Building knowledge about immigrants and community reception within an official language minority context

This project was funded by the Research and Evaluation Branch at Citizenship and Immigration Canada that receives funding from the Roadmap for Canada's Official Languages 2013-2018: Education, Immigration, Communities to support research on immigration in official language minority communities.

The views and opinions expressed in this document are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of Citizenship and Immigration Canada or the Government of Canada.

Ref. No.: R111-2013

Presentation - Building knowledge about immigrants and community reception within an official language minority context

List of research gaps

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #1

Lack of a baseline profile with specifics of the immigrant population and its location across the province using 2011 census data.Footnote 1

Recommendation:

  • Updated statistical portrait incorporating data from 2011 census (geographic distribution i.e. urban, rural and remote; ethno-religious composition; economic status, etc.).

Associated CIC research priorities: I. a) Overview and profile.

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #2

a) Lack of in-depth knowledge of immigrant outcomes, particularly with regard to employability, socio-economic status, language practices, and mobility

Recommendation:

  • Qualitative research (e.g. interviews, focus groups) on lived experiences and needs of FOLS-E immigrants.
  • Longitudinal study using record-linking between a sample of census data or surveys to assess social and economic integration of FOLS-E immigrants.Footnote 2
  • Study looking at the evolution of social and economic integration over the span of several generations.
  • Study looking at the mobility of FOLS-E immigrants, and the effects of this mobility.

Associated CIC research priorities: I. b) Outcomes – How are these immigrants faring? I. c) Mobility and retention – staying or moving?

b) Lack of in-depth studies on FOLS-E immigrant subgroup outcomes, including:

  • Social: e.g. women, students, seniors, families (including families where only one parent is an immigrant)
  • Ethno-cultural: e.g. Filipinos, Chinese, South Asians, and immigrants from the Caribbean
  • Geographical: e.g. Lower North Shore, Gaspé peninsula, etc.
  • Economic: e.g. artists, professionals and tradespeople with foreign accreditation, poor or excluded populations, etc.
  • Immigration Category: i.e. economic, refugee, family, etc.

Recommendation:

  • Devise specific projects, as required (e.g. examining standard of living compared to host community and other immigrant groups; examine how their standard of living, education, language practices and civic engagement evolve over time and through generations.)
  • Examine access to services in English.
  • Research into how immigrant communities marginalized due to exclusion and lack of opportunities find their voice and access their own heritage through arts.

Associated CIC research priorities: I. b) Outcomes – How are these immigrants faring? I. c) Mobility and retention – staying or moving? II. a) Profile of OLMC reception capacities.

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #3

Lack of knowledge about contribution of immigrants to ESCQ vitality

Recommendation:

  • Measure immigrant contribution to ESCQ vitality using indicators in the “Framework on the Vitality of Official Language Minority Communities (OLMCs).”Footnote 3

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #4

Lack of knowledge about the impact of FOLS-E immigrants to the economy of the province as a whole.

Recommendation:

  • Assess economic impact of FOLS-E immigrants.

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #5

Lack of comparative studies looking at the Quebec experience in relation to other provinces or countries.

Recommendation:

  • Study comparing FOLS-E immigrant settlement experiences, patterns, policies, histories, reception practices, attitudes toward immigrants and immigration with OLMCs in the rest of Canada, exploring whether Quebec realities and needs have a distinct nature.
  • Studies examining immigrant settlement experiences, patterns, policies, histories and reception practices with reference to linguistic minority groups in other countries (e.g. Belgium, Spain, Switzerland, etc.).

Associated CIC research priorities: I. b) Outcomes – How are these immigrants faring - Does their standard of living vary based on where they live in Canada?

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #6

While considerable research on the history of immigration in Quebec has been done, there is no summary of the history of FOLS-E immigrant settlement experiences, patterns, policies and reception practices.

Recommendation:

  • Summary of the history of FOLS-E immigrant settlement experiences, patterns, policies and reception practices to provide a framework for understanding present-day realities.

Associated CIC research priorities: I. b) Outcomes – How are these immigrants faring?

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #7

Absence of centralized list of immigrant reception groups and resources operating all or in part in English.

Recommendation:

  • Inventory of immigrant reception initiatives and resources in English, whether operating within or outside the ESCQ.

Associated CIC research priorities: II. b) Reception and integration strategies.

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #8

Lack of knowledge about immigrant reception activities and the needs of groups serving the English-speaking community carrying out these activities.

Recommendation:

  • For community groups involved in immigration-related activities (e.g. reception projects, economic integration projects, policy development, etc.):
    • Determining measurable criteria to identify success
    • Evaluation of activities
    • Case studies and best practices
    • Needs assessment
    • Aggregate analysis to assess collective community capacity
    • Measuring the role of newcomer integration as a tool for bridging the ESCQ with the majority.
    • Refinement, assessment of the "community bridge" concept - what are the benefits for the ESCQ?

Associated CIC research priorities: II. b) Reception and integration strategies II. c) Employers and recruitment.

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #9

Lack of knowledge of immigrant welcoming practices of ESCQ community groups and institutions in general (beyond specific projects devoted to immigrant reception/integration).

Recommendation:

  • “Cultural diversity audit” to assess formal and informal policy and practice of ESCQ groups and institutions to ensure full integration of immigrants on staff, governance boards, and general community projects (including economic development projects). This project would have as a goal the enhancement of current practices to collectively generate new ideas.Footnote 4

Associated CIC research priorities: II. b) Reception and integration strategies II. c) Employers and recruitment.

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #10

A lack of critical and analytical assessments of the policies and practices of public authorities and community groups and institutions in relation to the role of immigrants in ESCQ vitality.

Recommendation:

  • Research that could lead to shared objectives and strategic framework for community groups and institutions, and provide recommendations for government policies. Strategies and recommendations would have to take into account territorial, cultural, and other realities. They would also need to consider retention and vitality objectives of the ESCQs, measurable criteria for success and definitions.

Associated CIC research priorities: II. b) Reception and integration strategies.

Gap in the research on ESCQ & immigration #11

Resource list is in preliminary phase.

Recommendation:

  • Expanding the resource list, as recommended in our final report.
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