using data from the Canada Revenue Agency. Prior to 2005 for the Canadian series (1981–2004), average annual income has been extrapolated using average growth in employment earnings for all individuals who filed an income tax return in a specific year.

Below you will find the average annual income for selected categories for the tax years 1982–2011, for immigrants landing in 1981–2011:

  • Figure 1: Federal Skilled Worker (SW) principal applicants
  • Figure 2: SW spouses and dependents
  • Figure 3: Provincial Nominee (PN) principal applicants
  • Figure 4: PN spouses and dependents
  • Figure 5: Live-in Caregiver (LCP) principal applicants
  • Figure 6: LCP spouses and dependents
  • Figure 7: Privately Sponsored Refugees (PSR)
  • Figure 8: Government Assisted Refugees (GAR)
  • Figure 9: Parents and Grandparents (PGP)
  • Figure 10: Family class Spouses and Partners (SP)

The black line along the bottom of each figure is the average annual income of immigrants at time of entry, defined as one year following landing (YSL=1). The coloured lines that increase from the black line represent each cohort listed in the legend.

Note: This information is not available for Canadian Experience Class (CEC) as there is currently only two years of tax data available. Available data are reported in the comparison tables at the end of this report.

At the end of the report, there are three comparison tables of the average annual income of selected immigrant categories.

  • Table 1 displays the average annual income of economic immigrant principal applicants in tax year 2011, at specific years following landing: SW principal applicants, PN principal applicants, CEC principal applicants, and LCP principal applicants.
  • Table 2 displays the average annual income of economic immigrant spouses and dependants in tax year 2011, at specific years following landing: SW spouses and dependants, PN spouses and dependants, CEC spouses and dependants, and LCP spouses and dependants.
  • Table 3 displays the average annual income of PSR, GAR, PGP, and family class SP, in tax year 2011, at specific years following landing.

Figure 1: Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1981 46,000 46,000 47,000 48,000 49,000 50,000 53,000 55,000 54,000 52,000
1985 no data no data no data no data 45,000 46,000 48,000 49,000 48,000 46,000
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 29,000
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 46,000 43,000 44,000 41,000 45,000 48,000 44,000 41,000 37,000 29,000
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1981 52,000 50,000 53,000 52,000 52,000 54,000 56,000 58,000 59,000 59,000
1985 46,000 44,000 46,000 45,000 45,000 46,000 50,000 50,000 51,000 52,000
1990 32,000 32,000 33,000 33,000 34,000 37,000 40,000 42,000 43,000 44,000
1995 no data no data no data no data 25,000 31,000 36,000 39,000 43,000 44,000
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 31,000
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 31,000 31,000 29,000 27,000 25,000 24,000 26,000 30,000 32,000 31,000
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 57,000 57,000 58,000 58,000 60,000 61,000 58,000 54,000 52,000 52,000
1985 51,000 51,000 52,000 53,000 53,000 53,000 52,000 49,000 49,000 49,000
1990 44,000 44,000 45,000 48,000 48,000 49,000 48,000 47,000 47,000 47,000
1995 44,000 44,000 47,000 49,000 50,000 52,000 52,000 52,000 53,000 53,000
2000 34,000 36,000 40,000 43,000 46,000 49,000 51,000 51,000 53,000 54,000
2001 25,000 29,000 33,000 38,000 41,000 45,000 48,000 48,000 50,000 52,000
2002 no data 23,000 29,000 33,000 38,000 43,000 46,000 47,000 48,000 50,000
2003 no data no data 23,000 29,000 35,000 40,000 44,000 45,000 47,000 49,000
2004 no data no data no data 27,000 33,000 39,000 43,000 45,000 47,000 49,000
2005 no data no data no data no data 26,000 33,000 37,000 39,000 41,000 44,000
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 30,000 35,000 38,000 40,000 43,000
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 32,000 36,000 38,000 42,000
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 30,000 34,000 38,000
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 26,000 32,000
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 26,000
YSL=1 25,000 23,000 23,000 27,000 26,000 30,000 32,000 30,000 26,000 26,000
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of SW principal applicants at entry has been declining since the earlier cohorts who landed in the 1980s. Since that time, the average annual income at entry (one year following landing, YSL=1) has been between $20,000 and $30,000 and has demonstrated a relationship with the business cycle. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $26,000.

For all cohorts, and more notably for cohorts landing in the 1990s and later, there is a clear positive relationship between average annual income and years since landing. For example, SW principal applicants who landed in 2000, reported an average annual income of $30,300 in 2001 (YSL=1). Ten years after landing, they reported average annual income of roughly $51,400.

For SW principal applicants landing in the 1990s and later, the average annual income at entry is lower than Canadian average, however, with strong growth in income, most cohorts of SW principal applicants catch-up to the Canadian average income by the third year following landing and continue to demonstrate growth in earnings beyond that.

Figure 2: Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982-2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982-2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1981 13,900 15,500 16,800 18,000 18,900 19,900 21,000 23,000 23,000 22,000
1985 no data no data no data no data 13,000 15,400 17,600 19,100 19,200 18,600
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 13,500
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 13,900 12,000 12,400 12,700 13,000 14,500 17,500 18,900 18,900 13,500
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1981 22,000 21,000 23,000 22,000 23,000 24,000 27,000 29,000 31,000 33,000
1985 18,800 18,300 19,600 19,400 20,000 21,000 23,000 24,000 26,000 27,000
1990 15,000 15,000 15,700 15,700 16,600 17,800 19,300 20,000 22,000 22,000
1995 no data no data no data no data 9,200 12,100 14,700 16,700 18,100 19,000
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 11,300
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 12,500 10,700 10,800 10,400 9,200 8,500 8,900 9,900 11,100 11,300
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of Skilled Worker (SW) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 34,000 36,000 38,000 40,000 42,000 44,000 44,000 45,000 44,000 45,000
1985 28,000 29,000 31,000 33,000 36,000 39,000 40,000 40,000 41,000 43,000
1990 23,000 23,000 25,000 26,000 28,000 30,000 32,000 33,000 35,000 36,000
1995 19,200 19,500 21,000 22,000 23,000 25,000 26,000 26,000 27,000 29,000
2000 13,300 15,000 16,800 18,400 20,000 22,000 23,000 24,000 24,000 25,000
2001 10,000 12,500 14,700 16,700 18,600 21,000 22,000 22,000 23,000 24,000
2002 no data 9,600 12,500 14,600 16,900 19,200 21,000 21,000 22,000 23,000
2003 no data no data 9,400 12,400 15,100 17,800 19,300 20,000 21,000 22,000
2004 no data no data no data 10,600 13,900 16,700 18,600 19,500 21,000 22,000
2005 no data no data no data no data 11,200 14,200 16,100 17,300 18,300 19,600
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 12,400 15,100 16,100 17,500 18,900
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 13,000 14,800 16,200 17,900
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 12,000 14,000 16,200
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 11,200 13,900
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 11,900
YSL=1 10,000 9,600 9,400 10,600 11,200 12,400 13,000 12,000 11,200 11,900
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of SW spouses and dependents at entry has not seen the same notable decline as their principal applicant counterparts, although a decline is visible. Average annual income at entry (YSL=1) has fluctuated around $10,000 for cohorts landing in the 1990s or later. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $11,900.

Similar to SW principal applicants, for all cohorts there is a clear positive relationship between average annual income and years since landing.

The average annual income of SW spouses and dependents is lower than the Canadian average at entry and, despite some growth in income, remains below the national average income level for several years following landing for most cohorts.

Figure 3: Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 2000–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 2000–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1981 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1981 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 31,000
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 31,000 31,000
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 35,000 37,000 39,000 41,000 43,000 44,000 47,000 47,000 47,000 47,000
2001 36,000 37,000 38,000 41,000 43,000 46,000 48,000 47,000 48,000 49,000
2002 no data 41,000 43,000 41,000 47,000 50,000 49,000 50,000 50,000 55,000
2003 no data no data 39,000 43,000 47,000 48,000 49,000 48,000 50,000 50,000
2004 no data no data no data 50,000 56,000 56,000 58,000 59,000 60,000 60,000
2005 no data no data no data no data 50,000 55,000 55,000 54,000 54,000 55,000
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 52,000 51,000 53,000 53,000 55,000
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 47,000 48,000 49,000 51,000
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 47,000 50,000 52,000
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 46,000 49,000
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 42,000
YSL=1 36,000 41,000 39,000 50,000 50,000 52,000 47,000 47,000 46,000 42,000
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of PN principal applicants at entry has increased since 2000, with the average fluctuating between $40,000 and $50,000 in the first year following landing. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $42,000.

While some growth in average annual income is visible for PN principal applicants, it is not to the same degree experienced by SW principal applicants.

Generally speaking, the average annual income level for PN principal applicants is above the Canadian average from time of entry (YSL=1) and after.

Figure 4: Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 2000–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 2000–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Provincial Nominee (PN) spouses and dependents, by tax year and landing cohort, 2000–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data 10,700 12,000 13,400 14,600 15,800 17,300 18,100 18,500 20,000 21,000 21,000
2001 no data no data 9,300 12,200 13,200 13,900 15,900 17,000 19,200 18,500 20,000 21,000
2002 no data no data no data 10,900 13,100 14,100 15,600 17,900 18,800 19,200 21,000 22,000
2003 no data no data no data no data 10,500 13,300 15,600 17,600 19,400 19,700 20,000 21,000
2004 no data no data no data no data no data 13,400 16,400 18,200 19,100 20,000 21,000 22,000
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data 13,500 16,000 17,100 18,000 18,800 19,900
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 15,500 17,300 18,900 19,600 20,000
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 16,500 18,100 19,100 20,000
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 15,800 17,100 18,700
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 16,000 18,300
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 15,300
YSL=1 31,000 10,700 $9,300 10,900 10,500 13,400 13,500 15,500 16,500 15,800 16,000 15,300
Canadian Average 36,387 36,385 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

Similar to their principal applicant counterparts, the average annual income of PN spouses and dependents at entry has increased since 2000, from roughly $10,000 for the 2000 cohort to $15,500 for the 2009 cohort in the first year following landing. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $15,300.

While some growth in average annual income is visible for PN spouses and dependents, it is not to the same degree experienced by PN principal applicants or SWs (principal applicants or spouses and dependents).

The average annual income of PN spouses and dependents is lower than the Canadian average for the entire ten year period observed here.

Figure 5: Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1982 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 no data no data no data no data 18,300 21,000 23,000 25,000 26,000 25,000
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 23,000
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 no data 15,400 16,800 17,100 18,300 19,200 21,000 23,000 24,000 23,000
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1982 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 26,000 25,000 25,000 26,000 26,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 29,000 30,000
1990 23,000 23,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 25,000 26,000 28,000 29,000 30,000
1995 no data no data no data no data 17,900 19,000 21,000 22,000 24,000 25,000
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 23,000
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 22,000 18,800 18,400 18,600 17,900 17,800 19,400 20,000 22,000 23,000
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) principal applicants, by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1982 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 30,000 30,000 30,000 31,000 32,000 33,000 33,000 33,000 33,000 32,000
1990 30,000 31,000 31,000 32,000 33,000 34,000 34,000 34,000 34,000 34,000
1995 25,000 26,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 29,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000
2000 25,000 27,000 29,000 30,000 33,000 35,000 36,000 38,000 37,000 38,000
2001 23,000 26,000 29,000 30,000 33,000 36,000 37,000 38,000 39,000 39,000
2002 no data 24,000 27,000 29,000 31,000 34,000 36,000 38,000 38,000 39,000
2003 no data no data 24,000 27,000 30,000 32,000 35,000 36,000 37,000 37,000
2004 no data no data no data 23,000 27,000 30,000 32,000 34,000 34,000 35,000
2005 no data no data no data no data 24,000 27,000 29,000 31,000 31,000 32,000
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 25,000 28,000 30,000 30,000 31,000
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 25,000 27,000 28,000 29,000
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 24,000 25,000 26,000
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 23,000 25,000
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 23,000
YSL=1 23,000 24,000 24,000 23,000 24,000 25,000 25,000 24,000 23,000 23,000
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of LCP principal applicants at entry has been on an upward trend since the earlier cohorts who landed in the 1980s. Since that time, the average annual income at entry (one year following landing, YSL=1) has increased from $16,400 and $23,700. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $23,000.

For all cohorts, and more notably for cohorts landing in 2000 and later, there is a clear positive relationship between average annual income and years since landing. For example, LCP principal applicants who landed in 2000, reported an average annual income of $22,000 in 2001 (YSL=1). Ten years after landing, they reported average annual income of roughly $36,000. Even with this growth in income over time, the average remains below the Canadian average.

Figure 6: Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) spouses and dependants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1985–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) spouses and dependants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1985–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) spouses and dependants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) spouses and dependants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1981 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 no data no data no data no data 15,000 18,800 18,200 22,000 23,000 18,800
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 29,000
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 no data no data 15,400 13,900 15,000 23,000 13,300 25,000 26,000 29,000
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) spouses and dependants, by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1981 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 18,200 17,500 20,000 19,800 19,400 21,000 21,000 25,000 26,000 26,000
1990 29,000 22,000 27,000 24,000 25,000 29,000 27,000 25,000 26,000 28,000
1995 no data no data no data no data 15,200 17,900 20,000 21,000 22,000 22,000
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 18,000
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 14,200 15,700 16,100 14,100 15,200 15,200 15,600 17,100 18,200 18,000
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of Live-in Caregiver (LCP) spouses and dependants, by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
1985 28,000 27,000 31,000 33,000 38,000 40,000 38,000 40,000 37,000 38,000
1990 29,000 27,000 31,000 30,000 30,000 32,000 34,000 34,000 34,000 31,000
1995 23,000 24,000 25,000 26,000 27,000 30,000 31,000 31,000 32,000 33,000
2000 19,600 21,000 22,000 23,000 25,000 27,000 28,000 28,000 29,000 30,000
2001 19,400 22,000 23,000 24,000 26,000 28,000 29,000 28,000 29,000 30,000
2002 no data 19,600 23,000 24,000 26,000 28,000 28,000 29,000 30,000 31,000
2003 no data no data 19,900 23,000 26,000 28,000 30,000 29,000 30,000 31,000
2004 no data no data no data 21,000 24,000 27,000 27,000 26,000 27,000 28,000
2005 no data no data no data no data 22,000 24,000 26,000 25,000 26,000 27,000
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 23,000 25,000 25,000 25,000 26,000
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 22,000 22,000 24,000 24,000
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 21,000 23,000 24,000
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 19,300 22,000
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 19,400
YSL=1 19,400 19,600 19,900 21,000 22,000 23,000 22,000 21,000 19,300 19,400
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of LCP spouses and dependants at entry has increased similar to their principal applicant counterparts. Average annual income at entry has increased from roughly $14,000 for the cohorts in the early 1990s to $20,000 for the most recent cohorts. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $19,400.

Similar to LCP principal applicants, for all cohorts there is a clear positive relationship between average annual income and years since landing; however, even with the growth in income, the average annual income of LCP spouses and dependants remains below the national average.

Figure 7: Average annual income of Privately Sponsored Refugees (PSRs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Privately Sponsored Refugees (PSRs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Privately Sponsored Refugees (PSRs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of Privately Sponsored Refugees (PSRs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1981 16,100 18,400 20,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 24,000 25,000 24,000 23,000
1985 no data no data no data no data 18,400 22,000 25,000 26,000 26,000 25,000
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 15,300
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 16,100 17,200 17,500 16,900 18,400 19,000 20,000 20,000 19,100 15,300
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of Privately Sponsored Refugees (PSRs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1981 23,000 22,000 24,000 23,000 24,000 25,000 26,000 27,000 30,000 30,000
1985 25,000 24,000 26,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 30,000 31,000 31,000 32,000
1990 16,100 16,400 17,700 18,700 20,000 22,000 24,000 25,000 26,000 27,000
1995 no data no data no data no data 9,600 11,900 13,800 15,600 16,900 17,500
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 13,900
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 13,300 12,600 12,300 11,700 9,600 10,400 12,900 14,600 13,900 13,900
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of Privately Sponsored Refugees (PSRs), by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 31,000 31,000 32,000 33,000 35,000 36,000 35,000 35,000 35,000 35,000
1985 33,000 33,000 34,000 35,000 36,000 37,000 37,000 36,000 36,000 36,000
1990 27,000 28,000 29,000 30,000 31,000 32,000 33,000 32,000 33,000 33,000
1995 18,100 18,700 20,000 21,000 21,000 22,000 23,000 22,000 23,000 24,000
2000 15,000 15,600 16,300 17,200 17,800 19,200 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
2001 12,300 14,000 15,200 15,700 16,500 18,000 18,600 18,600 18,900 19,400
2002 no data 11,600 13,800 14,800 15,900 17,300 18,200 18,100 18,400 18,900
2003 no data no data 13,700 15,900 17,300 18,700 19,800 19,400 20,000 21,000
2004 no data no data no data 14,700 16,900 18,400 19,000 18,700 19,100 19,700
2005 no data no data no data no data 16,300 19,100 19,700 19,100 19,400 21,000
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 17,700 19,200 18,500 18,700 19,500
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 16,100 16,200 16,400 17,500
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 13,700 15,400 16,400
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 10,900 13,100
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 11,100
YSL=1 12,300 11,600 13,700 14,700 16,300 17,700 16,100 13,700 10,900 11,100
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of PSRs at entry has fluctuated between $10,000 and $20,000 since the 1980s, well below the national average. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $11,100.

For all cohorts, and more notably for cohorts landing in the 1980s and early 1990s, there is a clear positive relationship between average annual income and years since landing. For example, PSRs who landed in 1995 reported an average annual income of $10,000 at entry and by 2010 (YSL=15), they reported average annual income of roughly $22,300. Even with this growth in income over time, the average remains below the Canadian average.

Note that this measure of “annual income” does not include any form of social assistance provided federally or provincially.

Figure 8: Average annual income of Government Assisted Refugees (GARs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Government Assisted Refugees (GARs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Government Assisted Refugees (GARs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of Government Assisted Refugees (GARs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1981 16,600 21,000 23,000 25,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 30,000 29,000 28,000
1985 no data no data no data no data 13,800 18,200 21,000 22,000 22,000 20,000
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 7,900
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 16,600 14,000 13,300 13,200 13,800 15,500 17,000 15,200 12,100 7,900
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of Government Assisted Refugees (GARs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1981 27,000 27,000 28,000 27,000 27,000 28,000 30,000 31,000 33,000 34,000
1985 19,900 19,500 20,000 21,000 22,000 23,000 25,000 26,000 26,000 27,000
1990 10,800 11,800 13,100 14,200 15,200 16,800 18,700 20,000 21,000 22,000
1995 no data no data no data no data 4,800 10,100 14,600 18,000 21,000 23,000
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 5,100
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 4,400 3,200 4,100 4,100 4,800 5,200 5,500 6,300 6,400 5,100
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of Government Assisted Refugees (GARs), by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 34,000 34,000 35,000 36,000 37,000 39,000 38,000 37,000 38,000 37,000
1985 27,000 27,000 28,000 29,000 30,000 31,000 32,000 31,000 31,000 32,000
1990 22,000 23,000 24,000 24,000 25,000 27,000 27,000 27,000 27,000 28,000
1995 23,000 23,000 24,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 29,000 29,000 30,000 30,000
2000 8,800 11,300 13,000 14,400 15,900 17,500 18,300 18,100 18,500 19,100
2001 5,200 8,100 10,400 11,800 13,500 15,000 15,900 15,900 16,400 17,200
2002 no data 4,200 7,900 10,500 12,400 14,200 15,500 15,600 16,000 17,000
2003 no data no data 4,600 8,500 11,200 13,200 14,600 14,600 15,100 16,400
2004 no data no data no data 5,200 9,100 12,100 14,100 14,200 14,700 16,000
2005 no data no data no data no data 5,000 8,900 11,300 12,000 12,700 13,700
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 5,800 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,300
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 5,200 7,900 9,400 11,200
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 4,000 7,300 9,500
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 3,500 6,600
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 3,400
YSL=1 5,200 4,200 4,600 5,200 5,000 5,800 5,200 4,000 3,500 3,400
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of GARs at entry has declined since the 1980s but has remained fairly consistent from 1992 and on, with annual income fluctuating between $3,000-$6,000, well below the national average. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $3,400.

For all cohorts, there is a clear positive relationship between average annual income and years since landing. For example, GARs who landed in 1995 reported an average annual income of $4,500 at entry and by 2010 (YSL=15), they reported average annual income of roughly $28,600. Even with this growth in income over time, the average remains below the Canadian average.

Note that this measure of “annual income” does not include any form of social assistance provided federally or provincially (e.g. Resettlement Assistance Program).

Figure 9: Average annual income of Parents and Grandparents (PGPs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of Parents and Grandparents (PGPs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of Parents and Grandparents (PGPs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of Parents and Grandparents (PGPs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1981 14,300 14,800 15,800 16,800 16,700 17,200 18,100 18,800 17,600 15,800
1985 no data no data no data no data 12,000 13,400 14,400 14,900 14,100 12,800
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 11,700
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 14,300 11,900 12,500 12,600 12,000 13,000 14,100 14,100 13,200 11,700
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of Parents and Grandparents (PGPs), by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1981 15,000 14,500 14,900 14,500 14,700 15,300 15,900 17,200 18,000 18,800
1985 12,200 11,500 12,300 11,300 11,300 11,700 12,200 13,200 14,000 14,000
1990 12,600 12,500 13,000 13,000 13,300 13,900 14,900 15,600 16,100 16,100
1995 no data no data no data no data 8,000 9,200 10,400 11,500 12,400 12,700
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 8,600
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 10,000 9,200 9,400 9,000 8,000 7,400 7,900 8,900 8,900 8,600
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of Parents and Grandparents (PGPs), by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 19,400 19,700 21,000 22,000 23,000 25,000 25,000 25,000 26,000 27,000
1985 14,000 14,400 15,000 15,400 16,600 17,700 18,100 17,900 18,500 19,200
1990 16,000 16,200 16,900 17,500 18,200 19,000 19,200 19,100 19,500 19,900
1995 12,700 12,700 12,800 12,600 12,700 13,200 13,100 12,800 13,000 13,000
2000 9,300 9,800 10,300 10,800 11,300 12,000 11,900 11,300 10,600 10,000
2001 8,000 8,900 9,800 10,400 11,000 11,700 12,000 11,800 11,400 10,700
2002 no data 7,800 8,800 9,500 10,300 11,200 11,600 11,300 11,300 10,900
2003 no data no data 7,600 8,700 9,600 10,600 11,000 11,100 11,300 11,400
2004 no data no data no data 7,500 8,600 9,600 10,100 10,200 10,500 10,800
2005 no data no data no data no data 9,500 11,200 11,900 11,900 12,600 13,000
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 9,500 10,500 10,600 10,900 11,600
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 9,000 9,200 9,800 10,200
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 8,000 8,900 9,500
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 7,200 8,200
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 7,400
YSL=1 8,000 7,800 7,600 7,500 9,500 9,500 9,000 8,000 7,200 7,400
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of PGPs at entry has declined from roughly $12,500 for the cohorts landing in the early 1980s to below $8,000 for the most recent cohorts. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $7,400.

Similar to other categories, albeit to a lesser extent, there is a positive relationship between average annual income and years since landing for all cohorts; however, the average annual income of PGPs remains well below the national average through the tenth and twentieth year following landing.

Note that this measure of “annual income” does not include any form of social assistance provided federally or provincially (e.g. OAS, GIS, Allowance). It also does not include retirement income that may be relevant for older immigrants. (e.g. CPP, RRSPs, private pensions).

Figure 10: Average annual income of family class Spouses and Partners (SP), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)

Average annual income of family class Spouses and Partners (SP), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $), described below
Text version: Average annual income of family class Spouses and Partners (SP), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–2011 (2011 $)
Average annual income of family class Spouses and Partners (SP), by tax year and landing cohort, 1982–1991 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
1981 19,900 21,000 23,000 24,000 25,000 27,000 28,000 30,000 30,000 28,000
1985 no data no data no data no data 19,000 22,000 25,000 26,000 26,000 25,000
1990 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 16,900
1995 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 19,900 16,800 16,900 17,900 19,000 19,500 21,000 21,000 19,700 16,900
Canadian Average 32,936 32,218 32,504 32,706 32,567 32,844 33,629 33,856 33,474 32,606
Average annual income of family class Spouses and Partners (SP), by tax year and landing cohort, 1992–2001 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
1981 29,000 27,000 30,000 28,000 29,000 31,000 32,000 33,000 34,000 36,000
1985 25,000 25,000 26,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 30,000 31,000 32,000 34,000
1990 18,200 18,300 19,400 19,600 20,000 22,000 23,000 25,000 26,000 27,000
1995 no data no data no data no data 12,700 15,500 17,800 19,500 21,000 22,000
2000 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 16,700
2001 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2002 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2003 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2004 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2005 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2006 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data
YSL=1 14,900 13,100 12,900 12,800 12,700 13,700 15,000 15,900 16,500 16,700
Canadian Average 32,994 32,865 33,323 33,532 33,668 34,259 35,107 35,576 36,387 36,385
Average annual income of family class Spouses and Partners (SP), by tax year and landing cohort, 2002–2011 (2011 $)
Landing cohort 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1981 36,000 36,000 37,000 38,000 40,000 42,000 41,000 40,000 39,000 39,000
1985 34,000 34,000 36,000 37,000 38,000 40,000 39,000 38,000 39,000 38,000
1990 27,000 28,000 29,000 30,000 32,000 33,000 34,000 34,000 35,000 35,000
1995 23,000 23,000 24,000 25,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 28,000 28,000 29,000
2000 18,400 19,400 21,000 22,000 23,000 25,000 25,000 25,000 26,000 27,000
2001 15,800 17,900 19,500 21,000 22,000 24,000 25,000 25,000 25,000 26,000
2002 no data 15,000 17,500 19,000 21,000 23,000 23,000 23,000 24,000 25,000
2003 no data no data 14,900 18,100 20,000 22,000 23,000 24,000 24,000 25,000
2004 no data no data no data 15,500 18,800 21,000 22,000 23,000 23,000 24,000
2005 no data no data no data no data 16,900 20,000 22,000 22,000 23,000 24,000
2006 no data no data no data no data no data 17,700 20,000 21,000 22,000 23,000
2007 no data no data no data no data no data no data 18,100 19,700 21,000 22,000
2008 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 16,900 19,100 21,000
2009 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 16,300 19,100
2010 no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data no data 16,600
YSL=1 15,800 15,000 14,900 15,500 16,900 17,700 18,100 16,900 16,300 16,600
Canadian Average 36,269 36,082 36,733 37,515 38,465 39,053 39,292 38,588 38,830 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

The average annual income of Family Class SPs at entry has fluctuated below the national average, between $12,000 and $20,000 since the 1980s. The annual income at entry for this group in 2011 was $16,600.

For all cohorts, there is a clear positive relationship between average annual income and years since landing. For example, Family Class SPs who landed in 1995 reported an average annual income of $12,300 at entry. By 2010 (YSL=15), they reported average annual income of roughly $27,500. Even with this growth in income over time, the average remains below the Canadian average.

Table 1: Average annual income in tax year 2011 at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years since landing (YSL), selected economic immigrant principal applicants (2011 $)Footnote 1

Selected economic immigrant principal applicants YSL=1 YSL=3 YSL=5 YSL=10 YSL=15 YSL=20 Canadian Average
SW PA 26,000 38,000 43,000 52,000 51,000 50,000 41,396
PN PA 42,000 52,000 55,000 49,000 29,000   41,396
CEC PA 67,000           41,396
LCP PA 23,000 26,000 31,000 39,000 30,000 33,000 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

In the initial years following landing, the average annual income of SW principal applicants (PA) is lower than their PN and CEC counterparts and below the Canadian average.

SW principal applicants experience strong income growth through the fifteenth year following landing, reporting average annual income nearly on par with the Canadian average three years after landing and surpassing the average annual income reported by their PN counterparts by the tenth year following landing. While the PN principal applicants do demonstrate growth in income, it is not to the same extent and in the tenth year following landing earnings are only slightly higher than those at entry.

LCP principal applicants report the lowest average annual income at entry among the economic immigrant principal applicants. LCP principal applicants demonstrate modest growth in income with time spent in Canada; however, their average annual income remains the lowest among their economic counterparts and remains below the Canadian average through the tenth and twentieth years following landing.

Table 2: Average annual income in tax year 2011 at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years since landing (YSL), selected economic immigrant spouses and dependants (2011$)Footnote 2

Selected economic immigrant spouses and dependants YSL=1 YSL=3 YSL=5 YSL=10 YSL=15 YSL=20 Canadian Average
SW SD 11,900 16,200 18,900 24,000 27,000 35,000 41,396
PN SD 15,300 18,700 20,000 21,000 26,000   41,396
CEC SD 22,000           41,396
LCP SD 19,400 24,000 26,000 30,000 32,000 37,000 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

In the initial years following landing, SW spouses and dependants (SD) report the lowest average annual income among the economic immigrant spouses and dependants. While CEC and LCP spouses and dependants report the highest average annual entry income. All economic spouses and dependants report average annual entry income below the Canadian average.

With time spent in Canada, SW, PN, and LCP spouses and dependants demonstrate growth in average annual income, with SW and LCP spouses and dependants reporting the highest average annual income at the ten year mark following landing and onward. All categories remain below the Canadian average through twentieth year following landing.

Table 3: Average annual income in tax year 2011 at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years since landing (YSL), selected non-economic immigrant categories (2011 $)

Selected non-economic immigrant categories YSL=1 YSL=3 YSL=5 YSL=10 YSL=15 YSL=20 Canadian Average
PSR 11,000 16,400 19,500 19,400 23,000 32,000 41,396
GAR 3,400 9,500 13,300 17,200 29,000 25,000 41,396
FC - PGP 7,400 9,500 11,600 10,700 11,700 19,000 41,396
FC - SP 16,600 21,000 23,000 26,000 29,000 33,000 41,396

Source: IMDB 2011

GARs and PSRs report average annual income well below the Canadian average in the initial years following landing; however, with growth in income over time the gap is notably reduced by the fifteenth year following landing. Note once again that this measure of “annual income” does not include any form of social assistance provided federally or provincially.

With respect to Family Class immigrants, PGPs report average annual income below SPs and well below the Canadian average at entry and over time. PGPs demonstrate some growth in earnings with time spent in Canada; however, it is not strong enough to catch-up to family class SPs or the Canadian average.

At entry, Family Class SPs report average annual income similar to PN spouses and dependants and LCP spouses and dependants (see Table 2) and also demonstrate growth in income consistent with the economic immigrant spouses and dependants. Although, the average annual income remains below the Canadian average, it is on par with that seen for the other economic immigrant spouses and dependants.

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