The housing experiences of new Canadians: Insights from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC)

Appendix D: References

Alba, R. D., and J. Logan. 1992. Assimilation and Stratification in the Homeownership Patterns of Racial and Ethnic-Groups. International Migration Review 26 (4):1314-1341.

Alba, Richard, and Victor Nee. 1997. Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of Immigration. International Migration Review 31 (4(120)):826-874.

Alberta Employment and Immigration. 2008. 2008 Annual Alberta Labour Market Review. Edmonton: Government of Alberta.

Arnold, Elisabeth, and Andrejs Skaburskis. 1989. Measuring Ontario’s Increasing Housing Affordability Problem. Social Indicators Research 21 (5):501-515.

Baker, Michael, and Dwayne Benjamin. 1994. The Performance of Immigrants in the Canadian Labour Market. Journal of Labor Economics 12:369-405.

Borjas, George J. 1991. Immigration Policy, National Origin, and Immigrant Skills: A Comparison of Canada and the United States, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper.

Boyd, Monica. 2003. Educational Attainments of Immigrant Offspring: Success or Segmented Assimilation? In Host Societies and the Reception of Immigrants, edited by J. Reitz. La Jolla, CA: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies.

Boyd, Monica, and Derrick Thomas. 2001. Match or Mismatch? The Employment of Immigrant Engineers in Canada’s Labor Force. Population Research and Policy Review 20 (1-2):107-133.

Chan, S., D. Hiebert, S. D’Addario, and K. Sherrell. 2005. The Profile of Absolute and Relative Homelessness Among Immigrants, Refugees, and Refugee Claimants in the GVRD. Vancouver: Multilingual Orientation Service Association for Immigrant Communities (MOSAIC).

Choko, Marc. H. 1987. The Characteristics of Housing Tenure in Montreal. Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto.

Danso, Ransford. 2001. From ‘There’ to ‘Here’: An investigation of the initial settlement experiences of Ethiopian and Somali Refugees in Toronto. GeoJournal 55:3-14.

Fong, Eric, and Rima Wilkes. 2003. Racial and Ethnic Residential Patterns in Canada. Sociological Forum 18 (4):577-602.

Frenette, Marc, Vincent Hildebrand, James Ted McDonald, and Christopher Worswick. 2003. Occupational Mobility of Immigrant Men: Evidence from Longitudinal Data for Australia, Canada and the United States. In Canadian Immigration Policy for the 21st Century, edited by C. M. Beach, A. G. Green and J. Reitz. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press.

Frenette, Marc, and Rene Morissette. 2003. Will they ever converge? Earnings of immigrant and Canadian-born workers over the last two decades. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Galster, George. 1990. Racial Steering in Urban Housing Markets: A Review fo the Audit Evidence. The Review of Black Political Economy 18 (3):105-129.

Gilmore, Jason. 2009. The 2008 Canadian Immigrant Labour Market: Analysis of Quality of Employment. In The Immigrant Labour Force Analysis Series. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Green, David A. 1999. Immigrant Occupational Attainment: Assimilation and Mobility over Time. Journal of Labor Economics 17 (1):49-79.

Gyourko, Joseph, Peter Linneman, and Susan Wachter. 1999. Analyzing the Relationships among Race, Wealth, and Home Ownership in America. Journal of Housing Economics 8 (2):63-89.

Haan, M. 2005. The decline of the immigrant home-ownership advantage: Life-cycle, declining fortunes and changing housing careers in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, 1981-2001. Urban Studies 42 (12):2191-2212.

———. 2007. The homeownership hierarchies of Canada and the United States: The housing patterns of white and non-white immigrants of the past thirty years. International Migration Review 41 (2):433-465.

Haan, Michael. 2005. The Decline of the Immigrant Homeownership Advantage: Life-Cycle, Declining Fortunes and Changing Housing Careers in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, 1981-2001. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

———. 2007. Do I buy with a little help from my friends? Homeownership-relevant group characteristics and homeownership disparities among Canadian immigrant groups, 1971-2001. Housing Studies 22 (6):921-944.

———. 2007. The Homeownership Hierarchies of Canada and the United States: The Housing Patterns of White and Nonwhite Immigrants of the Past 30 Years. International Migration Review 33 (2):433-465.

Henderson, J.V., and Y.M. Ioannides. 1986. Tenure Choice and the Demand for Housing. Economica 53:231-246.

Henry, Frances. 1989. Housing and Racial Discrimination in Canada. Toronto: Policy and Research, Multiculturalism and Citizenship.

Henry, Frances, Carol Tator, Winston Mattis, and Tim Rees. 2000. The Colour of Democracy: Racism in Canadian Society. 2nd ed. Toronto: Harcourt Brace.

Hirschman, Charles. 1983. The Melting Pot Reconsidered. Annual Review of Sociology 9:397-423.

Hou, Feng. 2004. Recent immigration and the formation of visible minority neighbourhoods in Canada’s large cities. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

———. 2007. Changes in the Initial Destinations and Redistribution of Canada’s Major Immigrant Groups: Reexamining the Role of Group Affinity. International Migration Review 41 (3):680-705.

———. 2010. The impact of age, income, and family structure on homeownership. In Canadian Economic Observer. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Houle, Rene. 2007. Secondary Migration of New Immigrants to Canada. In Our Diverse Cities, edited by B. Reimer. Ottawa: Metropolis.

Houle, Rene, and Grant Schellenberg. 2008. Remittance Behaviours Among Recent Immigrants in Canada. In Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Hulchanski, David. 1993. Barriers to Equal Access in the Housing Market: The Role of Discrimination on the Basis of Race and Gender. Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto.

———. 1997. Immigrants and Access to Housing: How Welcome are Newcomers to Canada? Paper read at Metropolis Year 11 Conference: The Development of A Comparative Research Agenda, at Montreal.

———. 2006. What Factors Shape Canadian Housing Policy? The Intergovernmental Role in Canada’s Housing System. In Canada, State of the Federation 2004: Municipal – Federal – Provincial Relations, edited by R. Young and C. Leuprecht. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Hurst, Erik, Ching Luoh Ming, and Frank P. Stafford. 1998. The Wealth Dynamics of American Families, 1984-1994. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1:267-337.

Iacovetta, F. 1992. Such Hardworking People: Italian Immigrants in Postwar Toronto. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press.

Ihlanfeldt, Keith R. 1981. An Empirical Investigation of Alternative Approaches to Estimation of the Equilibrium Demand for Housing. Journal of Urban Economics 9:97-105.

Lee, Jennifer, and Frank D. Bean. 2004. America’s Changing Colour Lines: Immigration, Race/Ethnicity, and Multiracial Identification. Annual Review of Sociology 30:221-42.

Ley, David. 2007. Countervailing Immigration and Domestic Migration in Gateway Cities: Australian and Canadian Variations on an American Theme. Economic Geography 83 (3):231-254.

Li, Peter S. 1998. The Chinese in Canada. 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Luffman, Jacqueline. 2006. Measuring Housing Affordability. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 16-25.

McDonald, James Ted, and Christopher Worswick. 1997. Unemployment Incidence of Immigrant Men in Canada. Canadian Public Policy 23 (4):353-373.

McMullen, Kathryn. 2009. Earnings differences between immigrants and the Canadian-born – The role of literacy skills. In Education Matters: Insights on Education, Learning and Training in Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Mulder, C.H., and M. Wagner. 1998. First-time home-ownership in the family life course: a West German-Dutch comparison. Urban Studies 35 (4):687-713.

Murdie, R.A., A.S. Chambon, J.D. Hulchanski, and C. Teixeira. 1999. Differential incorporation and housing trajectories of recent immigrant households: toward a conceptual framework. Toronto: Housing New Canadians Working Group, University of Toronto.

Murdie, Robert. 1994. ‘Blacks in near-ghettos?’ Black visible minority population in Metropolitan Toronto Housing Authority public housing units. Housing Studies 9 (4):435-457.

Murdie, Robert A., and Carlos Teixeira. 2002. Towards a Comfortable Neighbourhood and Appropriate Housing: Immigrant Experiences in Toronto. Toronto: CERIS.

Myles, John, and Feng Hou. 2004. Changing Colours: Neighbourhood Attainment and Residential Segregation Among Toronto’s Visible Minorities. Canadian Journal of Sociology 29 (1).

OECD. 2005. Recent House Price Developments: The Role of Fundamentals. OECD Economic Outlook 78:123-154.

Ostrovsky, Yuri, Feng Hou, and Garnett Picot. 2009. Internal Migration of Immigrants: Do Immigrants Respond to Regional Labour Demand Shocks? In Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Painter, Gary, Stuart A. Gabriel, and Dowell Myers. 2000. The Decision to Own: The Impact of Race, Ethnicity and Immigrant Status. Research Institute for Housing America.

Park, Robert and Ernest Burgess. Introduction to the Science of Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1921.

Picot, Garnett, and Arthur Sweetman. 2005. The Deteriorating Economic Welfare of Immigrants and Possible Causes: Update 2005. In Analytic Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Portes, Alejandro. 2005. Author Meets Critics: To Assimilate or Not…and to What Mainstream? A comment on Alba and Nee’s Remaking the American Mainstream. In American Sociological Association. Philadelphia.

Rea, Willa, Jennifer Yeun, John Engeland, and Robert Figuera. 2008. The dynamics of housing affordability. Perspectives on Labour and Income January:15-26.

Rekai, Peter. 2002. US and Canadian Immigration Policies: Marching Together to Different Tunes. In CD Howe Institute Commentary: CD Howe Institute.

Renaud, Vivian, and Rosalinda Costa. 1999. 1996 Census of Population – Certification Report. Ottawa: Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Statistics Canada.

Skaburskis, Andrejs. 1996. Race and Tenure in Toronto. Urban Studies 33 (2):223-252.

Statistics Canada. 2003. Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: Process, Progress and Prospects. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

———. Microdata User Guide – Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada – wave 1, 2003,

———. 2008. Changing Patterns in Canadian Homeownership and Shelter Costs, 2006 Census. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Troper, Harold. 2003. To farms or cities: a historical tension between Canada and its immigrants. In Host Societies and the Reception of Immigrants, edited by J. Reitz. La Jolla: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies.

Worswick, Christopher. 1996. Immigrant Families in the Canadian Labour Market. Canadian Public Policy 22 (4):378-396.

Yinger, J. 1986. Measuring Racial Discrimination with Fair Housing Audits: Caught in the Act. American Economic Review 76:881-893.

———. 1998. Housing discrimination is still worth worrying about. Housing Policy Debate 9:893-927.

Yu, Zhou, and Dowell Myers. 2007. Convergence or divergence in Los Angeles: Three distinctive ethnic patterns of immigrant residential assimilation. Social Science Research 36 (1):254-285.

Zhou, Min. 1997. Segmented Assimilation: Issues, Controversies, and Recent Research on the New Second Generation. International Migration Review 31 (4):975-1008.

Zietsma, Danielle. 2010. Immigrants working in regulated occupations. Perspectives February:13-28.

Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: