Which immigration selection factors best predict the earnings of economic principal applicants?

Policy Research Branch

March 2020

Garnett Picot and Li Xu, Research and Evaluation Branch, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada

Feng Hou and Aneta Bonikowska, Social Analysis and Modelling Division, Statistics Canada.

Project reference number: R3c-2020

Introduction

This report provides updated empirical analysis for the design of the criteria for selecting economic immigrants in Canada. A key goal of Canada’s selection of economic immigrants is to seek individuals with human capital characteristics that would “maximize the long-term potential of economic immigrants in an increasingly complex labour market and knowledge-based economy” (CIC 2010: 21). In support of this goal, this project examines how well various selection criteria, independently of each other and in combination, predict post-landing earnings among economic principal applicants. This information is relevant to the development of point levels for various factors in a selection system.

This report is a follow-up to an earlier report by Bonikowska, Hou and Picot (2015). Findings of the earlier report served as the technical guide for the development of the current Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) used for selecting economic immigrants under the Express Entry immigration system. The former study was based on the earnings experiences of immigrants who landed between 1997 and 1999 and between 2002 and 2004.

Since the early 2000s, many new selection requirements have been implemented and the characteristics of admitted economic immigrants have changed considerably. The Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) continued to grow, and out-numbered the Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP) in admitting economic immigrants. Immigrants who came through the PNP tended to have higher employment rates and earnings in the initial years after landing than FSWP immigrants mostly because the former included a higher share of individuals with pre-landing Canadian work experience (Hou, Crossman and Picot 2020b). In 2008 the Canadian Experience Class (CEC) was introduced, which facilitates international students with Canadian work experience or temporary foreign workers to transition to permanent residence under certain circumstances. The creation of this immigration class is based on the idea that those who have already been in Canada prior to immigration may have an easier time transferring their pre-immigration human capital to the Canadian labour market, leading to stronger labour market outcomes. The expansion of the PNP and the introduction of the CEC are associated with a large increase in the share of economic immigrants who had pre-landing Canadian experience (Hou, Crossman and Picot 2020a)Footnote 1. Furthermore, between 2008 and 2014, a series of Ministerial Instructions were implemented with the objective of improving the responsiveness of economic immigration programs to perceived occupational demand and to restricting the numbers of applications. Starting in 2010, FSW and CEC principal applicants became subject to mandatory language testing. Regulatory changes to the FSWP also came into effect in mid-2013 to strengthen language and educational credential requirements for economic immigrants, which included new minimum language requirements and mandatory educational credential assessments of foreign educational credentials. These changes would likely improve the match between labour market demand and skills of immigrants, and thereby enhance the quality of language and education metrics and thus their roles in predicting post-immigration earnings.

Relative to the period (1998-2010) covered in the previous study by Bonikowska, Hou and Picot (2015), the period in the current study displayed stronger economic conditions. While the national unemployment rate ranged from 7.2% to 8.3% in eight out of 13 years in the 1998-2010 period, it ranged from 6.0% to 7.0% in seven out of 12 years in the 2006-2017 period. More favourable economic conditions tend to improve immigrants’ labour market outcomes.

Significant policy developments and improved macroeconomic conditions raise the question of whether empirical results based on earlier cohorts of immigrants are still fully relevant. To ensure the effectiveness of the CRS in selecting economic immigrants, it is important to update the empirical evidence using more recent data, to re-evaluate the role of selection factors and to identify any emerging important factors in predicting post-immigration earnings. To this end, this project examines principal applicants who landed between 2005 and 2015, and their earnings over the period 2006 to 2017.

Similar to the study by Bonikowska, Hou and Picot (2015), this study considers only factors that could potentially be used in immigrant selection, such as those used in the Express Entry application management system. These variables are education, language, age, years of pre-landing Canadian work experience, years of pre-landing Canadian study experience, whether the applicant has a spouse, and various spousal characteristics, and are all measured at the time of landing. Some selection factors in the current Comprehensive Ranking System, such as arranged employment and siblings living in Canada, are not available for the arrival cohorts studied in this report.Footnote 2 They could be examined in a future study of immigrants selected through the Express Entry system since 2015. A new factor — pre-landing Canadian earnings, which shows a strong effect on immigrants’ post-landing earnings in recent studies (Hou, Crossman and Picot 2020a) — is also examined in this study.

In addition to the predictive power of such variables, attention is also paid to the marginal effects of the selection factors on post-landing earnings. For example, what is the difference in earnings between a bachelor’s degree and a secondary school certificate? The predictive power of a variable and its marginal effect are two different questions. One concerns the relative importance of each predictor among all selected factors. The other concerns the differences in earnings across various levels within a factor.

Data, variables, and methods

Data

The study uses Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB). This data set is constructed by linking administrative files on immigrant admissions and non-permanent resident permits with tax files. The data include immigrants who were admitted to Canada since 1952 and non-permanent residents issued permits since 1980, and who have filed at least one tax return since 1982. Of the immigrants who landed from 2000 to 2017 and were in their prime working age (25 to 54) at landing, up to 94% were linked to at least one tax record (Statistics Canada 2019).

The population used in this analysis consists of immigrants who were principal applicants in four programs in the Economic Class: Federal Skilled Worker program, Provincial Nominee Program, Canadian Experience Class, and Federal Skilled Trades Program. Only principal applicants are evaluated against the selection criteria in the points system for the selection of economic immigrants. The analysis is restricted to immigrants aged 20 to 54 in the year of landing, and with positive earnings in the year of interest. Economic immigrants (principal applicants) entering through the Quebec selection system are excluded because of the uniqueness of that system.Footnote 3

This study focuses on immigrants in three landing cohorts based on how many years they have been observed in the IMDB: 2005–2007, 2008–2011, and 2012–2015 (see Appendix table 5 for sample size and characteristics of each cohort). While all three landing cohorts are used to assess the effect of human capital variables on earnings in the short-term (first two years after immigration), the first two cohorts are used to assess the effects in the medium-term (5 to 6 years after immigration), and only the first cohort is used to assess the effects in the long-term (10 to 11 years after immigration). Regression analysis includes only immigrants with at least $500 (in 2017 constant dollars) earnings in the years of interest.

Variables

Annual earnings (includes wages and salaries, commissions from employment, and self-employment income) during the first two full years in Canada after landing were used to represent short-term outcomes, earnings 5 to 6 years after landing for medium-term outcomes, and earnings 10 to 11 years after landing for long-term outcomes.

There are some restrictions on the explanatory variables used in the models. To render the analysis relevant to selection policy, it is important to include only those variables that are available at the time of immigration (landing), that could potentially be included in immigrant selection, and for which historical data are available. For example, although source country has been found to have a large effect on immigrant earnings, source country is not part of the points system used for selecting economic immigrants as its use could be discriminatory. Hence, source country is excluded from the list of explanatory variables. Its inclusion in the regression model could alter the effects of other variables, such as knowledge of official languages (which is correlated with source country), when predicting earnings.Footnote 4

Furthermore, the contributions of the variables could only be evaluated using historical data. Hence, the explanatory variables are also restricted to those available in the best existing data source for this purpose, the IMDB. With these constraints, the explanatory variables, all of which are treated as discrete and measured at landing, comprise of age at landingFootnote 5 (7 levels), educational attainment (9 levels), language characteristics (6 levels), years of Canadian work experience prior to landing (6 levels), years of study in Canada prior to landing (7 levels), having a spouse at landing, spouse's educational attainment (9 levels), spouse's years of Canadian work experience prior to landing (6 levels), and spouse's years of study in Canada prior to landing (7 levels). Appendix table 5 shows how these variables were specified. In the additional analysis, the level of pre-landing Canadian earnings (5 levels) is also included.

Four variables require some explanation. The language variable is constructed by combining information on the mother tongue and on the official language spoken. This approach takes full advantage of available variables in the IMDB. In the current Express Entry CRS, however, language ability for many immigrants is determined by a language test, a superior approach to the measures used in this study. Language scores from a test may be a better predictor of earnings than the variable employed here. Hence, the predictive power of the language variable may be underestimated in this work.

Regarding years of Canadian work experience, many immigrants worked in Canada on temporary visas before becoming permanent residents, and, thus, acquired Canadian work experience before landing. The Canadian work experience variable was derived from the number of years that an individual had positive earnings in Canada before acquiring permanent residency.

Similarly, some immigrants studied in Canada on study permits before becoming permanent residents. The years of Canadian study experience variable was derived from the number of years that an individual held study permits.Footnote 6

The level of pre-landing earnings was used to capture the quality or skill level of Canadian work experience, in complement to years of Canadian work experience which is primarily a quantity measure. It was based on an individual’s maximum annual earnings in the 10 years before acquiring permanent residency.Footnote 7 It was coded in five levels against national median employment earningsFootnote 8 (measured in the year prior to landing) among all workers aged 20 to 64 years and with positive earnings:

The number of categories used for each of the discrete variables, such as educational attainment, can influence the contribution of the variable to the R-squared of a regression model, given the chosen methodology described below. Typically, the more detailed a variable (e.g., the finer the education-level groupings), the greater the variation in earnings accounted for by that variable. For each discrete variable, this study employed the maximum number of categories available in the source data, unless such level of detail was not supported by sufficient sample size.

Methods

Various regression analyses are employed to determine which variables best "predict" the earnings of economic principal applicants. Regression models are constructed separately for initial earnings, medium-term earnings, and long-term earnings as described above. For all regression models, the outcome variable is the log of annual earnings. Two separate sets of regression models are run: the first set of models includes all the explanatory variables discussed above except for the level of pre-landing earnings. The second set of regression models adds the level of pre-landing earnings to the first set.

The analysis focuses on the extent to which an explanatory variable "accounts for" the variation in the earnings of principal applicants. Variables that account for a large share of the variation in earnings of immigrants are more important when attempting to predict an immigrants' earnings; while those that account for little of the earnings variation, less so. The most commonly used approach to assessing which explanatory variables best predict the dependent variable is the contribution of each explanatory variable to the overall R-squared—the "goodness of fit" statistic—in a regression equation (Nathans et al, 2012).Footnote 9 The R-squared statistic measures the share of the overall variation in the dependent variable (earnings) accounted for by the explanatory variables.Footnote 10

The analysis starts with the unique contribution of each variable to the overall R-squared value. The unique contribution of a specific factor to the R-squared is determined by first running the full model, and then dropping the variable of interest from the regression. The reduction in the R-squared is regarded as the explanatory or unique contribution of the variable of interest in explaining the variance of immigrant earnings (i.e., the R-squared).Footnote 11 One can think about this exercise as measuring the predictive power of adding (or dropping) each variable conditional on the other variables being present. In terms of developing a points system, this approach reflects a variable's unique contribution to a points system which includes all the other explanatory variables. Because only the explanatory or unique contribution of each variable is being captured, the contribution of all variables does not add up to the total R-squared value for the regression.

In addition to a factor’s unique contribution, the factor can overlap with other factors in predicting the variance of the outcome variable. Put differently, a particular set of factors can operate in combination in predicting the outcome variable because they share variance with the outcome variable. Such “overlapping” effect is referred to as the common contribution of a set of factors.Footnote 12 The common contribution is determined with an approach that partitions the model R‑squared into that unique to each explanatory variable and that associated with each possible combination of explanatory variables (the common variance). This "commonality analysis" (Nathans et al. 2012; Rowell 1996; Amado 1999) produces values of the unique and common contributions that sum to the total R-squared. The analysis of the common contribution of factors in this study focuses on the four explanatory variables that are seen to be the most significant predictors (i.e. have the highest unique contributions to the model R-squared), and the combinations of these variables likely contribute the most to the R-squared (i.e. the variables most likely to be correlated).Footnote 13

Assessing the causal effect of a particular variable, say education, on immigrant earnings is not the primary objective of this analysis. The interest here is to get the best possible "fit" to the data using the variables available, which increases the model’s predictive ability. In essence, the analysis is attempting to develop a prediction model using the variables that contribute most to the "goodness of fit". It is not problematic here if some of the variables are proxies for other unmeasured variables, as long as this proxy value remains more or less constant through time. For example, pre-landing Canadian work experience may be in part a proxy for other unmeasured variables, such as an understanding of the Canadian labour market, the availability of networks, and other unobserved variables. These proxy relationships could be the underlying reasons for the contribution of "Canadian experience" to the goodness of fit. That is acceptable since the inclusion of pre-landing Canadian work experience would capture the effects of those unmeasured factors in predicting immigrant earnings. Similarly, a variable like pre-landing Canadian earnings may be, in part, capturing unobserved and unmeasured ability and personal attributes such as interpersonal relationships, the quality of education, motivation, etc., above and beyond observed human capital factors such as education, language, and work experience.

To determine whether the relative importance of the variables may vary with time spent in Canada, the outcome variable is altered from earnings during the first two full years in Canada after landing, to earnings after 5 and 6 years, and finally earnings after 10 and 11 years following landing. The contribution of each variable to the R-squared in each of these three models is used to assess how that variable's relative importance changes with the increased length of residence in Canada.

This study also assesses the extent to which particular interaction terms might affect the predictive power of the regressions. For example, education may have much higher predictive power if it is interacted with French or English language ability. That is, education may have little predictive power (low R-squared) if immigrants have poor English or French language skills, but much higher predictive power if their language skills are strong. Poor language skills may prevent immigrants from economically benefitting from their higher education. If education is "interacted" with language skills in the regression equation, such effects can be captured. There may be important interaction effects between other variables as well. The importance of interaction effects is assessed by any increase in the regression R-squared when specific interaction terms are added.

Changes over the study period in the characteristics of economic principal applicants

The characteristics of the principal applicants included in this study changed somewhat between the 2005–2007 cohort and the 2012–2015 cohort. They became much younger, as the proportion under age 35 increased from 45% to 62% between the two cohorts (Appendix table 5). While remaining very highly educated, the educational level did decline somewhat. Eighty percent of the principal applicants in the 2005–2007 cohort held a university degree compared to 70% for the 2012-2015 cohort. Ability in the official languages improved, as the proportion speaking English or with an English mother tongue increased from 80% to 93% (principal applicants in Québec are excluded from the study). The proportion with Canadian work experience prior to landing increased significantly, from 24% in the earlier cohort to 62% in the 2012-2015 cohort. Similarly, the proportion with some Canadian education prior to landing rose from 13% to 27%. Finally, the proportion with a spouse declined somewhat from 68% to 53%, and the characteristics of the spouses changed in a manner similar to those of the principal applicants.

Results from models excluding the pre-landing Canadian earnings variable

Which variables best predict earnings?

Predicting short-run earnings

To determine the best predictors of earnings in the short term – during the first two years following landing – ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis is used. The outcome variable is the log of annual earnings during the first two full years in Canada, and all the explanatory variables described in the methods section are included except for pre-landing Canadian earnings. The sample consists of economic immigrant principal applicants who were aged 20 to 54 years at landing and had at least $500 employment earnings in at least one of the first two years in Canada.Footnote 14 Regressions were run for three separate cohorts: the 2005–2007, 2008–2011, and 2012–2015 cohorts.

The objective here is to find out the extent to which a variable contributes to the “goodness of fit” as measured by an R-squared. Depending on the cohort, the R-squared for the short term earnings regression models (earnings during the first two full years after landing) varies between 14.9% (i.e., 0.149) and 17.3% (Table 1).Footnote 15 Clearly, much of the variation (between 83% and 85%) in individual entry earnings among principal applicants remains unexplained by the variables included in the models. Other unknown factors, likely many of them unobserved and difficult to measure, or factors that cannot be included in the selection criteria, account for the remainder of the variation.Footnote 16

Pre-landing Canadian work experience was the most important predictor of earnings in the short term. When it was dropped from the regression equation, the R-squared value decreased by between 5.3 and 8.4 percentage points, depending on the cohort. Language was the other variable that had a substantial, but much lower, effect on the predictive power of the model. When it was dropped from the regression, the R-squared declined by between 0.9 and 1.5 percentage points. The unique R-squared associated with “Canadian study experience” ranged from 0.009 to 0.023 in predicting short-term earnings. There are some issues in using this variable to predict earnings, however. Appendix A provides a more detailed explanation. In short, the results for the “prior Canadian study” variable do not constitute suitable information on which to base point values in a selection system. The contribution of other variables was minimal.

As noted in the methods section, some of the explanatory variables may enhance each other’s effect beyond the unique contribution of each variable to the R-squared that is noted above. Some variables will make a contribution to the R-squared through shared variance with another variable, or what is referred to in this approach as “common components” (Nathan, Oswald, and Nimon 2012; Rowell 1996). Among the examined common components, only the language–work experience component makes a significant contribution to the R-squared (bottom of Table 1). This component contributed between 0.8% and 1.1% to the model R-squared, depending on the cohort. None of the other combinations have a substantial common contribution to the model predicting short-term earnings. Hence, of the variables available (and excluding the pre-landing Canadian education experience variable), language and pre-landing Canadian work experience are the two most important predictors of earnings in the short term, at least for the cohorts studied. The spousal variables have little effect on the predictive power of the short-term earnings regression model.

Table 1: The relative importance of predictors of earnings for principal applicants in the economic class by years since landing and landing cohort
Predictors of earnings 2012-2015 cohort 1 to 2 years 2008-2011 cohort 2005-2007 cohort
1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 10 to 11 years
R-Squared of the full model 0.149 0.173 0.097 0.166 0.103 0.092
Unique contribution to the R-squared Age 0.001 0.002 0.007 0.003 0.010 0.020
Education 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.003 0.004 0.006
Language 0.010 0.009 0.009 0.015 0.009 0.006
Canadian work experience 0.075 0.084 0.032 0.053 0.026 0.018
Canadian study experience 0.009 0.023 0.005 0.020 0.004 0.002
Spouse 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.007 0.007
Spouse’s education 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001
Spouse’s language 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002
Spouse Canadian work experience 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000
Spouse Canadian study experience 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Contribution of selected common components to the R-squared Age, education 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.001 -0.001
Age, language 0.000 0.000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001
Age, Canadian work experience 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000
Education, Language 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Education, Canadian work experience -0.001 0.002 -0.003 0.004 0.002 0.001
Language, Canadian work experience 0.010 0.008 0.004 0.011 0.006 0.004

Note: The variables listed on the left-hand side of the table were measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

Predicting medium-term earnings

An identical regression model has been run to determine the predictive power of the explanatory variables on earnings in the medium-term – after 5 to 6 years in Canada. The analysis is conducted for the 2005–2007, and 2008–2011 landing cohorts of principal applicants and with positive earnings in either years 5 or 6 after landing. The overall R-squared falls from around 16% in the short-term model to around 10% (9.7% and 10.3%) in the medium-term model (Table 1), indicating that the explanatory variables are better at predicting entry earnings than medium-term earnings. That is likely because, as immigrants acquire experience in Canada, a convergence in the values of these variables for entering immigrants occurs. For example if there is a large divergence in language ability at landing, which would affect earnings, this divergence would be reduced over time. After a few years, many immigrants who had poor official language skills would have improved them, the language ability gap among immigrants would have been reduced, and so the predictive power of language at landing would be reduced.

Of the variables included in the model for medium-term earnings, again pre-landing Canadian work experience was the best predictor of earnings. When this variable was dropped from the regression, the R-squared fell by between 2.6 and 3.2 percentage points depending on the cohort (Table 1). Language at landing, and age at landing also contributed to the R-squared, which fell by around one percentage point when each of these variables was dropped from the regression (Table 1). Having a spouse had a small effect on the predictive power of the model, as the R‑squared fell by around 0.7 percentage points when this variable was dropped. Otherwise, as was the case with the short-term model, spousal characteristics had little effect on the model’s predictive power. Similarly, the contribution of the explanatory variables through shared variance or common components contributed little to the predictive power of the model (bottom of Table 1). None of the common components contributed more than 0.6 percentage points to the R-squared. Pre-landing Canadian work experience, along with age at landing and language at landing contributed the most to the predictive power of the model.

Predicting long-term earnings

The cohort of principal applicants who landed between 2005 and 2007 is used to study earnings after 10 to 11 years in Canada – defined here as the long-term. The regressions are identical to those used in the short and medium-term results, and are displayed in Table 1.

The overall R-squared in the long-term model was 9.2% (Table 1). That is, after 10 to 11 years in Canada, the variables used in the model accounted for 9.2% of the variation in earnings among principal applicants. The variables included in the model do a poorer job predicting earnings in the longer term than in the short term. The share of variation in earnings accounted for by the variables, while low in all years, declines with years spent in Canada. Among the variables included in the regression model, age at landing and pre-landing Canadian work experience were the best predictors of long-run earnings. When age at landing was dropped from the regression, the R-squared fell by 2.0 percentage points. Age at landing is a better predictor of long-run than of short-run earnings. Pre-landing Canadian work experience contributed 1.8 percentage points to the R-squared. The predictive power of pre-landing Canadian work experience, while still substantial in the long-run, was weaker than in the short run. Education at landing, language at landing, and whether one had a spouse all contributed small amounts – around 0.6 percentage points each – to the R-squared. None of the selected common components in Table 1 contributed substantially to the R-squared value, suggesting that none of the main explanatory variables had a substantial effect on the R-squared by operating in combination with other variables.

Interaction Effects

In addition to variables such as education, language, and work experience alone affecting earnings, interaction effects may also matter. That is, the effect of these variables may differ depending on the value that other variables take. Such effects are referred to as interaction effects.Footnote 17 For example if there is an interaction between education and pre-landing Canadian work experience, then the effect of education on earnings differs depending on whether an individual has pre-landing Canadian work experience or not.

To determine if there are important interaction effects, interaction terms between the key explanatory variables are added to the models outlined in the earlier sections. These interaction terms are added one at a time, and dropped from the regression when a different interaction term is added.Footnote 18 In this way one can measure the effect of the addition of the interaction term on the R-squared value. The effect is simply the difference in the R-squared value between the regression with the interaction term in the regression and without it. The results are shown in Table 2. Among the interaction effects examined, those between pre-landing Canadian work experience and age at landing, and between pre-landing Canadian work experience and the level of education increased the R-squared by between 0.4 and 0.9 percentage points. These interaction effects had some effect on the predictive power of the models in both the short-term and medium-term, with little effect in the long-term, while the effects of other interaction terms were minimal.

Table 2: The relative importance of interaction between factors in explaining earnings of principal applicants in the economic class by years since landing and landing cohort
Interaction between factors 2012-2015 cohort 1 to 2 years 2008-2011 cohort 2005-2007 cohort
1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 10 to 11 years
R-Squared of the full model 0.149 0.173 0.097 0.166 0.103 0.092
Increase in R-squared when interaction is added Age + education 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002
Age + language 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001
Age + Canadian work experience 0.007 0.006 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.001
Age + Canadian study experience 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001
Education + language 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.001
Education + Canadian work experience 0.009 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.004
Education + Canadian study experience 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.001
Language + Canadian work experience 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Language + Canadian study experience 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Canadian work experience × Canadian study experience 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.001

Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

A comparison with the results of an earlier study

Bonikowska, Hou and Picot (2016) conducted a very similar study that assessed which variables best predicted the earnings outcomes of principal applicants who landed in 1997–1999 and 2002–2004. The methodology and variables included were virtually identical in the earlier and current studies. Many of the conclusions were similar, but a few differences do stand out. The R‑squared values were higher for the later cohorts used in this study (2005–2007, 2008–2011, and 2012–2014) than for the two cohorts of the earlier study. This was true for the short, medium and longer run results. For example, the R-squared values for the short-term prediction models were 9.6% and 13.6% for the earlier cohorts, and increased to between 14.9% and 17.3% for the later cohorts. In other words, the ability to predict the earnings of the principal applicants improved as one moves from the 1997–1999 cohort to 2012–2015 cohort.

This improvement was likely related to the increased predictive power of the “Canadian pre-landing work experience” variable. This variable was a much stronger predictor of earnings outcomes for the later than for the earlier cohorts. It was the strongest predictor, among those examined, in the short, medium and longer-term for the later cohorts. This was not the case for the earlier cohorts. Education was not as strong a predictor variable for the later cohorts as it was in the earlier cohorts. In all cohorts, the predictive power of education increased as one moved from the short-term to longer-term. However, while education was one of the major predictor variables in the long run for the earlier cohorts, this was not the case for the later cohorts. Nevertheless, the marginal effect of education on earnings remained substantial. Those with a bachelor’s degree earned from 12% to 23% more than comparable principal applicants with only a high school education, although this “university wage premium” was smaller than that observed in the earlier cohorts. Finally, the variable “with a spouse at admission” did provide some predictive power in this study, although less than that of many of the other variables. This variable was not included in the earlier study. Spousal characteristics themselves (e.g. education age, etc.) provided little predictive power in both studies.

To summarize, in the short run, language and Canadian work experience were the strongest predictor variables for all five cohorts examined by the two studies, but Canadian work experience was much stronger as a predictor variable in the later cohorts examined by this study. In the medium-term, language and Canadian work experience were the best predictor variables in all five cohorts, along with age. Educational attainment was also one of the better predictor variables in the earlier cohorts, but not in the later cohorts. Finally, in the longer term Canadian work experience and age were the best predictors in the later cohorts, while education and age were the best predictor variables in the earlier cohorts. Education had been replaced by work experience as one of the best predictor variables in the longer run.

The marginal effects of the explanatory variables

The previous section examined the extent to which the explanatory variables can predict earnings after landing, the outcome variable. However, most economic analyses do not focus on this issue, but rather concentrate on the relationship between the explanatory variable and the outcome variable (in this case earnings), which is determined by the value of the coefficients on the explanatory variables (i.e., marginal effects). In the analysis for this report, these relationships should be considered correlational rather than causal.Footnote 19

The marginal effects on short-run earnings

The regression coefficients are shown in Table 3 and the results are consistent with earlier work. Principal applicants who were older at landing, particularly those over age 45, earned less during the first two years than younger immigrants, adjusting for differences in other background characteristics. Among the latest cohort (2012–2015) those aged 45 to 49 years at landing earned about 6% less than those aged 25 to 29 years. The differences among age groups were greater in earlier cohorts (Table 3).

Table 3, Part 1: Coefficients from ordinary least squares regression models predicting earnings of principal applicants in the economic class, by years since landing and landing cohort
Coefficients 2012-2015 cohort 1 to 2 years 2008-2011 cohort 2005-2007 cohort
1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 10 to 11 years
Intercept 10.404 Table 3 footnote *** 10.444 Table 3 footnote ** 10.830 Table 3 footnote *** 10.527 Table 3 footnote *** 10.836 Table 3 footnote *** 11.025 Table 3 footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.029 Table 3 footnote ** -0.005 Table 3 footnote * 0.000 0.043 Table 3 footnote * -0.079 Table 3 footnote *** 0.002
30 to 34 0.007 0.007 Table 3 footnote ** 0.026 Table 3 footnote *** -0.048 Table 3 footnote *** -0.058 Table 3 footnote *** -0.051 Table 3 footnote ***
35 to 39 0.033 Table 3 footnote *** 0.009 Table 3 footnote ** 0.011 -0.076 Table 3 footnote *** -0.114 Table 3 footnote *** -0.143 Table 3 footnote ***
40 to 44 0.005 -0.030 Table 3 footnote ** -0.077 Table 3 footnote *** -0.133 Table 3 footnote *** -0.210 Table 3 footnote *** -0.267 Table 3 footnote ***
45 to 49 -0.059 Table 3 footnote *** -0.109 Table 3 footnote ** -0.181 Table 3 footnote *** -0.195 Table 3 footnote *** -0.314 Table 3 footnote *** -0.432 Table 3 footnote ***
50 to 54 -0.031 Table 3 footnote ** -0.161 Table 3 footnote * -0.316 Table 3 footnote *** -0.241 Table 3 footnote *** -0.423 Table 3 footnote *** -0.580 Table 3 footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.121 Table 3 footnote *** -0.214 Table 3 footnote ** -0.235 Table 3 footnote *** -0.111 Table 3 footnote *** -0.150 Table 3 footnote *** -0.206 Table 3 footnote ***
Trade Certificate -0.065 Table 3 footnote *** -0.044 Table 3 footnote ** -0.135 Table 3 footnote *** 0.064 Table 3 footnote *** -0.061 Table 3 footnote *** -0.181 Table 3 footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.183 Table 3 footnote *** -0.189 Table 3 footnote ** -0.212 Table 3 footnote *** -0.063 Table 3 footnote *** -0.116 Table 3 footnote *** -0.136 Table 3 footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.159 Table 3 footnote *** -0.187 Table 3 footnote * -0.184 Table 3 footnote *** -0.138 Table 3 footnote *** -0.154 Table 3 footnote *** -0.131 Table 3 footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.102 Table 3 footnote *** -0.059 Table 3 footnote ** -0.062 Table 3 footnote *** 0.031 Table 3 footnote ** 0.002 -0.027 Table 3 footnote *
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling 0.006 -0.119 Table 3 footnote * -0.099 Table 3 footnote *** -0.159 Table 3 footnote *** -0.140 Table 3 footnote *** -0.146 Table 3 footnote ***
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.020 Table 3 footnote *** -0.108 Table 3 footnote ** -0.013 Table 3 footnote * -0.064 Table 3 footnote *** -0.006 0.018 Table 3 footnote *
Doctorate 0.116 Table 3 footnote *** 0.052 Table 3 footnote * 0.053 Table 3 footnote *** 0.114 Table 3 footnote *** 0.181 Table 3 footnote *** 0.180 Table 3 footnote ***
Language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.474 Table 3 footnote *** -0.557 Table 3 footnote * -0.553 Table 3 footnote *** -0.707 Table 3 footnote *** -0.544 Table 3 footnote *** -0.424 Table 3 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.334 Table 3 footnote *** -0.364 Table 3 footnote * -0.355 Table 3 footnote *** -0.349 Table 3 footnote *** -0.284 Table 3 footnote *** -0.256 Table 3 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.552 Table 3 footnote *** -0.557 Table 3 footnote * -0.522 Table 3 footnote *** -0.660 Table 3 footnote *** -0.559 Table 3 footnote *** -0.400 Table 3 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, English -0.340 Table 3 footnote *** -0.317 Table 3 footnote ** -0.318 Table 3 footnote *** -0.337 Table 3 footnote *** -0.315 Table 3 footnote *** -0.281 Table 3 footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.219 Table 3 footnote *** -0.295 Table 3 footnote * -0.267 Table 3 footnote *** -0.178 Table 3 footnote *** -0.167 Table 3 footnote *** -0.241 Table 3 footnote ***
Years of Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.609 Table 3 footnote *** 0.671 Table 3 footnote ** 0.420 Table 3 footnote *** 0.666 Table 3 footnote *** 0.464 Table 3 footnote *** 0.361 Table 3 footnote ***
2 0.671 Table 3 footnote *** 0.740 Table 3 footnote ** 0.439 Table 3 footnote *** 0.798 Table 3 footnote *** 0.552 Table 3 footnote *** 0.461 Table 3 footnote ***
3 0.711 Table 3 footnote *** 0.791 Table 3 footnote ** 0.475 Table 3 footnote *** 0.856 Table 3 footnote *** 0.620 Table 3 footnote *** 0.525 Table 3 footnote ***
4 0.740 Table 3 footnote *** 0.888 Table 3 footnote ** 0.527 Table 3 footnote *** 0.922 Table 3 footnote *** 0.663 Table 3 footnote *** 0.590 Table 3 footnote ***
>=5 0.799 Table 3 footnote *** 1.063 Table 3 footnote * 0.629 Table 3 footnote *** 1.073 Table 3 footnote *** 0.721 Table 3 footnote *** 0.584 Table 3 footnote ***
Years of Canadian study experience (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.210 Table 3 footnote *** -0.283 Table 3 footnote * -0.173 Table 3 footnote *** -0.145 Table 3 footnote *** -0.155 Table 3 footnote *** -0.159 Table 3 footnote ***
1 to less than 2 -0.183 Table 3 footnote *** -0.188 Table 3 footnote * -0.119 Table 3 footnote *** -0.099 Table 3 footnote *** -0.053 Table 3 footnote * 0.015
2 to less than 3 -0.194 Table 3 footnote *** -0.278 Table 3 footnote * -0.188 Table 3 footnote *** -0.357 Table 3 footnote *** -0.166 Table 3 footnote *** -0.111 Table 3 footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.287 Table 3 footnote *** -0.591 Table 3 footnote * -0.276 Table 3 footnote *** -0.600 Table 3 footnote *** -0.271 Table 3 footnote *** -0.207 Table 3 footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.351 Table 3 footnote *** -0.645 Table 3 footnote * -0.248 Table 3 footnote *** -0.752 Table 3 footnote *** -0.301 Table 3 footnote *** -0.192 Table 3 footnote ***
5 or more -0.370 Table 3 footnote *** -0.671 Table 3 footnote * -0.330 Table 3 footnote *** -0.748 Table 3 footnote *** -0.379 Table 3 footnote *** -0.253 Table 3 footnote ***
With a spouse at admission 0.345 Table 3 footnote *** 0.253 Table 3 footnote * 0.279 Table 3 footnote *** 0.279 Table 3 footnote *** 0.305 Table 3 footnote *** 0.306 Table 3 footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.093 Table 3 footnote *** -0.067 Table 3 footnote ** -0.083 Table 3 footnote *** -0.091 Table 3 footnote *** -0.119 Table 3 footnote *** -0.105 Table 3 footnote ***
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.147 Table 3 footnote *** 0.006 Table 3 footnote * -0.018 -0.038 Table 3 footnote * -0.070 Table 3 footnote *** -0.079 Table 3 footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.107 Table 3 footnote *** -0.072 Table 3 footnote ** -0.065 Table 3 footnote *** -0.083 Table 3 footnote *** -0.089 Table 3 footnote *** -0.071 Table 3 footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.074 Table 3 footnote *** -0.034 Table 3 footnote * -0.040 Table 3 footnote * -0.086 Table 3 footnote *** -0.065 Table 3 footnote *** -0.029
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.028 Table 3 footnote ** 0.059 Table 3 footnote ** 0.031 Table 3 footnote ** 0.030 Table 3 footnote * 0.018 -0.006
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.093 Table 3 footnote *** -0.158 Table 3 footnote * -0.116 Table 3 footnote *** -0.133 Table 3 footnote *** -0.131 Table 3 footnote *** -0.070 Table 3 footnote ***
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.048 Table 3 footnote *** 0.035 Table 3 footnote ** 0.041 Table 3 footnote *** 0.022 Table 3 footnote * 0.021 Table 3 footnote * 0.016
Doctorate -0.059 Table 3 footnote ** -0.039 Table 3 footnote * -0.055 Table 3 footnote ** -0.059 Table 3 footnote * -0.092 Table 3 footnote *** -0.050
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.314 Table 3 footnote *** -0.240 Table 3 footnote * -0.229 Table 3 footnote *** -0.271 Table 3 footnote *** -0.208 Table 3 footnote *** -0.217 Table 3 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.160 Table 3 footnote *** -0.141 Table 3 footnote * -0.152 Table 3 footnote *** -0.101 Table 3 footnote *** -0.067 Table 3 footnote ** -0.028
Other mother tongue, French -0.217 Table 3 footnote *** -0.399 Table 3 footnote * -0.351 Table 3 footnote *** -0.351 Table 3 footnote *** -0.226 Table 3 footnote *** -0.244 Table 3 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, English -0.252 Table 3 footnote *** -0.207 Table 3 footnote * -0.182 Table 3 footnote *** -0.177 Table 3 footnote *** -0.137 Table 3 footnote *** -0.147 Table 3 footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.069 Table 3 footnote * -0.046 Table 3 footnote * -0.014 -0.026 0.092 0.150 Table 3 footnote *
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.080 Table 3 footnote *** 0.121 Table 3 footnote * 0.135 Table 3 footnote *** 0.029 0.012 0.021
2 0.050 Table 3 footnote *** 0.106 Table 3 footnote * 0.117 Table 3 footnote *** 0.066 Table 3 footnote ** 0.058 Table 3 footnote ** 0.123 Table 3 footnote ***
3 -0.002 0.015 Table 3 footnote * 0.020 0.072 Table 3 footnote ** 0.106 Table 3 footnote *** 0.029
4 -0.035 Table 3 footnote * 0.023 Table 3 footnote * 0.014 0.119 Table 3 footnote ** 0.013 0.049
>=5 -0.100 Table 3 footnote *** 0.000 Table 3 footnote * -0.020 0.100 Table 3 footnote * -0.020 -0.027
Spouse Canadian study experience (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.026 -0.005 Table 3 footnote * -0.052 -0.020 -0.007 -0.131 Table 3 footnote *
1 to less than 2 -0.096 Table 3 footnote *** -0.106 Table 3 footnote * -0.075 Table 3 footnote * -0.130 Table 3 footnote *** -0.043 -0.012
2 to less than 3 -0.102 Table 3 footnote *** -0.201 Table 3 footnote * -0.106 Table 3 footnote *** -0.365 Table 3 footnote *** -0.214 Table 3 footnote *** -0.204 Table 3 footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.217 Table 3 footnote *** -0.288 Table 3 footnote * -0.199 Table 3 footnote *** -0.319 Table 3 footnote *** -0.169 Table 3 footnote *** -0.184 Table 3 footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.192 Table 3 footnote *** -0.276 Table 3 footnote * -0.239 Table 3 footnote *** -0.350 Table 3 footnote *** -0.215 Table 3 footnote *** -0.248 Table 3 footnote ***
5 or more -0.164 Table 3 footnote *** -0.252 Table 3 footnote * -0.314 Table 3 footnote *** -0.345 Table 3 footnote *** -0.334 Table 3 footnote *** -0.337 Table 3 footnote ***
Sample size 288,264 220,185 227,168 144,920 145,981 114,262
Model R -square 0.149 0.173 0.097 0.166 0.103 0.092

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

Educational attainment was positively correlated with entry earnings, but not as strongly as one might expect. Bachelor’s degree holders (>=15 years of schooling) earned 12%-24% (or 0.111 to 0.214 log points) more than individuals with secondary education or less in the short-term, depending on the cohort. Compared with immigrants with a bachelor’s degree, those with education below a bachelor’s degree all showed lower entry earnings for all three landing cohorts. As will be seen, the effects of the educational attainment were stronger in the medium and long-term. These results are consistent with earlier research, which found that the earnings advantage that highly educated entering immigrants traditionally held over the less educated immigrants during the first few years in Canada was much reduced or disappeared among cohorts entering after 2000. Earlier research also showed that since earnings increase much faster among the more highly educated new immigrants than others, the earnings advantage of the highly educated increases with years spent in Canada (Picot, Hou and Qiu 2016).

The correlation between language background and earnings was quite strong. For example, in the 2012–2015 cohort, principal applicants who spoke neither English nor French at landing earned 0.474 log points (38%) less than those with English as their mother tongue, after adjusting for other background variables.Footnote 20 The applicants who have a mother tongue other than English or French, but who spoke English or French at landing---the large majority of applicants---earned significantly less than those with English as a mother tongue, but more than those who spoke neither English nor French. The negative effect of having a mother tongue other than one of Canada’s official languages decreased in the longer term, but not substantially.

The number of years of pre-landing Canadian work experience (i.e., the number of years with positive earnings prior to landing) made an important difference in earnings. Again for the 2012–2015 cohort, even one year of experience resulted in a 0.609 log points (84%) increase in earnings relative to those with no pre-landing Canadian work experience. This increased to 0.799 log points (122%) for those with five or more years of pre-landing Canadian work experience. It seems that having some pre-landing Canadian work experience (as compared to no such experience) is important for post-landing increases in earnings, but the number of years of such experience does not matter as much; the gain associated with having more years of such experience is relatively small.

The coefficients of “With a spouse at admission” in Table 3 refers to the differences in log earnings between a PA without a spouse at the time of admission and a PA with a spouse who held a bachelor’s degree, had English as the mother tongue, had no Canadian work experience, and no Canadian study experience (i.e. the reference groups of the spousal characteristics variables in the model). Having such a spouse was positively correlated with earnings. Principal applicants with such a spouse tended to earn between 0.253 and 0.345 log points (or 29% and 41%) more than those without a spouse, controlling for other variables. The effect of having a spouse at the time of admission is conditioned on the spouse’s characteristics. For instance, in the first two years after landing, PAs with a spouse who did not speak English or French, had a secondary or lower education, and had no Canadian work and study experience, would have earnings 5% to 8% lower than those of PAs without a spouse, depending on the landing cohort. The marginal effects (coefficients) associated with spouses’ background variables tended to be similar to, but generally weaker, than the marginal effects described above for the principal applicants.Footnote 21

The marginal effects on medium-term earnings

Overall, the marginal effects of the explanatory variables on medium-term earnings were very similar to those observed in the short-term earnings model. There were a few differences, however. The negative correlation between age at landing and earnings was stronger. For example, principal applicants aged 50 to 54 earned between 0.316 and 0.423 log points (i.e., 27% and 35%) less than those aged 25 to 29 (Table 3). The education effect was also stronger. Individuals with secondary school or less earned between 0.150 and 0.235 log points (14% and 21%) less than those with a bachelor’s degree. The association between language at landing and earnings was very similar to that observed in the short-run model. The correlation between years of pre-landing Canadian work experience and earnings was weaker than that observed in the short-run model, but remained quite strong. For example individuals with one year of pre-landing Canadian work experience earned between 0.420 and 0.464 log points (52% and 59%) more than those with no work experience. This difference was over 0.600 log points in the short-term earnings model. The positive effect of having a spouse (who had a bachelor’s degree, English mother tongue, no Canadian work experience, and no Canadian study experience) on earnings changed little with years in Canada. As with the short-term model, the associations between spousal characteristics and medium-term earnings were similar to those observed for the principal applicants themselves, but generally weaker. There was little change between short-term and medium-term models regarding these variables.

The marginal effects on long-term earnings

The negative association between age at landing and earnings strengthens further in the long term model. For example, among the 2005–2007 cohort, those landing between the ages of 50 to 54 earned 0.241 log points (22%) less than those entering between ages 25 and 29 in the short run, 0.423 log points (35%) less in the medium term and 0.580 log points (44%) less in the long run (Appendix table 5). Overall, landing at age 45-49 or older was associated with an earnings disadvantage for all three landing cohorts and for short-term, medium-term or long-term earnings; the effect was stronger with time spent in Canada.

The positive effect of education on earnings tends to increase somewhat with years spent in Canada. The earnings advantage of bachelor’s degree holders over those with secondary school or less increases from 0.111 log points (12%) in the short-term model to 0.206 log points (23%) in the long-term model. The positive effect of language at landing on earnings decreases with years spent in Canada. This is not surprising, as new principal applicants with poor official language skills would improve their skills. As a result, the effect of language at landing on earnings would weaken over time. For example, based on the 2005–2007 cohort results, in the short-run, individuals not speaking English or French at landing earned 0.707 log points (51%) less than those with English as their mother tongue. In the medium-term this declined to 0.544 log points (42%) and in the long run to 0.424 log points (35%).

The positive effect of years of Canadian work experience prior to landing on earnings weakened as immigrants spent more time in Canada. For example, in the short-term, those with one year of Canadian work experience earned 0.666 log points (95%) more than those with no prior to landing work experience. This declined to 0.464 log points (59%) in the medium-term, and to 0.361 log points (43%) in the long term. This result is also not surprising, as the immigrants with no pre-landing Canadian work experience would acquire Canadian experience with time spent in Canada, reducing the gap in factors rewarded in the Canadian labour market that existed between them and those who had some experience prior to landing. This in turn would reduce the earnings gap between the two groups. The positive effect of having a spouse changed little with time spent in Canada. Similarly, the correlation between spousal characteristics and the earnings of principal applicants changed little over time.

To summarize, as the years in Canada increased for principal applicants, the negative effect of age at landing on earnings strengthened, as did the positive effect of educational attainment on earnings. The positive effect of language on earnings weakened, as did the positive effect of years of pre-landing Canadian work experience on earnings. The positive effect of having a spouse, and the correlation between spousal characteristics and the earnings of principal applicants changed little with years spent in Canada.

How does Canadian work experience moderate the effect of education and age on earnings?

The interaction between variables discussed earlier suggests that the effect of one variable may be conditioned on the value of another variable. To better assess the key interaction effects, separate regressions were run for two groups: those with some pre-landing Canadian work experience and those without. The coefficients of these models are presented in Appendix table 6. The focus in this section is on the results in the short-term and medium-term for the 2008–2011 cohort to reduce repetition in the discussion as the results were similar in the other cohorts. The general pattern also applies to long-term earnings for the 2005–2007 cohort.

The R-squared is much larger for individuals with pre-landing Canadian work experience (at 16.4% for the short-term and 10.1% in the medium-term) than for those without (at 3.8% and 4.5% respectively). Thus, the predictive power of the main explanatory variables is relatively weak for those principal applicants who do not have pre-landing Canadian work experience. Over 95% of the variation in earnings outcomes is left unexplained after accounting for differences in age, education, language, and so on. The predictive power of the same variables is much stronger among principal applicants with pre-landing Canadian work experience.

The effects of age and education at landing on earnings depend on whether the principal applicant had pre-landing Canadian work experience or not. As noted earlier, principal applicants who were older at landing tended to have lower earnings in both the short- and medium-term than younger (at landing) principal applicants. This result holds for those without pre-landing Canadian work experience, but for those with pre-landing Canadian work experience, there is no such negative effect, and older (at landing) principal applicants tend to earn more than younger ones, particularly in the short-run. That is, employers appear to be recognizing pre-landing Canadian work experience as beneficial, as is generally observed in Canadian labour market. In general, older workers with more work experience earn more than younger workers. In that sense, principal applicants with pre-landing Canadian work experience more closely resemble Canadian-born workers than those without.Footnote 22

The results for the effect of educational attainment are similar. Principal applicants with pre-landing Canadian work experience received a significant earnings premium for higher levels of education, as one would expect in a normal labour market. However, those without pre-landing Canadian work experience received a much smaller education premium. For example, in the medium-term, among principal applicants without pre-landing Canadian work experience, those with a bachelor’s degree earned 0.097 log points (10%) more than those with secondary school or less. But for principal applicants with pre-landing Canadian work experience, this earnings premium was 0.383 log points (47%). Once again, principal applicants landing with previous Canadian work experience more closely resembled Canadian-born workers regarding the recognition of their higher education as demonstrated by the earnings premium.

How does official language proficiency moderate the effect of education and age on earnings?

The effect of educational attainment and age at landing (a proxy for work experience prior to landing) on earnings depends on the official language proficiency of principal applicants, in a similar way to that noted above regarding pre-landing Canadian work experience. To examine this effect, separate regressions were run for three language groups: those with an English or French mother tongue (likely the highest proficiency in official language), those with another mother tongue (other than English or French) but who speak English or French, and those who do not speak English or French at landing (Appendix table 7).Footnote 23 As above, the discussion here focuses on the results for the 2008–2011 cohort of economic principal applicants. The results are similar for other cohorts.

The earnings advantage of having a higher education is much greater among principal applicants with strong language skills at landing than among those with weaker skills. This may not be too surprising, since stronger language skills would likely facilitate the economic benefit of higher education. In the short run, entering principal applicants with an English or French mother tongue received a 0.251 log points (29%) earnings premium for having a bachelor’s degree, when compared with those with secondary school or less. Among their counterparts who did not speak either official language at landing, there was no earnings advantage at all for having a bachelor’s degree. The short run earnings advantage of having a bachelor’s degree as compared with those with secondary school or less was between 0.117 and 0.219 log points (11%–20%) among principal applicants with a mother tongue other than English or French who spoke English or French at landing. These differences changed somewhat in the medium-term, as immigrants who entered with no official language skills acquired some official language ability but a gap remained. In the medium-term, the bachelor’s degree earnings premium (compared to those with secondary school or less) was 0.197 log points (22%) among individuals whose mother tongue is English or French and 0.250 log points (28%) among those with another mother tongue (other than English or French) who speak English or French, but only 0.119 (13%) for those who landed with no ability to speak English or French. The interaction effect of education and language may also be in part related to the effect of country of educationFootnote 24 or source country which were not controlled for in the analysisFootnote 25.

Language ability also affected the association between age at landing (a proxy for work experience prior to landing) and earnings, particularly in the medium-term. Among individuals with an English or French mother tongue, workers aged 45 to 49 years at landing earned 0.061 log points (6%) more than those entering at age 25 to 29. But among individuals who did not speak English or French at landing, 5 to 6 years after landing 45 to 49-year-olds earned 0.418 log points (34%) less than their 25 to 29-year-old counterparts, after adjusting for other background differences. Once again, employers appear to treat the work experience of individuals with an English or French mother tongue more like they would treat a Canadian-born worker (Warman 2010). Those who do not speak English or French at landing do not receive any remuneration for work experience prior to landing. This may be related in part to country of origin, which is not controlled for (see footnote 9). Interestingly, the returns to Canadian work experience prior to landing are similar for both those with an English or French mother tongue and those who did not speak either language at landing. Both groups received a significant wage premium for pre-landing Canadian experience (roughly 0.420 log points or 52%) for one year of experience compared to those with none (Appendix table 7).

Pre-landing Canadian earnings as a predictor of post landing earnings

Earlier research has shown that pre-landing earnings in Canada are highly correlated with post-landing earnings, both in the short and long run. Principal applicants with high levels of pre-landing Canadian earnings entering during the late 2010s earned twice as much in the short-run as compared to immigrants without pre-landing Canadian earnings, after adjusting for background characteristics like education and age. This earnings advantage persisted, but decreased in magnitude in the long-run. In contrast, there was little difference in earnings between principal applicants with low pre-landing Canadian earnings and those who had no pre-landing Canadian earnings (Hou, Crossman and Picot 2020).

As noted earlier, the primary goal of this analysis is to determine which variables best predict post-landing earnings. If the objective was to determine what “causes” various levels of post landing earnings, including pre-landing earnings in the regression would not be reasonable. High pre-landing earnings clearly do not “cause” high post-landing earnings. However if the objective is prediction not causal explanation, pre-landing earnings are a good predictor of post-landing earnings, and hence pre-landing earnings can be a valuable variable in this research. Earnings prior to landing likely capture a number of important unobserved characteristics, usually human capital related, that affect post-landing earnings. The results show that pre-landing earnings are by far the best predictor of post-landing earnings among all variables included in the analysis.

First, the R-squared increases significantly in all the models when pre-landing earnings is added (Table 4). The R-squared value for the short-run models ranges between 21.0% and 25.7%, depending on the cohort. This is an increase from between 14.9% and 17.3% in the models without pre-landing earnings (Table 1). Thus, the share of the variation in principal applicants’ short-run earnings accounted for by the models increases from around 16% to around 23%. As before, the models do less well in predicting medium- and long-term than short-term earnings, but there is still a significant improvement.Footnote 26

The unique contribution of pre-landing earnings to the R-squared of the short-run model was quite high at 10.7 percentage points (for the 2012–2015 cohort). This is much higher than the unique contribution observed by any other variable in earlier models, demonstrating the much stronger predictive power of this variable. This unique contribution was somewhat lower among earlier cohorts (Table 4), possibly because this variable has become more important in recent cohorts due to the increase in the share of entering immigrants who had high pre-landing earnings. The contribution of pre-landing earnings to the R-squared diminished in predicting longer-term earnings. Among the 2005–2007 cohort, for example, its contribution fell from 4.4 percentage points in the short-term model, to 2.5 percentage points in the medium-term model, and further to 1.6 percentage points in the long-term model. With pre-landing earnings in the model, the unique predictive power of the other variables falls to almost zero (Table 3). From a forecasting perspective, pre-landing earnings serves as a proxy for the other variables such as education, work experience, language and age, absorbing much of their predictive capability.

The only “common component” of any importance in this model was the component combining the years of pre-landing work experience with pre-landing Canadian earnings. This component added between 5.2 and 8.2 percentage points to the R-squared in the short-term model, 2.4 to 3.0 percentage points in the medium-term model and 1.7 percentage point in the long-run model. Again, the most important contribution of this component was the more reliable prediction of short-run earnings. All other selected common components were close to zero.Footnote 27

Table 4: The relative importance of predictors of earnings for principal applicants in the economic class by years since landing and landing cohort, with pre-landing Canadian earnings as a predicator
Predictors of earnings 2012-2015 cohort 1 to 2 years 2008-2011 cohort 2005-2007 cohort
1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 10 to 11 years
R-Squared of the full model 0.257 0.252 0.143 0.210 0.127 0.108
Unique contribution to the R-squared Age 0.001 0.003 0.009 0.004 0.011 0.022
Education 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.004
Language 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.012 0.007 0.004
Canadian work experience 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000
Canadian study experience 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001
Spouse 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.006 0.006
Spouse’s education 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001
Spouse’s language 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001
Spouse Canadian work experience 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Spouse Canadian study experience 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Pre-landing earnings in Canada 0.107 0.079 0.047 0.044 0.025 0.016
Contribution of selected common components to the R-squared Age, education 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.001
Age, language 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.001 -0.001
Age, Canadian work experience 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Education, Language 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Education, Canadian work experience 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Language, Canadian work experience 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Age, pre-landing earnings in Canada -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001
Education, pre-landing earnings in Canada 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.002
language, pre-landing earnings in Canada 0.007 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002
Year of work experience, pre-landing earnings in Canada 0.074 0.082 0.030 0.052 0.024 0.017

Note: The variables listed on the left-hand side of the table were measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

Not surprisingly the association between pre-landing Canadian earnings and post-landing earnings is quite strong relative to all other variables (Appendix table 8). For example, for the 2012–2015 cohort, entering principal applicants with more than twice the national median annual earnings prior to landing earned 1.493 log points (or 3.4 times) more than their comparable counterparts with no pre-landing earnings. It is important to note that this is after accounting for any differences in the other explanatory variables such as education, language, age, years of Canadian work experience, and so on. There was no earnings advantage (compared to those with no pre-landing earnings) for those with less than half the national median Canadian earnings prior to entry. Those with between 1.0 and 2.0 times the national median prior to entry had a 0.805 log points (124%) earnings premium over those with no pre-landing earnings. This earnings premium declined somewhat, but not a lot, when moving from short- to medium- to long-term earnings outcomes.Footnote 28 Thus, even after controlling for observable background characteristics, individuals with moderate to high pre-landing Canadian earnings experienced a significant earnings premium over those with no such pre-landing earnings in both the short- and long-term.

Furthermore, the association between almost all other principal applicant characteristics and earnings was much weaker when pre-landing Canadian earnings was added to the model (Appendix table 8). The one exception was age at entry, which changed little. In particular, years of Canadian work experience became virtually statistically insignificant. This phenomenon was observed for short run, medium run and long run earnings. This of course should not be interpreted in any causal manner. Rather, not surprisingly pre-landing Canadian earnings are correlated with all of these variables, and hence when added to the model, captures much of the variance that previously was ascribed to education, language, and so on.

How do pre-landing Canadian earnings moderate the effect of age and education on earnings?

It was observed earlier that the effect of education and age (a proxy for work experience prior to landing) on earnings was substantially different for those with and without pre-landing Canadian work experience. This suggests that principal applicants with pre-landing Canadian experience had outcomes closer to those expected for Canadian workers in a normal labour market. The same may be true for individuals with and without pre-landing Canadian earnings, or with low versus high pre-landing earnings.

To examine this question, regression models are run separately for principal applicants without, with low (<= national median earnings) and high (>national median earnings) pre-landing Canadian earnings (Appendix table 9). The discussion here focuses on the 2008–2011 cohort and short-run and medium-run earnings. Among principal applicants with no pre-landing Canadian earnings, immigrants who were older at entry had substantially lower earnings than those entering in their youth, both in the short run and medium run, and even in the long-term.Footnote 29 Among those with high pre-landing Canadian earnings, older workers at entry earned more than younger arrivals.Footnote 30 They seem to have received remuneration for pre-landing work experience, as one would expect, at least in the short-run. That may not have been true in the medium-term, since age at landing had little effect on medium-term earnings.

The effect of education on earnings also differed significantly between those with and without pre-landing Canadian earnings. Among the group with no such earnings, there was little difference in both short-run and medium-term earnings between those with secondary school or less and a bachelor’s degree (Appendix table 9). But among principal applicants with high pre-landing Canadian earnings, there was a significant earnings premium for having a bachelor’s degree. They earned roughly 0.450 log points (57%) more than those with secondary school or less in both the short-run and medium-term.

An important finding from the analysis by level of pre-landing Canadian earnings is that returns to human capital (particularly age at landing and education) were broadly similar for principal applicants without pre-landing Canadian earnings and those with low pre-landing earnings. In other words, immigrants with a low level of pre-landing Canadian earnings face similar difficulties as immigrants without pre-landing Canadian work experience in transferring their human capital into the labour market. This finding applies to all three cohorts of principal applicants in this study.

Conclusion

This paper asks which of the common immigration selection factors best predict earnings of economic principal applicants. The predictive power of the variables is assessed for short-run earnings (1 to 2 years after landing), medium-term earnings (5 to 6 years after landing) and long-run earnings (10 to 11 years). The variables include those available to be utilized in an economic immigrant selection system.Footnote 31 In addition to assessing the predictive power of such variables, some discussion of the marginal effects of these variables on earnings is included. These are two different questions and utilize different statistical measures to answer.

The predictive power of selection factors is indicated by the proportion of the variance in post-immigration earnings that these factors can account for, which is measured by the R-squared value of a regression model predicting post-immigration earnings.Footnote 32 Together, the immigration selection factors considered in this report account for roughly 15% of the variation in the short-run earnings of principal applicants. The remaining 85% is due to unobserved factors.Footnote 33 The predictive power of these factors is at its best in the short run. Their ability to predict earnings declines with years in Canada, falling to around 10% in the medium term, and 9% in the long run. The ability of these factors to account for the variation in earnings among principal applicants is much weaker for those who had no pre-landing Canadian work experience (accounting for around 4% of the short-term earnings variation) compared to those who had pre-landing Canadian work experience (about 16%).

Of the variables included, pre-landing Canadian work experience makes the largest unique contribution to the prediction of post-landing earnings, particularly in the short run, but also in the medium and long run. Language at landing is another key predictor of short-run earnings. Pre-landing Canadian work experience, language at landing, and age at landing are the best predictors of medium-run earnings. Age at landing and pre-landing Canadian work experience are the best predictors of long-run earnings. Younger age at landing, often used as a proxy for fewer years of foreign work experience when education and Canadian work experience are taken into account, is a better predictor in the long run than in the short run.

The lower predictive power of the selection factors in the long run is likely due in part to the fact that as immigrants acquire experience in Canada, a convergence in the values of these factors occurs. For example, after a few years, many immigrants who had poor official language skills would have improved them, the language ability gap among immigrants would have been reduced, and so the predictive power of language at landing would be reduced.

The interaction of one variable with another could affect earnings outcomes. Interaction refers to the situation when the effect of one factor is conditioned on the level of another factors. For example, individuals with poor language abilities could be less able to achieve the earnings premium associated with education. In the current CRS, transferability factors are designed to reflect interaction effects.Footnote 34 The analysis indicates that the effect of interaction terms examined by the models on the predictive power of the models was generally small. Only two interactions had some small effects: the educational level at landing with Canadian work experience, and age at landing with Canadian work experience.

In general, the spousal variables had little effect on the predictive power of the models focusing on earnings of economic principal applicants.

When pre-landing Canadian earnings was added to the model with the variables mentioned above, the predictive power of the models improved considerably. With this addition, the share of the variation in short-term earnings accounted for by the model increased from 15% to 26%. Pre-landing Canadian earnings was by far the single most effective variable in predicting post-landing earnings. The unique contribution of other variables to the predictive power fell to almost zero when pre-landing Canadian earnings was added. Like many other variables (except age at landing), its predictive ability declined with years in Canada, but remained strong.

Regarding the marginal effects of the variables on earnings, the results were similar to those observed in an earlier study (Bonikowska et al. 2015). These marginal effects should be considered as correlational, not causal. Education at landing had a weak positive effect on short-term earnings, but a stronger positive effect on long-term earnings. That is because earnings increase faster with years in Canada for those highly educated than for less educated immigrants. Furthermore, education has a much larger positive effect on earnings for immigrants with strong language skills and pre-landing Canadian work experience.

Age at landing (often a proxy for foreign work experience) matters. Immigrants who are older at landing tend to earn less than those who are younger, but this negative effect is not observed among immigrants with pre-landing Canadian work experience. These entrants more closely resemble Canadian-born workers as they appear to receive remuneration for work experience.

Years of pre-landing Canadian work experience are strongly positively correlated with earnings after landing, but this correlation weakens with time spent in Canada. Language background at landing is strongly positively associated with earnings. Entering economic principal applicants who have a spouse with good official language ability and a university education tend to earn more than those who do not, after controlling for other factors. The spousal background variables such as education, language, and age at landing tend to have weaker effects on earnings of the principal applicant than what is observed for the principal applicants themselves. The low predictive power and small marginal effect of spousal background variables on principal applicants’ earnings suggests that these variables contribute little to the prediction of the principal applicants’ earnings. However, although not part of this study, there is another way to look at these results. It seems likely that while their effect on principal applicants’ earnings may be weak, they are likely good predictors of the spouses’ own earnings. Selecting spouses with higher points levels (and hence likely higher earnings) would increase family income, and hence the outcome of economic immigrants in general.

For reasons discussed in Appendix A, pre-landing Canadian study, while included in the analysis, does not provide results that are usable as background information for the selection system.

Finally, the level of pre-landing earnings was strongly positively correlated with post-landing earnings. Immigrants with low pre-landing earnings experienced little or no earnings advantage relative to those without pre-landing earnings, but the advantage was significant for those with higher pre-landing earnings. It is important to recall that this is after accounting for effect of background variables such as education, language, and age. Pre-landing earnings is strongly positively correlated with earnings within education, language, and age groups.

Pre-landing Canadian earnings as a factor in the immigrant selection system

As noted above, the pre-landing Canadian earnings variable is by far the best predictor of post- landing earnings among those variables included in the analysis. It is not surprising that pre-landing Canadian earnings are highly correlated with post-landing earnings – past outcomes are often the best predictors of future outcomes. In essence, pre-landing Canadian earnings capture a number of otherwise unobserved characteristics of potential applicants that are correlated with higher earnings. The effect of these characteristics are above and beyond those of education, language ability, and work experience that are controlled for in the analysis. Such unobserved characteristics likely include interpersonal relations, problem-solving ability, communication skills, language proficiency not measured by the self-reported language variables, the quality of education received, and so on. Pre-landing Canadian earnings likely reflect “realized market value” of immigrants’ skills and qualifications (Hou and Picot 2016). While “years of pre-landing Canadian work experience” captures the quantity of pre-landing work experience, it does not capture the quality of work experience to the same extent as the level of pre-landing Canadian earnings.

Pre-landing Canadian earnings are the best predictor of immigrants’ post-landing earnings, as the regression results show clearly, and including pre-landing Canadian earnings increases the models’ predictive power considerablyFootnote 35. Since earnings outcomes are an important consideration for selecting economic principal applicants, including pre-landing Canadian earnings would improve immigrants’ economic outcomes and the effectiveness of the selection system.

However, there are some reasons to be cautious when including this factor in the points system. Allocating a too large number of points to this factor could lead to temporary foreign workers becoming the primary source of economic immigration. This result could increasingly move the selection power away from the government into the hands of individual firms and employers. Employers hiring temporary foreign workers may prioritize short-term labour needs; their interest are not always in line with the government’s longer-term objectives related to competitiveness and human capital development (Crossman, Hou and Picot, 2020). Caution would then be necessary when determining the number of points allocated to pre-landing earnings.

References

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Appendix A: Interpreting the “Years of Canadian Study” effect

The regression results in Appendix table 5 indicate that the number of years of study in Canada prior to landing is negatively correlated with earnings, particularly in the initial years after landing. For example, in the 2012–2015 cohort, those with 2 to 3 years of Canadian study prior to landing earned 0.194 log points (18%) less than those with no Canadian study. This seems counterintuitive, although it is consistent with the findings of earlier research (Bonikowska, Hou and Piot 2015). There are a number of reasons for this result.

First, without controlling for any other selection factors, there is a positive correlation between Canadian study before landing and short-term earnings after landing. This association becomes negative after controlling for many other background characteristics, including educational attainment (e.g. holding a bachelor’s degree), years of Canadian experience and official language. It is possible that with similar observable characteristics, former international students have lower unobserved abilities or motivations than other economic immigrants. In explaining a similar finding in the United States, Lowell and Avato (2014) suggest that those who first come to pursue US education are likely not as highly selected as economic immigrants who have to demonstrate their skills and job-ready abilities to be sought out abroad by US employers. An Australian study also finds that many former international students do not have advanced English ability and are in low-demand fields of study, and thus fare poorly in employment and earnings compared with other skilled immigrants (Hawthorne and To 2014).

Second, immigrants who studied in Canada before landing are more likely to engage in further studies after landing. In the study sample, 16.6% of immigrants who studied in Canada before landing were attending school while reporting employment earnings during the first full year after landing, compared with only 5.5% among immigrants who did not study in Canada before landing. As a result, those with prior Canadian study would be seen to be earning less than those without.

Third, the negative result for Canadian study regarding short-term earnings was evident primarily among principal applicants who had previous Canadian work experience. For those without such experience, prior Canadian study tended to have no significant effect on short-term earnings (Appendix table 6). Again, negative selection is a likely explanation. It is possible that temporary foreign workers who could find and held high-paying jobs before landing may not have the need to pursue Canadian education, and they maintained such advantage after immigration. In contrast, those who could not find high-paying jobs before landing may choose to pursue Canadian education as a way to improve their qualifications, and they may be more likely to continue schooling after landing and reduce working time.

Appendix B: Tables

Table 5: Descriptive statistics of variables among principal applicants in the economic class who filed income tax in the first full year after landing
  Variables Landing years
2012 to 2015 2008 to 2011 2005 to 2007
Age group at admission 20 to 24 4.2% 2.8% 1.5%
25 to 29 29.1% 23.3% 16.9%
30 to 34 28.3% 24.9% 27.0%
35 to 39 18.4% 20.7% 23.2%
40 to 44 11.1% 15.0% 17.7%
45 to 49 6.2% 9.4% 10.3%
50 to 54 2.7% 4.0% 3.5%
Education at admission Secondary or Less 10.2% 9.3% 4.6%
Trade Certificate 6.4% 6.4% 4.1%
Non-University Certificate or Diploma 9.8% 12.5% 9.4%
Some University – No Degree 3.9% 1.1% 2.2%
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 8.6% 7.6% 5.5%
Bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling 35.4% 36.6% 45.5%
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling 2.3% 2.2% 3.3%
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 20.6% 20.3% 21.0%
Doctorate 2.9% 3.9% 4.5%
Language at admission Not speaking English or French 3.9% 7.0% 12.6%
Other mother tongue, bilingual 2.2% 4.2% 5.5%
Other mother tongue, French 0.1% 0.3% 0.4%
Other mother tongue, English 80.6% 75.1% 68.8%
Mother tongue French 1.2% 1.1% 0.8%
English mother tongue 12.0% 12.4% 11.8%
Years of Canadian work experience at admission 1 4.1% 5.4% 4.1%
2 12.8% 12.5% 6.3%
3 16.5% 12.3% 5.8%
4 12.8% 6.8% 4.0%
>=5 16.1% 7.0% 3.8%
No Canadian work experience 37.6% 56.0% 76.0%
Years of Canadian study at admission More than 0 to less than 1 1.6% 0.6% 0.5%
1 to less than 2 6.2% 2.0% 1.2%
2 to less than 3 6.0% 2.3% 2.0%
3 to less than 4 3.4% 2.4% 2.3%
4 to less than 5 3.5% 3.3% 2.7%
5 or more 6.7% 7.3% 4.2%
No Canadian education experience 72.6% 82.1% 87.1%
With a spouse at admission No 47.0% 38.2% 32.5%
Yes 53.0% 61.8% 67.5%
Spouse education at admission No spouse 47.0% 38.2% 32.5%
Secondary or Less 10.1% 13.4% 11.9%
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship 2.5% 3.1% 3.3%
Non-University Certificate or Diploma 5.0% 7.9% 8.8%
Some University – No Degree 2.4% 1.3% 3.7%
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 4.8% 5.6% 5.3%
Bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling 17.9% 20.8% 24.3%
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling 1.4% 1.5% 2.0%
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 8.3% 7.2% 7.1%
Doctorate 0.7% 1.0% 1.1%
Spouse language at admission No spouse 47.0% 38.2% 32.5%
Not speaking English or French 5.5% 8.9% 17.1%
Other mother tongue, bilingual 0.9% 1.7% 2.0%
Other mother tongue, French 0.1% 0.2% 0.4%
Other mother tongue, English 41.5% 44.1% 40.8%
Mother tongue French 0.3% 0.3% 0.3%
English mother tongue 4.7% 6.6% 6.9%
Spouse Canadian work experience at admission No spouse 47.0% 38.2% 32.5%
1 3.6% 3.5% 2.1%
2 3.6% 3.1% 2.0%
3 2.5% 1.8% 1.2%
4 1.5% 0.8% 0.5%
>=5 1.4% 0.7% 0.4%
No Canadian work experience 40.5% 51.9% 61.2%
Spouse Canadian education at admission No spouse 47.0% 38.2% 32.5%
More than 0 to less than 1 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
1 to less than 2 0.7% 0.4% 0.4%
2 to less than 3 0.7% 0.5% 0.4%
3 to less than 4 0.4% 0.3% 0.4%
4 to less than 5 0.4% 0.3% 0.3%
5 or more 0.7% 0.8% 0.4%
No Canadian education 49.9% 59.3% 65.3%
Pre-landing Canadian earnings at admission No Canadian work experience 37.9% 56.4% 76.7%
> 0 and<= 50% national median earnings 4.8% 5.6% 5.8%
> 50% national median, <= national median 24.8% 13.7% 5.9%
>national median, <= 2*national median 22.2% 15.2% 5.7%
> 2*national median 10.3% 9.2% 6.0%
Sample size 142,822 108,143 71,379

Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

Table 6: Coefficients from ordinary least squares regression models predicting employment earnings of principal applicants in the economic class, by years since landing and presence of pre-landing Canadian work experience

2012–2015 cohort
Coefficients 2012–2015 cohort 1 to 2 years
Without Canadian work experience With Canadian work experience
Intercept 10.455 Table 6a footnote *** 11.077 Table 6a footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.067 Table 6a footnote ** -0.006
30 to 34 0.042 Table 6a footnote *** -0.001
35 to 39 0.020 Table 6a footnote * 0.075 Table 6a footnote ***
40 to 44 -0.072 Table 6a footnote *** 0.117 Table 6a footnote ***
45 to 49 -0.203 Table 6a footnote *** 0.126 Table 6a footnote ***
50 to 54 -0.220 Table 6a footnote *** 0.172 Table 6a footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less 0.047 Table 6a footnote ** -0.156 Table 6a footnote ***
Trade Certificate 0.089 Table 6a footnote *** -0.134 Table 6a footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.102 Table 6a footnote *** -0.217 Table 6a footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.087 Table 6a footnote *** -0.162 Table 6a footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.027 Table 6a footnote * -0.198 Table 6a footnote ***
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.079 Table 6a footnote *** 0.162 Table 6a footnote ***
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling -0.084 Table 6a footnote *** 0.120 Table 6a footnote ***
Doctorate -0.180 Table 6a footnote *** 0.254 Table 6a footnote ***
Language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.482 Table 6a footnote *** -0.440 Table 6a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.379 Table 6a footnote *** -0.271 Table 6a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.573 Table 6a footnote *** -0.411 Table 6a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, English -0.280 Table 6a footnote *** -0.362 Table 6a footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.317 Table 6a footnote *** -0.226 Table 6a footnote ***
Years of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.105 -0.216 Table 6a footnote ***
1 to less than 2 0.079 -0.180 Table 6a footnote ***
2 to less than 3 -0.050 -0.175 Table 6a footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.056 -0.243 Table 6a footnote ***
4 to less than 5 0.020 -0.302 Table 6a footnote ***
5 or more -0.060 -0.303 Table 6a footnote ***
With a spouse 0.121 Table 6a footnote *** 0.470 Table 6a footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.093 Table 6a footnote *** -0.139 Table 6a footnote ***
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.158 Table 6a footnote *** -0.181 Table 6a footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.122 Table 6a footnote *** -0.101 Table 6a footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.031 -0.137 Table 6a footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.016 -0.084 Table 6a footnote ***
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.103 Table 6a footnote *** 0.029
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.024 Table 6a footnote * 0.078 Table 6a footnote ***
Doctorate -0.173 Table 6a footnote *** 0.057 Table 6a footnote *
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.139 Table 6a footnote *** -0.385 Table 6a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.081 Table 6a footnote * -0.052
Other mother tongue, French 0.006 -0.257 Table 6a footnote **
Other mother tongue, English -0.127 Table 6a footnote *** -0.262 Table 6a footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.055 0.053
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference no) 1 0.076 -0.031 Table 6a footnote **
2 0.275 Table 6a footnote *** -0.054 Table 6a footnote ***
3 0.136 -0.090 Table 6a footnote ***
4 0.165 -0.107 Table 6a footnote ***
>=5 -0.110 -0.143 Table 6a footnote ***
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.067 -0.090 Table 6a footnote **
1 to less than 2 -0.070 -0.136 Table 6a footnote ***
2 to less than 3 -0.122 -0.148 Table 6a footnote ***
3 to less than 4 0.016 -0.288 Table 6a footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.106 -0.242 Table 6a footnote ***
5 or more -0.351 Table 6a footnote ** -0.204 Table 6a footnote ***
Sample size 111,604 176,660
Model R -square 0.026 0.117

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

2008–2011 cohort
Coefficients 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years
Without Canadian work experience With Canadian work experience Without Canadian work experience With Canadian work experience
Intercept 10.431 Table 6b footnote *** 11.245 Table 6b footnote *** 10.846 Table 6b footnote *** 11.288 Table 6b footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.045 Table 6b footnote * 0.020 -0.133 Table 6b footnote *** 0.097 Table 6b footnote ***
30 to 34 0.013 -0.029 Table 6b footnote *** 0.039 Table 6b footnote *** -0.027 Table 6b footnote **
35 to 39 -0.043 Table 6b footnote *** 0.086 Table 6b footnote *** -0.008 0.033 Table 6b footnote **
40 to 44 -0.109 Table 6b footnote *** 0.135 Table 6b footnote *** -0.125 Table 6b footnote *** 0.031 Table 6b footnote **
45 to 49 -0.200 Table 6b footnote *** 0.098 Table 6b footnote *** -0.248 Table 6b footnote *** -0.009
50 to 54 -0.322 Table 6b footnote *** 0.185 Table 6b footnote *** -0.430 Table 6b footnote *** -0.014
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.023 -0.409 Table 6b footnote *** -0.097 Table 6b footnote *** -0.383 Table 6b footnote ***
Trade Certificate 0.158 Table 6b footnote *** -0.266 Table 6b footnote *** -0.023 -0.261 Table 6b footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.082 Table 6b footnote *** -0.318 Table 6b footnote *** -0.137 Table 6b footnote *** -0.303 Table 6b footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.112 Table 6b footnote *** -0.346 Table 6b footnote *** -0.165 Table 6b footnote *** -0.231 Table 6b footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.014 -0.190 Table 6b footnote *** -0.031 Table 6b footnote ** -0.164 Table 6b footnote ***
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.126 Table 6b footnote *** -0.036 -0.125 Table 6b footnote *** 0.019
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling -0.114 Table 6b footnote *** -0.077 Table 6b footnote *** -0.066 Table 6b footnote *** 0.129 Table 6b footnote ***
Doctorate -0.130 Table 6b footnote *** 0.171 Table 6b footnote *** -0.107 Table 6b footnote *** 0.228 Table 6b footnote ***
Language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.553 Table 6b footnote *** -0.491 Table 6b footnote *** -0.572 Table 6b footnote *** -0.455 Table 6b footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.362 Table 6b footnote *** -0.296 Table 6b footnote *** -0.365 Table 6b footnote *** -0.289 Table 6b footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.587 Table 6b footnote *** -0.331 Table 6b footnote *** -0.574 Table 6b footnote *** -0.201 Table 6b footnote *
Other mother tongue, English -0.255 Table 6b footnote *** -0.333 Table 6b footnote *** -0.293 Table 6b footnote *** -0.308 Table 6b footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.250 Table 6b footnote *** -0.297 Table 6b footnote *** -0.210 Table 6b footnote *** -0.295 Table 6b footnote ***
Years of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.035 -0.354 Table 6b footnote *** -0.104 Table 6b footnote * -0.198 Table 6b footnote ***
1 to less than 2 0.124 Table 6b footnote ** -0.241 Table 6b footnote *** 0.044 -0.177 Table 6b footnote ***
2 to less than 3 0.073 -0.291 Table 6b footnote *** -0.076 -0.221 Table 6b footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.146 Table 6b footnote * -0.561 Table 6b footnote *** -0.175 Table 6b footnote *** -0.283 Table 6b footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.240 Table 6b footnote *** -0.578 Table 6b footnote *** -0.142 Table 6b footnote * -0.238 Table 6b footnote ***
5 or more -0.226 Table 6b footnote *** -0.540 Table 6b footnote *** -0.030 -0.276 Table 6b footnote ***
With a spouse 0.172 Table 6b footnote *** 0.337 Table 6b footnote *** 0.214 Table 6b footnote *** 0.338 Table 6b footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.086 Table 6b footnote *** -0.113 Table 6b footnote *** -0.107 Table 6b footnote *** -0.100 Table 6b footnote ***
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship 0.021 -0.075 Table 6b footnote *** -0.003 -0.090 Table 6b footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.088 Table 6b footnote *** -0.066 Table 6b footnote *** -0.063 Table 6b footnote *** -0.080 Table 6b footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.018 -0.078 Table 6b footnote * -0.046 Table 6b footnote * -0.025
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.088 Table 6b footnote *** -0.020 0.039 Table 6b footnote *** 0.004
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.150 Table 6b footnote *** -0.087 Table 6b footnote * -0.110 Table 6b footnote *** -0.057
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.018 0.058 Table 6b footnote *** 0.032 Table 6b footnote *** 0.070 Table 6b footnote ***
Doctorate -0.080 Table 6b footnote ** -0.023 -0.117 Table 6b footnote *** 0.064 Table 6b footnote *
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.165 Table 6b footnote *** -0.266 Table 6b footnote *** -0.158 Table 6b footnote *** -0.258 Table 6b footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.072 Table 6b footnote ** -0.118 Table 6b footnote *** -0.094 Table 6b footnote *** -0.130 Table 6b footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.312 Table 6b footnote *** -0.347 Table 6b footnote *** -0.276 Table 6b footnote *** -0.231 Table 6b footnote *
Other mother tongue, English -0.163 Table 6b footnote *** -0.186 Table 6b footnote *** -0.130 Table 6b footnote *** -0.189 Table 6b footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.193 Table 6b footnote ** 0.181 Table 6b footnote *** -0.083 0.109
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference no) 1 0.231 Table 6b footnote *** -0.012 0.098 0.052 Table 6b footnote ***
2 0.120 -0.004 -0.028 0.044 Table 6b footnote **
3 0.009 -0.050 Table 6b footnote ** -0.090 -0.032
4 0.160 0.022 0.218 -0.017
>=5 -0.411 0.064 Table 6b footnote * -0.179 -0.004
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.114 -0.139 Table 6b footnote ** 0.093 -0.174 Table 6b footnote ***
1 to less than 2 -0.133 -0.160 Table 6b footnote *** -0.023 -0.121 Table 6b footnote ***
2 to less than 3 -0.120 -0.272 Table 6b footnote *** 0.097 -0.170 Table 6b footnote ***
3 to less than 4 0.000 -0.362 Table 6b footnote *** -0.057 -0.246 Table 6b footnote ***
4 to less than 5 0.120 -0.359 Table 6b footnote *** -0.173 -0.274 Table 6b footnote ***
5 or more -0.010 -0.298 Table 6b footnote *** -0.100 -0.322 Table 6b footnote ***
Sample size 125,808 94,377 139,091 88,077
Model R -square 0.038 0.164 0.045 0.101

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

2005–2007 cohort
Coefficients 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 10 to 11 years
Without Canadian work experience With Canadian work experience Without Canadian work experience With Canadian work experience Without Canadian work experience With Canadian work experience
Intercept 10.506 Table 6c footnote *** 11.408 Table 6c footnote *** 10.838 Table 6c footnote *** 11.394 Table 6c footnote *** 11.011 Table 6c footnote *** 11.522 Table 6c footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.029 0.134 Table 6c footnote *** -0.134 Table 6c footnote *** 0.030 -0.070 0.112 Table 6c footnote **
30 to 34 -0.061 Table 6c footnote *** -0.047 Table 6c footnote *** -0.069 Table 6c footnote *** -0.064 Table 6c footnote *** -0.047 Table 6c footnote *** -0.087 Table 6c footnote ***
35 to 39 -0.117 Table 6c footnote *** 0.056 Table 6c footnote ** -0.140 Table 6c footnote *** -0.032 -0.145 Table 6c footnote *** -0.142 Table 6c footnote ***
40 to 44 -0.184 Table 6c footnote *** 0.083 Table 6c footnote *** -0.250 Table 6c footnote *** -0.016 -0.280 Table 6c footnote *** -0.168 Table 6c footnote ***
45 to 49 -0.264 Table 6c footnote *** 0.123 Table 6c footnote *** -0.370 Table 6c footnote *** -0.020 -0.448 Table 6c footnote *** -0.321 Table 6c footnote ***
50 to 54 -0.348 Table 6c footnote *** 0.185 Table 6c footnote *** -0.512 Table 6c footnote *** 0.029 -0.620 Table 6c footnote *** -0.328 Table 6c footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less 0.043 Table 6c footnote ** -0.523 Table 6c footnote *** -0.035 Table 6c footnote * -0.458 Table 6c footnote *** -0.116 Table 6c footnote *** -0.445 Table 6c footnote ***
Trade Certificate 0.225 Table 6c footnote *** -0.460 Table 6c footnote *** 0.049 Table 6c footnote ** -0.417 Table 6c footnote *** -0.113 Table 6c footnote *** -0.396 Table 6c footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma 0.025 Table 6c footnote * -0.343 Table 6c footnote *** -0.048 Table 6c footnote *** -0.323 Table 6c footnote *** -0.085 Table 6c footnote *** -0.285 Table 6c footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.112 Table 6c footnote *** -0.304 Table 6c footnote *** -0.129 Table 6c footnote *** -0.384 Table 6c footnote *** -0.122 Table 6c footnote *** -0.251 Table 6c footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.059 Table 6c footnote *** -0.172 Table 6c footnote *** 0.007 -0.064 -0.025 -0.098
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.160 Table 6c footnote *** -0.022 -0.154 Table 6c footnote *** 0.046 -0.159 Table 6c footnote *** 0.001
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling -0.040 Table 6c footnote *** -0.137 Table 6c footnote *** -0.029 Table 6c footnote *** 0.081 Table 6c footnote *** -0.010 0.135 Table 6c footnote ***
Doctorate 0.002 0.053 Table 6c footnote ** 0.049 Table 6c footnote ** 0.251 Table 6c footnote *** 0.048 Table 6c footnote * 0.288 Table 6c footnote ***
Language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.696 Table 6c footnote *** -0.565 Table 6c footnote *** -0.538 Table 6c footnote *** -0.542 Table 6c footnote *** -0.408 Table 6c footnote *** -0.616 Table 6c footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.323 Table 6c footnote *** -0.341 Table 6c footnote *** -0.277 Table 6c footnote *** -0.250 Table 6c footnote *** -0.221 Table 6c footnote *** -0.316 Table 6c footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.636 Table 6c footnote *** -0.481 Table 6c footnote * -0.559 Table 6c footnote *** -0.287 -0.374 Table 6c footnote *** -0.583
Other mother tongue, English -0.309 Table 6c footnote *** -0.303 Table 6c footnote *** -0.293 Table 6c footnote *** -0.299 Table 6c footnote *** -0.257 Table 6c footnote *** -0.286 Table 6c footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.098 Table 6c footnote * -0.227 Table 6c footnote *** -0.120 Table 6c footnote * -0.222 Table 6c footnote *** -0.197 Table 6c footnote *** -0.319 Table 6c footnote ***
Years of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.160 Table 6c footnote ** -0.372 Table 6c footnote *** -0.063 -0.193 Table 6c footnote *** -0.058 -0.201 Table 6c footnote ***
1 to less than 2 0.111 Table 6c footnote * -0.229 Table 6c footnote *** 0.104 Table 6c footnote * -0.128 Table 6c footnote *** 0.046 -0.029
2 to less than 3 -0.090 -0.454 Table 6c footnote *** -0.011 -0.218 Table 6c footnote *** -0.043 -0.154 Table 6c footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.093 -0.671 Table 6c footnote *** -0.102 -0.287 Table 6c footnote *** -0.055 -0.235 Table 6c footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.047 -0.790 Table 6c footnote *** -0.013 -0.310 Table 6c footnote *** -0.084 -0.200 Table 6c footnote ***
5 or more -0.042 -0.727 Table 6c footnote *** -0.113 Table 6c footnote * -0.337 Table 6c footnote *** -0.011 -0.240 Table 6c footnote ***
With a spouse 0.212 Table 6c footnote *** 0.378 Table 6c footnote *** 0.248 Table 6c footnote *** 0.395 Table 6c footnote *** 0.264 Table 6c footnote *** 0.410 Table 6c footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.090 Table 6c footnote *** -0.150 Table 6c footnote *** -0.128 Table 6c footnote *** -0.121 Table 6c footnote *** -0.105 Table 6c footnote *** -0.132 Table 6c footnote ***
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.059 Table 6c footnote *** -0.058 -0.082 Table 6c footnote *** -0.100 Table 6c footnote * -0.084 Table 6c footnote *** -0.106 Table 6c footnote *
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.083 Table 6c footnote *** -0.116 Table 6c footnote *** -0.079 Table 6c footnote *** -0.162 Table 6c footnote *** -0.067 Table 6c footnote *** -0.105 Table 6c footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.071 Table 6c footnote *** -0.117 Table 6c footnote * -0.057 Table 6c footnote *** -0.112 Table 6c footnote * -0.016 -0.207 Table 6c footnote **
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.055 Table 6c footnote *** -0.214 Table 6c footnote *** 0.030 Table 6c footnote * -0.121 Table 6c footnote * 0.001 -0.088
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.124 Table 6c footnote *** -0.134 Table 6c footnote * -0.121 Table 6c footnote *** -0.144 Table 6c footnote * -0.066 Table 6c footnote ** -0.014
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.008 0.017 0.004 0.056 Table 6c footnote * 0.009 0.024
Doctorate -0.113 Table 6c footnote *** -0.063 -0.124 Table 6c footnote *** -0.089 Table 6c footnote * -0.078 Table 6c footnote * -0.062
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.183 Table 6c footnote *** -0.497 Table 6c footnote *** -0.140 Table 6c footnote *** -0.429 Table 6c footnote *** -0.173 Table 6c footnote *** -0.425 Table 6c footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.060 Table 6c footnote * -0.085 Table 6c footnote * -0.015 -0.136 Table 6c footnote ** -0.027 0.021
Other mother tongue, French -0.308 Table 6c footnote *** 0.176 -0.166 Table 6c footnote *** -0.149 -0.231 Table 6c footnote *** -0.100
Other mother tongue, English -0.106 Table 6c footnote *** -0.250 Table 6c footnote *** -0.079 Table 6c footnote *** -0.219 Table 6c footnote *** -0.110 Table 6c footnote *** -0.207 Table 6c footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.231 Table 6c footnote ** 0.201 Table 6c footnote * 0.117 0.011 0.120 0.188
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference no) 1 -0.073 -0.076 Table 6c footnote *** -0.132 -0.059 Table 6c footnote ** -0.078 -0.058 Table 6c footnote *
2 0.181 -0.004 -0.118 0.013 0.209 Table 6c footnote * 0.055 Table 6c footnote *
3 -0.019 0.037 0.045 0.064 Table 6c footnote * -0.045 -0.014
4 -0.210 0.132 Table 6c footnote *** 0.411 -0.011 0.832 Table 6c footnote * 0.014
>=5 0.231 0.145 Table 6c footnote *** -0.170 -0.021 0.286 -0.058
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.104 -0.002 -0.002 0.007 -0.225 Table 6c footnote * -0.064
1 to less than 2 -0.063 -0.164 Table 6c footnote *** -0.020 -0.067 0.030 -0.044
2 to less than 3 -0.229 -0.366 Table 6c footnote *** -0.077 -0.232 Table 6c footnote *** -0.328 Table 6c footnote * -0.203 Table 6c footnote ***
3 to less than 4 0.016 -0.359 Table 6c footnote *** 0.133 -0.209 Table 6c footnote *** -0.050 -0.210 Table 6c footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.047 -0.353 Table 6c footnote *** -0.028 -0.221 Table 6c footnote *** -0.039 -0.272 Table 6c footnote ***
5 or more -0.481 Table 6c footnote ** -0.310 Table 6c footnote *** -0.006 -0.313 Table 6c footnote *** -0.264 -0.313 Table 6c footnote ***
Sample size 111,257 33,663 116,181 29,800 92,891 21,371
Model R -square 0.058 0.22 0.043 0.118 0.045 0.096

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

Table 7: Coefficients from ordinary least squares regression models predicting employment earnings of principal applicants in the economic class, by years since landing and presence of pre-landing Canadian work experience

2012–2015 cohort
Coefficients 1 to 2 years
Mother tongue English /French Other mother tongue, speak English/ French Other mother tongue, do not speak official language
Intercept 10.138 Table 7a footnote *** 10.082 Table 7a footnote *** 10.045 Table 7a footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.094 Table 7a footnote *** -0.025 Table 7a footnote ** 0.007
30 to 34 0.071 Table 7a footnote *** 0.002 -0.057
35 to 39 0.225 Table 7a footnote *** 0.015 Table 7a footnote * -0.112 Table 7a footnote ***
40 to 44 0.319 Table 7a footnote *** -0.030 Table 7a footnote *** -0.194 Table 7a footnote ***
45 to 49 0.336 Table 7a footnote *** -0.109 Table 7a footnote *** -0.342 Table 7a footnote ***
50 to 54 0.467 Table 7a footnote *** -0.134 Table 7a footnote *** -0.344 Table 7a footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.158 Table 7a footnote *** -0.117 Table 7a footnote *** -0.027
Trade Certificate -0.099 Table 7a footnote *** -0.060 Table 7a footnote *** -0.028
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.206 Table 7a footnote *** -0.184 Table 7a footnote *** -0.149 Table 7a footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.202 Table 7a footnote *** -0.151 Table 7a footnote *** -0.204 Table 7a footnote **
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.191 Table 7a footnote *** -0.097 Table 7a footnote *** -0.043
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling 0.054 -0.001 -0.066
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.062 Table 7a footnote *** 0.010 Table 7a footnote * -0.033
Doctorate 0.156 Table 7a footnote *** 0.096 Table 7a footnote *** -0.143 Table 7a footnote **
Years of Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.807 Table 7a footnote *** 0.584 Table 7a footnote *** 0.541 Table 7a footnote ***
2 0.903 Table 7a footnote *** 0.636 Table 7a footnote *** 0.564 Table 7a footnote ***
3 0.922 Table 7a footnote *** 0.676 Table 7a footnote *** 0.745 Table 7a footnote ***
4 0.926 Table 7a footnote *** 0.710 Table 7a footnote *** 0.753 Table 7a footnote ***
>=5 0.962 Table 7a footnote *** 0.777 Table 7a footnote *** 0.826 Table 7a footnote ***
Year of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.172 Table 7a footnote *** -0.213 Table 7a footnote *** -0.064
1 to less than 2 -0.293 Table 7a footnote *** -0.166 Table 7a footnote *** -0.086
2 to less than 3 -0.359 Table 7a footnote *** -0.167 Table 7a footnote *** -0.248 Table 7a footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.382 Table 7a footnote *** -0.268 Table 7a footnote *** -0.156 Table 7a footnote *
4 to less than 5 -0.367 Table 7a footnote *** -0.320 Table 7a footnote *** -0.426 Table 7a footnote ***
5 or more -0.396 Table 7a footnote *** -0.350 Table 7a footnote *** -0.476 Table 7a footnote ***
With a spouse 0.316 Table 7a footnote *** 0.327 Table 7a footnote *** 0.354 Table 7a footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.179 Table 7a footnote *** -0.085 Table 7a footnote *** -0.012
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.244 Table 7a footnote *** -0.138 Table 7a footnote *** -0.020
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.089 Table 7a footnote *** -0.108 Table 7a footnote *** -0.091 Table 7a footnote *
Some University – No Degree -0.147 Table 7a footnote *** -0.071 Table 7a footnote *** 0.069
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.188 Table 7a footnote *** -0.021 Table 7a footnote * 0.119 Table 7a footnote **
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.186 Table 7a footnote ** -0.094 Table 7a footnote *** 0.074
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.044 0.051 Table 7a footnote *** -0.059
Doctorate 0.018 -0.053 Table 7a footnote * -0.130
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.387 Table 7a footnote *** -0.269 Table 7a footnote *** -0.345 Table 7a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.072 -0.141 Table 7a footnote *** -0.263
Other mother tongue, French -0.638 Table 7a footnote ** -0.197 Table 7a footnote *** -0.341
Other mother tongue, English -0.256 Table 7a footnote *** -0.223 Table 7a footnote *** -0.319 Table 7a footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.255 Table 7a footnote *** 0.026
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.041 0.078 Table 7a footnote *** 0.005
2 -0.008 0.050 Table 7a footnote *** 0.182 Table 7a footnote **
3 -0.022 -0.002 -0.135
4 -0.085 Table 7a footnote * -0.038 Table 7a footnote * 0.093
>=5 -0.177 Table 7a footnote *** -0.098 Table 7a footnote *** 0.078
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.172 -0.003 -0.411
1 to less than 2 -0.131 -0.095 Table 7a footnote *** -0.177
2 to less than 3 -0.352 Table 7a footnote *** -0.088 Table 7a footnote *** -0.021
3 to less than 4 -0.143 -0.211 Table 7a footnote *** -0.870 Table 7a footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.348 Table 7a footnote *** -0.171 Table 7a footnote *** -0.395 Table 7a footnote *
5 or more -0.310 Table 7a footnote *** -0.162 Table 7a footnote *** -0.208
Sample size 37,468 239,205 11,591
Model R -square 0.186 0.104 0.122

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

2008–2011 cohort
Coefficients 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years
Mother tongue English /French Other mother tongue, speak English/ French Other mother tongue, do not speak official language Mother tongue English /French Other mother tongue, speak English/ French Other mother tongue, do not speak official language
Intercept 10.214 Table 7b footnote *** 10.145 Table 7b footnote *** 9.886 Table 7b footnote *** 10.682 Table 7b footnote *** 10.520 Table 7b footnote *** 10.269 Table 7b footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.086 Table 7b footnote * 0.001 -0.075 -0.027 0.004 -0.022
30 to 34 0.080 Table 7b footnote *** 0.005 -0.056 Table 7b footnote * 0.074 Table 7b footnote *** 0.025 Table 7b footnote *** -0.036
35 to 39 0.169 Table 7b footnote *** 0.004 -0.154 Table 7b footnote *** 0.119 Table 7b footnote *** 0.012 -0.139 Table 7b footnote ***
40 to 44 0.240 Table 7b footnote *** -0.048 Table 7b footnote *** -0.246 Table 7b footnote *** 0.114 Table 7b footnote *** -0.078 Table 7b footnote *** -0.329 Table 7b footnote ***
45 to 49 0.179 Table 7b footnote *** -0.136 Table 7b footnote *** -0.333 Table 7b footnote *** 0.061 Table 7b footnote ** -0.200 Table 7b footnote *** -0.418 Table 7b footnote ***
50 to 54 0.133 Table 7b footnote *** -0.209 Table 7b footnote *** -0.354 Table 7b footnote *** -0.135 Table 7b footnote *** -0.337 Table 7b footnote *** -0.469 Table 7b footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.251 Table 7b footnote *** -0.219 Table 7b footnote *** 0.064 Table 7b footnote * -0.197 Table 7b footnote *** -0.250 Table 7b footnote *** -0.119 Table 7b footnote ***
Trade Certificate -0.153 Table 7b footnote *** -0.058 Table 7b footnote *** 0.215 Table 7b footnote *** -0.183 Table 7b footnote *** -0.157 Table 7b footnote *** 0.040
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.178 Table 7b footnote *** -0.185 Table 7b footnote *** -0.177 Table 7b footnote *** -0.189 Table 7b footnote *** -0.202 Table 7b footnote *** -0.279 Table 7b footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.334 Table 7b footnote *** -0.141 Table 7b footnote *** -0.182 Table 7b footnote ** -0.259 Table 7b footnote *** -0.161 Table 7b footnote *** -0.193 Table 7b footnote **
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.195 Table 7b footnote *** -0.065 Table 7b footnote *** 0.296 Table 7b footnote *** -0.165 Table 7b footnote *** -0.065 Table 7b footnote *** 0.156 Table 7b footnote **
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.009 -0.137 Table 7b footnote *** -0.018 -0.040 -0.122 Table 7b footnote *** 0.127 Table 7b footnote *
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.020 -0.130 Table 7b footnote *** -0.056 Table 7b footnote * 0.008 -0.029 Table 7b footnote *** 0.095 Table 7b footnote ***
Doctorate 0.144 Table 7b footnote *** 0.018 -0.027 0.199 Table 7b footnote *** 0.004 0.076
Years of Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.725 Table 7b footnote *** 0.666 Table 7b footnote *** 0.535 Table 7b footnote *** 0.426 Table 7b footnote *** 0.420 Table 7b footnote *** 0.414 Table 7b footnote ***
2 0.859 Table 7b footnote *** 0.707 Table 7b footnote *** 0.705 Table 7b footnote *** 0.510 Table 7b footnote *** 0.417 Table 7b footnote *** 0.455 Table 7b footnote ***
3 0.944 Table 7b footnote *** 0.754 Table 7b footnote *** 0.649 Table 7b footnote *** 0.592 Table 7b footnote *** 0.443 Table 7b footnote *** 0.476 Table 7b footnote ***
4 1.051 Table 7b footnote *** 0.845 Table 7b footnote *** 0.743 Table 7b footnote *** 0.616 Table 7b footnote *** 0.500 Table 7b footnote *** 0.473 Table 7b footnote ***
>=5 1.199 Table 7b footnote *** 1.019 Table 7b footnote *** 0.853 Table 7b footnote *** 0.773 Table 7b footnote *** 0.582 Table 7b footnote *** 0.615 Table 7b footnote ***
Year of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.297 Table 7b footnote *** -0.288 Table 7b footnote *** 0.085 -0.060 -0.196 Table 7b footnote *** -0.064
1 to less than 2 -0.304 Table 7b footnote *** -0.169 Table 7b footnote *** 0.063 -0.191 Table 7b footnote *** -0.099 Table 7b footnote *** -0.104
2 to less than 3 -0.381 Table 7b footnote *** -0.254 Table 7b footnote *** -0.157 Table 7b footnote * -0.362 Table 7b footnote *** -0.160 Table 7b footnote *** -0.077
3 to less than 4 -0.587 Table 7b footnote *** -0.567 Table 7b footnote *** -0.539 Table 7b footnote *** -0.412 Table 7b footnote *** -0.244 Table 7b footnote *** -0.240 Table 7b footnote **
4 to less than 5 -0.628 Table 7b footnote *** -0.618 Table 7b footnote *** -0.651 Table 7b footnote *** -0.391 Table 7b footnote *** -0.210 Table 7b footnote *** -0.230 Table 7b footnote ***
5 or more -0.740 Table 7b footnote *** -0.641 Table 7b footnote *** -0.534 Table 7b footnote *** -0.463 Table 7b footnote *** -0.296 Table 7b footnote *** -0.281 Table 7b footnote ***
With a spouse 0.344 Table 7b footnote *** 0.311 Table 7b footnote *** 0.304 0.293 Table 7b footnote *** 0.350 Table 7b footnote *** 0.257
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.200 Table 7b footnote *** -0.052 Table 7b footnote *** -0.004 -0.133 Table 7b footnote *** -0.070 Table 7b footnote *** -0.078 Table 7b footnote *
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.223 Table 7b footnote *** -0.033 Table 7b footnote * 0.174 Table 7b footnote *** -0.173 Table 7b footnote *** -0.043 Table 7b footnote ** 0.098 Table 7b footnote **
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.077 Table 7b footnote ** -0.055 Table 7b footnote *** -0.116 Table 7b footnote *** -0.063 Table 7b footnote ** -0.048 Table 7b footnote *** -0.110 Table 7b footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.220 Table 7b footnote *** 0.000 -0.164 Table 7b footnote * -0.078 -0.031 -0.064
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.224 Table 7b footnote *** 0.069 Table 7b footnote *** 0.129 Table 7b footnote * -0.161 Table 7b footnote ** 0.039 Table 7b footnote *** 0.029
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.173 Table 7b footnote * -0.158 Table 7b footnote *** 0.098 -0.211 Table 7b footnote * -0.105 Table 7b footnote *** -0.161
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.036 0.045 Table 7b footnote *** -0.037 0.077 Table 7b footnote * 0.046 Table 7b footnote *** -0.027
Doctorate 0.041 -0.045 -0.207 Table 7b footnote * 0.122 Table 7b footnote * -0.076 Table 7b footnote *** -0.135
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.106 -0.314 Table 7b footnote *** -0.240 -0.179 -0.319 Table 7b footnote *** -0.094
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.160 Table 7b footnote * -0.233 Table 7b footnote *** -0.204 -0.172 Table 7b footnote * -0.244 Table 7b footnote *** -0.270
Other mother tongue, French -0.983 Table 7b footnote *** -0.561 Table 7b footnote *** -0.270 -0.915 Table 7b footnote ** -0.506 Table 7b footnote *** -0.342
Other mother tongue, English -0.142 Table 7b footnote *** -0.267 Table 7b footnote *** -0.227 -0.149 Table 7b footnote *** -0.251 Table 7b footnote *** -0.108
Mother tongue French -0.368 Table 7b footnote *** 0.224 Table 7b footnote * 0.502 -0.298 Table 7b footnote *** 0.242 Table 7b footnote * 0.750
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 -0.070 Table 7b footnote * 0.166 Table 7b footnote *** 0.139 Table 7b footnote ** 0.011 0.162 Table 7b footnote *** 0.156 Table 7b footnote **
2 -0.051 0.127 Table 7b footnote *** 0.260 Table 7b footnote *** -0.026 0.147 Table 7b footnote *** 0.120 Table 7b footnote *
3 -0.069 0.009 0.102 -0.077 Table 7b footnote * 0.034 -0.026
4 -0.138 Table 7b footnote ** 0.052 -0.097 -0.071 0.031 -0.019
>=5 -0.212 Table 7b footnote *** 0.054 -0.135 -0.151 Table 7b footnote ** 0.016 -0.066
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.222 -0.043 0.093 0.066 -0.082 0.060
1 to less than 2 -0.291 Table 7b footnote ** -0.108 Table 7b footnote ** -0.049 -0.104 -0.096 Table 7b footnote ** 0.015
2 to less than 3 -0.184 -0.218 Table 7b footnote *** -0.062 -0.131 -0.113 Table 7b footnote *** -0.183
3 to less than 4 -0.376 Table 7b footnote ** -0.303 Table 7b footnote *** 0.009 -0.357 Table 7b footnote ** -0.221 Table 7b footnote *** 0.327
4 to less than 5 -0.076 -0.327 Table 7b footnote *** -0.137 -0.107 -0.282 Table 7b footnote *** -0.078
5 or more -0.372 Table 7b footnote ** -0.277 Table 7b footnote *** -0.238 Table 7b footnote * -0.303 Table 7b footnote * -0.352 Table 7b footnote *** -0.250 Table 7b footnote *
Sample size 29,341 175,136 15,708 28,999 181,225 16,944
Model R -square 0.218 0.125 0.139 0.116 0.061 0.085

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

2005-2007 cohort
Coefficients 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 10 to 11 years
Mother tongue English /French Other mother tongue, speak English/ French Other mother tongue, do not speak official language Mother tongue English /French Other mother tongue, speak English/ French Other mother tongue, do not speak official language Mother tongue English /French Other mother tongue, speak English/ French Other mother tongue, do not speak official language
Intercept 10.375 Table 7c footnote *** 10.212 Table 7c footnote *** 9.738 Table 7c footnote *** 10.662 Table 7c footnote *** 10.546 Table 7c footnote *** 10.265 Table 7c footnote *** 10.869 Table 7c footnote *** 10.766 Table 7c footnote *** 10.589 Table 7c footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.102 0.049 Table 7c footnote * 0.031 -0.034 -0.087 Table 7c footnote *** -0.115 0.085 0.003 -0.123
30 to 34 0.050 Table 7c footnote * -0.053 Table 7c footnote *** -0.080 Table 7c footnote ** 0.050 -0.064 Table 7c footnote *** -0.113 Table 7c footnote *** 0.001 -0.055 Table 7c footnote *** -0.079 Table 7c footnote **
35 to 39 0.110 Table 7c footnote *** -0.083 Table 7c footnote *** -0.151 Table 7c footnote *** 0.064 Table 7c footnote * -0.118 Table 7c footnote *** -0.233 Table 7c footnote *** 0.009 -0.143 Table 7c footnote *** -0.262 Table 7c footnote ***
40 to 44 0.100 Table 7c footnote *** -0.150 Table 7c footnote *** -0.204 Table 7c footnote *** 0.018 -0.217 Table 7c footnote *** -0.352 Table 7c footnote *** -0.079 Table 7c footnote * -0.268 Table 7c footnote *** -0.417 Table 7c footnote ***
45 to 49 0.039 -0.217 Table 7c footnote *** -0.274 Table 7c footnote *** -0.081 Table 7c footnote ** -0.317 Table 7c footnote *** -0.514 Table 7c footnote *** -0.263 Table 7c footnote *** -0.421 Table 7c footnote *** -0.639 Table 7c footnote ***
50 to 54 0.027 -0.299 Table 7c footnote *** -0.257 Table 7c footnote *** -0.142 Table 7c footnote *** -0.460 Table 7c footnote *** -0.543 Table 7c footnote *** -0.378 Table 7c footnote *** -0.589 Table 7c footnote *** -0.800 Table 7c footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.144 Table 7c footnote *** -0.163 Table 7c footnote *** 0.216 Table 7c footnote *** -0.117 Table 7c footnote *** -0.195 Table 7c footnote *** -0.051 -0.176 Table 7c footnote *** -0.239 Table 7c footnote *** -0.164 Table 7c footnote ***
Trade Certificate -0.133 Table 7c footnote *** 0.013 0.411 Table 7c footnote *** -0.197 Table 7c footnote *** -0.077 Table 7c footnote *** 0.143 Table 7c footnote *** -0.190 Table 7c footnote *** -0.199 Table 7c footnote *** -0.110 Table 7c footnote **
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.134 Table 7c footnote *** -0.065 Table 7c footnote *** 0.016 -0.112 Table 7c footnote *** -0.124 Table 7c footnote *** -0.093 Table 7c footnote ** -0.069 Table 7c footnote * -0.146 Table 7c footnote *** -0.158 Table 7c footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.204 Table 7c footnote *** -0.107 Table 7c footnote *** -0.123 Table 7c footnote *** -0.190 Table 7c footnote *** -0.117 Table 7c footnote *** -0.173 Table 7c footnote *** -0.144 Table 7c footnote * -0.110 Table 7c footnote *** -0.141 Table 7c footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.065 0.037 Table 7c footnote ** 0.013 -0.090 0.002 0.024 -0.173 Table 7c footnote * -0.030 Table 7c footnote * 0.029
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling 0.013 -0.182 Table 7c footnote *** -0.034 0.066 -0.168 Table 7c footnote *** 0.021 -0.056 -0.171 Table 7c footnote *** 0.039
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.007 -0.085 Table 7c footnote *** -0.003 0.066 Table 7c footnote ** -0.021 Table 7c footnote ** 0.037 0.050 0.010 0.024
Doctorate 0.167 Table 7c footnote *** 0.084 Table 7c footnote *** 0.036 0.230 Table 7c footnote *** 0.160 Table 7c footnote *** 0.116 Table 7c footnote * 0.273 Table 7c footnote *** 0.156 Table 7c footnote *** 0.099
Years of Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.659 Table 7c footnote *** 0.670 Table 7c footnote *** 0.495 Table 7c footnote *** 0.442 Table 7c footnote *** 0.472 Table 7c footnote *** 0.354 Table 7c footnote *** 0.411 Table 7c footnote *** 0.344 Table 7c footnote *** 0.066
2 0.867 Table 7c footnote *** 0.771 Table 7c footnote *** 0.472 Table 7c footnote *** 0.655 Table 7c footnote *** 0.513 Table 7c footnote *** 0.134 0.568 Table 7c footnote *** 0.416 Table 7c footnote *** 0.248 Table 7c footnote *
3 1.008 Table 7c footnote *** 0.795 Table 7c footnote *** 0.769 Table 7c footnote *** 0.754 Table 7c footnote *** 0.566 Table 7c footnote *** 0.405 Table 7c footnote ** 0.666 Table 7c footnote *** 0.470 Table 7c footnote *** 0.298 Table 7c footnote *
4 1.106 Table 7c footnote *** 0.855 Table 7c footnote *** 0.660 Table 7c footnote *** 0.856 Table 7c footnote *** 0.592 Table 7c footnote *** 0.255 0.747 Table 7c footnote *** 0.529 Table 7c footnote *** -0.003
>=5 1.235 Table 7c footnote *** 1.006 Table 7c footnote *** 0.862 Table 7c footnote *** 0.922 Table 7c footnote *** 0.643 Table 7c footnote *** 0.586 Table 7c footnote ** 0.746 Table 7c footnote *** 0.527 Table 7c footnote *** 0.293
Year of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.404 Table 7c footnote *** -0.103 Table 7c footnote ** 0.423 -0.344 Table 7c footnote *** -0.102 Table 7c footnote * -0.345 -0.290 Table 7c footnote ** -0.137 Table 7c footnote ** 0.050
1 to less than 2 -0.335 Table 7c footnote *** -0.062 Table 7c footnote * 0.058 -0.136 -0.023 -0.212 -0.227 Table 7c footnote ** 0.064 Table 7c footnote * 0.089
2 to less than 3 -0.516 Table 7c footnote *** -0.322 Table 7c footnote *** -0.281 -0.380 Table 7c footnote *** -0.124 Table 7c footnote *** -0.126 -0.480 Table 7c footnote *** -0.048 -0.125
3 to less than 4 -0.755 Table 7c footnote *** -0.567 Table 7c footnote *** 0.324 -0.455 Table 7c footnote *** -0.231 Table 7c footnote *** 0.372 Table 7c footnote * -0.324 Table 7c footnote *** -0.172 Table 7c footnote *** 0.002
4 to less than 5 -0.744 Table 7c footnote *** -0.724 Table 7c footnote *** -0.117 -0.536 Table 7c footnote *** -0.253 Table 7c footnote *** 0.307 -0.574 Table 7c footnote *** -0.138 Table 7c footnote *** 0.442
5 or more -0.877 Table 7c footnote *** -0.710 Table 7c footnote *** -0.109 -0.592 Table 7c footnote *** -0.327 Table 7c footnote *** -0.114 -0.382 Table 7c footnote *** -0.213 Table 7c footnote *** -0.128
With a spouse 0.209 Table 7c footnote *** 0.457 Table 7c footnote *** 0.770 0.199 Table 7c footnote *** 0.390 Table 7c footnote *** 0.532 0.211 Table 7c footnote *** 0.399 Table 7c footnote *** 0.445
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.051 -0.109 Table 7c footnote *** 0.017 -0.014 -0.129 Table 7c footnote *** -0.099 Table 7c footnote ** 0.032 -0.114 Table 7c footnote *** -0.129 Table 7c footnote ***
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.085 Table 7c footnote * -0.096 Table 7c footnote *** 0.079 Table 7c footnote * -0.081 -0.094 Table 7c footnote *** -0.029 -0.057 -0.111 Table 7c footnote *** 0.010
Non-University Certificate or Diploma 0.031 -0.093 Table 7c footnote *** -0.059 Table 7c footnote * 0.024 -0.101 Table 7c footnote *** -0.081 Table 7c footnote *** 0.016 -0.089 Table 7c footnote *** -0.039
Some University – No Degree -0.153 Table 7c footnote * -0.089 Table 7c footnote *** -0.012 -0.087 -0.066 Table 7c footnote *** -0.060 Table 7c footnote * -0.065 -0.048 Table 7c footnote * -0.007
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.347 Table 7c footnote *** 0.025 0.168 Table 7c footnote *** -0.004 0.017 0.021 -0.155 -0.004 0.006
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.053 -0.142 Table 7c footnote *** -0.002 -0.107 -0.126 Table 7c footnote *** -0.160 -0.310 Table 7c footnote * -0.065 Table 7c footnote ** -0.017
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.106 Table 7c footnote ** 0.008 0.061 0.094 Table 7c footnote * 0.021 -0.045 0.043 0.012 0.022
Doctorate 0.090 -0.101 Table 7c footnote *** -0.033 0.190 Table 7c footnote ** -0.129 Table 7c footnote *** -0.391 Table 7c footnote *** 0.151 Table 7c footnote * -0.065 Table 7c footnote * -0.343 Table 7c footnote **
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.133 -0.464 Table 7c footnote *** -0.706 -0.317 -0.334 Table 7c footnote *** -0.298 0.108 -0.349 Table 7c footnote *** -0.233
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.068 -0.281 Table 7c footnote *** -0.495 -0.179 -0.138 Table 7c footnote *** -0.371 -0.013 -0.116 Table 7c footnote ** -0.136
Other mother tongue, French 0.736 Table 7c footnote * -0.649 Table 7c footnote *** -0.747 0.117 -0.414 Table 7c footnote *** -1.219 0.531 -0.391 Table 7c footnote *** -0.028
Other mother tongue, English -0.134 Table 7c footnote *** -0.347 Table 7c footnote *** -0.650 -0.088 Table 7c footnote * -0.229 Table 7c footnote *** -0.305 -0.060 -0.250 Table 7c footnote *** -0.219
Mother tongue French -0.216 Table 7c footnote *** -0.050 0.000 -0.114 Table 7c footnote * 0.264 Table 7c footnote * -0.054 0.073 0.000
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.023 0.027 0.288 Table 7c footnote * -0.040 0.030 0.248 -0.070 0.055 0.175
2 -0.061 0.115 Table 7c footnote *** -0.462 Table 7c footnote * -0.042 0.088 Table 7c footnote *** -0.161 0.002 0.177 Table 7c footnote *** -0.569 Table 7c footnote **
3 -0.119 Table 7c footnote * 0.129 Table 7c footnote *** -0.219 -0.051 0.152 Table 7c footnote *** 0.521 -0.133 Table 7c footnote * 0.088 Table 7c footnote * -0.331
4 0.038 0.135 Table 7c footnote ** 0.000 -0.028 0.024 0.012 0.070 0.000
>=5 -0.218 Table 7c footnote ** 0.225 Table 7c footnote *** 0.000 -0.299 Table 7c footnote *** 0.085 -0.441 Table 7c footnote *** 0.143 Table 7c footnote * 0.000
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.082 -0.024 -0.113 -0.199 -0.020 0.214 -0.199 -0.156 Table 7c footnote * 0.150
1 to less than 2 -0.166 -0.133 Table 7c footnote ** 0.095 -0.154 -0.022 -0.510 -0.143 0.002 -0.085
2 to less than 3 -0.171 -0.424 Table 7c footnote *** 0.424 -0.281 Table 7c footnote * -0.212 Table 7c footnote *** -0.551 -0.269 -0.221 Table 7c footnote *** 0.097
3 to less than 4 -0.536 Table 7c footnote ** -0.320 Table 7c footnote *** -0.601 -0.454 Table 7c footnote * -0.168 Table 7c footnote *** 0.426 -0.230 -0.216 Table 7c footnote *** 0.733
4 to less than 5 -0.340 Table 7c footnote * -0.373 Table 7c footnote *** -1.344 -0.109 -0.256 Table 7c footnote *** 0.276 -0.445 Table 7c footnote ** -0.267 Table 7c footnote *** 0.674
5 or more -0.401 Table 7c footnote * -0.380 Table 7c footnote *** -0.495 -0.369 Table 7c footnote * -0.353 Table 7c footnote *** -0.689 -0.465 Table 7c footnote * -0.356 Table 7c footnote *** -0.853 Table 7c footnote *
Sample size 18,080 100,000 18,509 17,558 100,000 19,534 12,862 84,762 16,638
Model R -square 0.221 0.091 0.035 0.136 0.064 0.031 0.115 0.069 0.048

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

Table 8: Coefficients from ordinary least squares regression models predicting earnings of principal applicants in the economic class, by years since landing and landing cohort, with pre-landing Canadian earnings as a predicator
Coefficients 2012-2015 cohort 1 to 2 years 2008-2011 cohort 2005-2007 cohort
1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 10 to 11 years
Intercept 10.261 Table 8 footnote *** 10.321 Table 8 footnote *** 10.745 Table 8 footnote *** 10.425 Table 8 footnote *** 10.766 Table 8 footnote *** 10.969 Table 8 footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.021 Table 8 footnote * -0.009 0.001 0.044 Table 8 footnote * -0.074 Table 8 footnote *** 0.004
30 to 34 -0.003 -0.011 0.009 -0.065 Table 8 footnote *** -0.074 Table 8 footnote *** -0.062 Table 8 footnote ***
35 to 39 -0.010 -0.044 Table 8 footnote *** -0.029 Table 8 footnote *** -0.107 Table 8 footnote *** -0.138 Table 8 footnote *** -0.161 Table 8 footnote ***
40 to 44 -0.064 Table 8 footnote *** -0.085 Table 8 footnote *** -0.119 Table 8 footnote *** -0.166 Table 8 footnote *** -0.236 Table 8 footnote *** -0.287 Table 8 footnote ***
45 to 49 -0.135 Table 8 footnote *** -0.168 Table 8 footnote *** -0.226 Table 8 footnote *** -0.232 Table 8 footnote *** -0.341 Table 8 footnote *** -0.453 Table 8 footnote ***
50 to 54 -0.135 Table 8 footnote *** -0.234 Table 8 footnote *** -0.370 Table 8 footnote *** -0.284 Table 8 footnote *** -0.456 Table 8 footnote *** -0.606 Table 8 footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.040 Table 8 footnote *** -0.079 Table 8 footnote *** -0.136 Table 8 footnote *** -0.001 -0.070 Table 8 footnote *** -0.144 Table 8 footnote ***
Trade Certificate -0.020 Table 8 footnote ** 0.024 Table 8 footnote ** -0.088 Table 8 footnote *** 0.137 Table 8 footnote *** -0.006 -0.137 Table 8 footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.109 Table 8 footnote *** -0.123 Table 8 footnote *** -0.165 Table 8 footnote *** -0.034 Table 8 footnote *** -0.096 Table 8 footnote *** -0.120 Table 8 footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.064 Table 8 footnote *** -0.105 Table 8 footnote *** -0.132 Table 8 footnote *** -0.121 Table 8 footnote *** -0.142 Table 8 footnote *** -0.124 Table 8 footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.008 -0.016 Table 8 footnote * -0.034 Table 8 footnote *** 0.036 Table 8 footnote ** 0.005 -0.028 Table 8 footnote *
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.007 -0.113 Table 8 footnote *** -0.098 Table 8 footnote *** -0.158 Table 8 footnote *** -0.140 Table 8 footnote *** -0.147 Table 8 footnote ***
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.009 -0.091 Table 8 footnote *** -0.010 -0.048 Table 8 footnote *** 0.001 0.022 Table 8 footnote **
Doctorate 0.010 -0.039 Table 8 footnote *** -0.015 0.023 0.109 Table 8 footnote *** 0.120 Table 8 footnote ***
Language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.270 Table 8 footnote *** -0.399 Table 8 footnote *** -0.437 Table 8 footnote *** -0.595 Table 8 footnote *** -0.463 Table 8 footnote *** -0.359 Table 8 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.169 Table 8 footnote *** -0.219 Table 8 footnote *** -0.248 Table 8 footnote *** -0.234 Table 8 footnote *** -0.202 Table 8 footnote *** -0.192 Table 8 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.363 Table 8 footnote *** -0.423 Table 8 footnote *** -0.422 Table 8 footnote *** -0.546 Table 8 footnote *** -0.478 Table 8 footnote *** -0.332 Table 8 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, English -0.138 Table 8 footnote *** -0.168 Table 8 footnote *** -0.208 Table 8 footnote *** -0.218 Table 8 footnote *** -0.228 Table 8 footnote *** -0.212 Table 8 footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.100 Table 8 footnote *** -0.164 Table 8 footnote *** -0.164 Table 8 footnote *** -0.094 Table 8 footnote ** -0.102 Table 8 footnote ** -0.185 Table 8 footnote ***
Years of Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.146 Table 8 footnote *** 0.180 Table 8 footnote *** 0.049 0.100 Table 8 footnote ** 0.064 0.031
2 -0.052 -0.071 Table 8 footnote * -0.139 Table 8 footnote *** -0.108 Table 8 footnote *** -0.089 Table 8 footnote * -0.062
3 -0.048 -0.066 Table 8 footnote * -0.133 Table 8 footnote *** -0.116 Table 8 footnote *** -0.076 Table 8 footnote * -0.046
4 -0.039 -0.033 -0.124 Table 8 footnote *** -0.114 Table 8 footnote ** -0.077 Table 8 footnote * -0.014
>=5 -0.014 0.033 -0.096 Table 8 footnote ** -0.066 -0.085 Table 8 footnote * -0.065
Years of Canadian study experience (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.046 Table 8 footnote *** -0.142 Table 8 footnote *** -0.072 Table 8 footnote ** 0.039 -0.024 -0.047
1 to less than 2 -0.031 Table 8 footnote *** 0.016 0.028 0.160 Table 8 footnote *** 0.130 Table 8 footnote *** 0.166 Table 8 footnote ***
2 to less than 3 -0.045 Table 8 footnote *** -0.007 0.003 0.083 Table 8 footnote *** 0.142 Table 8 footnote *** 0.135 Table 8 footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.098 Table 8 footnote *** -0.190 Table 8 footnote *** -0.005 -0.019 0.131 Table 8 footnote *** 0.113 Table 8 footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.130 Table 8 footnote *** -0.185 Table 8 footnote *** 0.058 Table 8 footnote *** -0.116 Table 8 footnote *** 0.150 Table 8 footnote *** 0.169 Table 8 footnote ***
5 or more -0.149 Table 8 footnote *** -0.211 Table 8 footnote *** -0.020 -0.106 Table 8 footnote *** 0.075 Table 8 footnote *** 0.104 Table 8 footnote ***
With a spouse 0.223 Table 8 footnote *** 0.214 Table 8 footnote *** 0.256 Table 8 footnote *** 0.253 Table 8 footnote *** 0.292 Table 8 footnote *** 0.297 Table 8 footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.062 Table 8 footnote *** -0.052 Table 8 footnote *** -0.074 Table 8 footnote *** -0.083 Table 8 footnote *** -0.116 Table 8 footnote *** -0.100 Table 8 footnote ***
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.115 Table 8 footnote *** 0.033 Table 8 footnote ** 0.002 -0.038 Table 8 footnote * -0.072 Table 8 footnote *** -0.080 Table 8 footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.081 Table 8 footnote *** -0.062 Table 8 footnote *** -0.057 Table 8 footnote *** -0.075 Table 8 footnote *** -0.083 Table 8 footnote *** -0.067 Table 8 footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.035 Table 8 footnote *** -0.006 -0.022 -0.073 Table 8 footnote *** -0.056 Table 8 footnote *** -0.022
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.029 Table 8 footnote *** 0.083 Table 8 footnote *** 0.047 Table 8 footnote *** 0.043 Table 8 footnote *** 0.026 Table 8 footnote * 0.001
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.090 Table 8 footnote *** -0.144 Table 8 footnote *** -0.106 Table 8 footnote *** -0.124 Table 8 footnote *** -0.126 Table 8 footnote *** -0.066 Table 8 footnote ***
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.029 Table 8 footnote *** 0.017 Table 8 footnote * 0.030 Table 8 footnote *** 0.013 0.013 0.012
Doctorate -0.072 Table 8 footnote *** -0.046 Table 8 footnote * -0.059 Table 8 footnote ** -0.083 Table 8 footnote *** -0.112 Table 8 footnote *** -0.066 Table 8 footnote *
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.233 Table 8 footnote *** -0.204 Table 8 footnote *** -0.208 Table 8 footnote *** -0.240 Table 8 footnote *** -0.192 Table 8 footnote *** -0.206 Table 8 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.119 Table 8 footnote *** -0.127 Table 8 footnote *** -0.144 Table 8 footnote *** -0.095 Table 8 footnote *** -0.069 Table 8 footnote ** -0.028
Other mother tongue, French -0.146 Table 8 footnote ** -0.377 Table 8 footnote *** -0.337 Table 8 footnote *** -0.330 Table 8 footnote *** -0.214 Table 8 footnote *** -0.241 Table 8 footnote ***
Other mother tongue, English -0.183 Table 8 footnote *** -0.182 Table 8 footnote *** -0.168 Table 8 footnote *** -0.155 Table 8 footnote *** -0.127 Table 8 footnote *** -0.140 Table 8 footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.047 -0.097 Table 8 footnote * -0.048 -0.081 0.065 0.129 Table 8 footnote *
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 -0.003 -0.002 0.035 Table 8 footnote ** -0.050 Table 8 footnote ** -0.045 Table 8 footnote * -0.026
2 -0.026 Table 8 footnote ** -0.024 Table 8 footnote * 0.002 -0.041 Table 8 footnote * -0.028 0.047
3 -0.044 Table 8 footnote *** -0.075 Table 8 footnote *** -0.065 Table 8 footnote *** -0.025 0.017 -0.049
4 -0.064 Table 8 footnote *** -0.067 Table 8 footnote ** -0.062 Table 8 footnote * 0.022 -0.058 -0.018
>=5 -0.086 Table 8 footnote *** -0.101 Table 8 footnote *** -0.108 Table 8 footnote *** 0.020 -0.099 Table 8 footnote * -0.099 Table 8 footnote *
Spouse Canadian study experience (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.007 0.010 -0.046 -0.055 -0.032 -0.117
1 to less than 2 -0.042 Table 8 footnote * -0.036 -0.035 -0.084 Table 8 footnote * -0.009 0.028
2 to less than 3 -0.033 -0.043 0.000 -0.191 Table 8 footnote *** -0.088 Table 8 footnote * -0.103 Table 8 footnote *
3 to less than 4 -0.119 Table 8 footnote *** -0.127 Table 8 footnote *** -0.080 Table 8 footnote * -0.146 Table 8 footnote *** -0.039 -0.064
4 to less than 5 -0.045 -0.093 Table 8 footnote ** -0.098 Table 8 footnote ** -0.165 Table 8 footnote *** -0.082 -0.137 Table 8 footnote **
5 or more -0.085 Table 8 footnote *** -0.105 Table 8 footnote *** -0.193 Table 8 footnote *** -0.214 Table 8 footnote *** -0.221 Table 8 footnote *** -0.239 Table 8 footnote ***
Pre-landing Canadian earnings (reference: no) > 0 and<= 50% national median earnings 0.069 Table 8 footnote * 0.032 0.127 Table 8 footnote *** 0.082 Table 8 footnote * 0.110 Table 8 footnote ** 0.121 Table 8 footnote **
> 50% national median, <= national median 0.313 Table 8 footnote *** 0.315 Table 8 footnote *** 0.195 Table 8 footnote *** 0.360 Table 8 footnote *** 0.207 Table 8 footnote *** 0.180 Table 8 footnote ***
>national median, <= 2*national median 0.805 Table 8 footnote *** 0.789 Table 8 footnote *** 0.533 Table 8 footnote *** 0.762 Table 8 footnote *** 0.479 Table 8 footnote *** 0.360 Table 8 footnote ***
> 2*national median 1.493 Table 8 footnote *** 1.572 Table 8 footnote *** 1.203 Table 8 footnote *** 1.631 Table 8 footnote *** 1.238 Table 8 footnote *** 1.019 Table 8 footnote ***
Sample size 288,264 220,185 200,000 144,920 100,000 114,262
Model R -square 0.257 0.252 0.143 0.210 0.127 0.108

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

Table 9: Coefficients from ordinary least squares regression models predicting employment earnings of principal applicants in the economic class, by years since landing and level of pre-landing Canadian earnings

2012–2015 cohort
Coefficients 1 to 2 years
no earnings low earnings high earnings
Intercept 10.452 Table 9a footnote *** 10.560 Table 9a footnote *** 11.219 Table 9a footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.068 Table 9a footnote ** 0.024 Table 9a footnote * -0.044 Table 9a footnote **
30 to 34 0.044 Table 9a footnote *** -0.020 Table 9a footnote ** 0.006
35 to 39 0.022 Table 9a footnote * 0.000 0.074 Table 9a footnote ***
40 to 44 -0.072 Table 9a footnote *** -0.048 Table 9a footnote *** 0.123 Table 9a footnote ***
45 to 49 -0.201 Table 9a footnote *** -0.126 Table 9a footnote *** 0.155 Table 9a footnote ***
50 to 54 -0.219 Table 9a footnote *** -0.201 Table 9a footnote *** 0.216 Table 9a footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less 0.046 Table 9a footnote ** 0.003 -0.190 Table 9a footnote ***
Trade Certificate 0.088 Table 9a footnote *** 0.002 -0.171 Table 9a footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.103 Table 9a footnote *** -0.101 Table 9a footnote *** -0.180 Table 9a footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.089 Table 9a footnote *** -0.025 Table 9a footnote * -0.162 Table 9a footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.025 Table 9a footnote * -0.005 -0.116 Table 9a footnote ***
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.079 Table 9a footnote *** 0.151 Table 9a footnote *** 0.137 Table 9a footnote ***
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling -0.086 Table 9a footnote *** 0.030 Table 9a footnote *** 0.164 Table 9a footnote ***
Doctorate -0.172 Table 9a footnote *** 0.108 Table 9a footnote *** 0.200 Table 9a footnote ***
Language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.476 Table 9a footnote *** -0.188 Table 9a footnote *** -0.239 Table 9a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.370 Table 9a footnote *** -0.131 Table 9a footnote *** -0.146 Table 9a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.570 Table 9a footnote *** -0.052 -0.449 Table 9a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, English -0.276 Table 9a footnote *** -0.131 Table 9a footnote *** -0.217 Table 9a footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.313 Table 9a footnote *** -0.067 Table 9a footnote * -0.202 Table 9a footnote ***
Years of Canadian work experience (reference: >=5) 1 0,000 0.024 Table 9a footnote * 0.089 Table 9a footnote ***
2 0,000 -0.087 Table 9a footnote *** 0.011
3 0,000 -0.074 Table 9a footnote *** 0.024 Table 9a footnote ***
4 0,000 -0.060 Table 9a footnote *** 0.018 Table 9a footnote *
Years of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.117 -0.036 Table 9a footnote * -0.158 Table 9a footnote ***
1 to less than 2 0.119 Table 9a footnote ** -0.047 Table 9a footnote *** -0.137 Table 9a footnote ***
2 to less than 3 0.030 -0.079 Table 9a footnote *** -0.143 Table 9a footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.052 -0.166 Table 9a footnote *** -0.155 Table 9a footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.108 -0.256 Table 9a footnote *** -0.123 Table 9a footnote ***
5 or more -0.243 Table 9a footnote *** -0.273 Table 9a footnote *** -0.133 Table 9a footnote ***
With a spouse 0.122 Table 9a footnote *** 0.114 Table 9a footnote *** 0.409 Table 9a footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.091 Table 9a footnote *** -0.004 -0.143 Table 9a footnote ***
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.156 Table 9a footnote *** -0.083 Table 9a footnote *** -0.147 Table 9a footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.120 Table 9a footnote *** 0.006 -0.101 Table 9a footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.029 0.037 -0.158 Table 9a footnote ***
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.018 0.125 Table 9a footnote *** -0.120 Table 9a footnote ***
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.102 Table 9a footnote *** 0.017 -0.021
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.026 Table 9a footnote * 0.075 Table 9a footnote *** 0.026 Table 9a footnote *
Doctorate -0.153 Table 9a footnote *** 0.141 Table 9a footnote ** -0.014
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.146 Table 9a footnote *** -0.119 Table 9a footnote *** -0.370 Table 9a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.089 Table 9a footnote ** 0.021 -0.025
Other mother tongue, French -0.002 -0.044 -0.310 Table 9a footnote ***
Other mother tongue, English -0.132 Table 9a footnote *** -0.058 Table 9a footnote * -0.244 Table 9a footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.062 -0.150 0.149 Table 9a footnote ***
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.066 -0.042 Table 9a footnote ** -0.034 Table 9a footnote **
2 0.232 Table 9a footnote ** -0.106 Table 9a footnote *** -0.048 Table 9a footnote ***
3 0.140 -0.100 Table 9a footnote *** -0.088 Table 9a footnote ***
4 -0.051 -0.156 Table 9a footnote *** -0.103 Table 9a footnote ***
>=5 -0.166 -0.154 Table 9a footnote *** -0.152 Table 9a footnote ***
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.064 -0.019 -0.045
1 to less than 2 -0.082 -0.057 Table 9a footnote * -0.065 Table 9a footnote *
2 to less than 3 -0.105 -0.098 Table 9a footnote *** -0.048
3 to less than 4 -0.065 -0.219 Table 9a footnote *** -0.109 Table 9a footnote ***
4 to less than 5 0.051 -0.068 Table 9a footnote * -0.135 Table 9a footnote ***
5 or more -0.319 Table 9a footnote ** -0.071 Table 9a footnote ** -0.156 Table 9a footnote ***
Sample size 112,339 84,125 91,800
Model R -square 0.026 0.031 0.107

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

2008–2011 cohort
Coefficients 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years
no earnings low earnings high earnings no earnings low earnings high earnings
Intercept 10.433 Table 9b footnote *** 10.732 Table 9b footnote *** 11.405 Table 9b footnote *** 10.845 Table 9b footnote *** 10.765 Table 9b footnote *** 11.477 Table 9b footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.045 Table 9b footnote * -0.005 0.033 -0.128 Table 9b footnote *** 0.097 Table 9b footnote *** 0.096 Table 9b footnote ***
30 to 34 0.013 -0.046 Table 9b footnote *** 0.017 0.040 Table 9b footnote *** -0.040 Table 9b footnote *** -0.015
35 to 39 -0.043 Table 9b footnote *** -0.087 Table 9b footnote *** 0.129 Table 9b footnote *** -0.009 -0.098 Table 9b footnote *** 0.059 Table 9b footnote ***
40 to 44 -0.110 Table 9b footnote *** -0.100 Table 9b footnote *** 0.184 Table 9b footnote *** -0.126 Table 9b footnote *** -0.177 Table 9b footnote *** 0.080 Table 9b footnote ***
45 to 49 -0.200 Table 9b footnote *** -0.246 Table 9b footnote *** 0.187 Table 9b footnote *** -0.249 Table 9b footnote *** -0.238 Table 9b footnote *** 0.043 Table 9b footnote *
50 to 54 -0.323 Table 9b footnote *** -0.263 Table 9b footnote *** 0.251 Table 9b footnote *** -0.431 Table 9b footnote *** -0.400 Table 9b footnote *** 0.047 Table 9b footnote *
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.027 Table 9b footnote * -0.107 Table 9b footnote *** -0.443 Table 9b footnote *** -0.098 Table 9b footnote *** -0.122 Table 9b footnote *** -0.454 Table 9b footnote ***
Trade Certificate 0.156 Table 9b footnote *** -0.023 -0.302 Table 9b footnote *** -0.024 -0.058 Table 9b footnote ** -0.331 Table 9b footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.084 Table 9b footnote *** -0.165 Table 9b footnote *** -0.287 Table 9b footnote *** -0.139 Table 9b footnote *** -0.189 Table 9b footnote *** -0.290 Table 9b footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.114 Table 9b footnote *** -0.105 Table 9b footnote * -0.247 Table 9b footnote *** -0.168 Table 9b footnote *** -0.041 -0.150 Table 9b footnote **
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling -0.016 -0.044 Table 9b footnote * -0.041 Table 9b footnote * -0.032 Table 9b footnote ** -0.040 Table 9b footnote * -0.080 Table 9b footnote ***
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.130 Table 9b footnote *** -0.150 Table 9b footnote ** 0.035 -0.126 Table 9b footnote *** -0.023 0.041
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling -0.119 Table 9b footnote *** -0.177 Table 9b footnote *** 0.127 Table 9b footnote *** -0.067 Table 9b footnote *** 0.174 Table 9b footnote *** 0.127 Table 9b footnote ***
Doctorate -0.127 Table 9b footnote *** 0.074 Table 9b footnote * 0.098 Table 9b footnote *** -0.105 Table 9b footnote *** 0.188 Table 9b footnote *** 0.134 Table 9b footnote ***
Language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.554 Table 9b footnote *** -0.255 Table 9b footnote *** -0.348 Table 9b footnote *** -0.569 Table 9b footnote *** -0.235 Table 9b footnote *** -0.385 Table 9b footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.364 Table 9b footnote *** -0.152 Table 9b footnote *** -0.128 Table 9b footnote *** -0.364 Table 9b footnote *** -0.127 Table 9b footnote *** -0.183 Table 9b footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.589 Table 9b footnote *** 0.004 -0.180 -0.565 Table 9b footnote *** 0.072 -0.140
Other mother tongue, English -0.254 Table 9b footnote *** -0.171 Table 9b footnote *** -0.204 Table 9b footnote *** -0.291 Table 9b footnote *** -0.155 Table 9b footnote *** -0.209 Table 9b footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.246 Table 9b footnote *** -0.177 Table 9b footnote *** -0.258 Table 9b footnote *** -0.209 Table 9b footnote *** -0.176 Table 9b footnote *** -0.255 Table 9b footnote ***
Years of Canadian work experience (reference: >=5) 1 0.000 0.009 -0.048 Table 9b footnote ** 0.000 0.093 Table 9b footnote *** 0.024
2 0.000 -0.153 Table 9b footnote *** -0.135 Table 9b footnote *** 0.000 -0.072 Table 9b footnote *** -0.067 Table 9b footnote ***
3 0.000 -0.132 Table 9b footnote *** -0.110 Table 9b footnote *** 0.000 -0.036 Table 9b footnote * -0.074 Table 9b footnote ***
4 0.000 -0.068 Table 9b footnote *** -0.069 Table 9b footnote *** 0.000 -0.018 -0.060 Table 9b footnote ***
Years of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.037 -0.208 Table 9b footnote *** -0.299 Table 9b footnote *** -0.104 Table 9b footnote * -0.025 -0.192 Table 9b footnote ***
1 to less than 2 0.172 Table 9b footnote *** -0.055 Table 9b footnote * -0.138 Table 9b footnote *** 0.094 Table 9b footnote ** -0.018 -0.112 Table 9b footnote ***
2 to less than 3 0.096 Table 9b footnote * -0.116 Table 9b footnote *** -0.178 Table 9b footnote *** -0.009 -0.038 -0.176 Table 9b footnote ***
3 to less than 4 -0.279 Table 9b footnote *** -0.336 Table 9b footnote *** -0.263 Table 9b footnote *** -0.221 Table 9b footnote *** -0.020 -0.235 Table 9b footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.289 Table 9b footnote *** -0.330 Table 9b footnote *** -0.296 Table 9b footnote *** -0.140 Table 9b footnote ** 0.030 -0.210 Table 9b footnote ***
5 or more -0.239 Table 9b footnote *** -0.361 Table 9b footnote *** -0.326 Table 9b footnote *** -0.116 Table 9b footnote ** -0.064 Table 9b footnote *** -0.210 Table 9b footnote ***
With a spouse 0.174 Table 9b footnote *** 0.142 Table 9b footnote *** 0.343 Table 9b footnote *** 0.217 Table 9b footnote *** 0.222 Table 9b footnote *** 0.307 Table 9b footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.085 Table 9b footnote *** -0.032 -0.126 Table 9b footnote *** -0.108 Table 9b footnote *** -0.029 -0.109 Table 9b footnote ***
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship 0.019 0.041 -0.117 Table 9b footnote *** -0.003 0.046 -0.147 Table 9b footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.087 Table 9b footnote *** -0.012 -0.073 Table 9b footnote *** -0.063 Table 9b footnote *** -0.078 Table 9b footnote *** -0.060 Table 9b footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.020 0.021 -0.074 Table 9b footnote * -0.048 Table 9b footnote * 0.083 -0.042
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.089 Table 9b footnote *** 0.129 Table 9b footnote *** -0.084 Table 9b footnote *** 0.039 Table 9b footnote *** 0.179 Table 9b footnote *** -0.087 Table 9b footnote ***
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.145 Table 9b footnote *** 0.031 -0.167 Table 9b footnote *** -0.111 Table 9b footnote *** -0.133 Table 9b footnote * 0.016
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.020 0.016 0.017 0.033 Table 9b footnote *** 0.056 Table 9b footnote * 0.045 Table 9b footnote *
Doctorate -0.067 Table 9b footnote * -0.256 Table 9b footnote *** 0.018 -0.112 Table 9b footnote *** -0.107 0.076 Table 9b footnote *
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.166 Table 9b footnote *** -0.067 -0.242 Table 9b footnote *** -0.160 Table 9b footnote *** -0.159 Table 9b footnote *** -0.224 Table 9b footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.075 Table 9b footnote ** -0.058 -0.089 Table 9b footnote ** -0.097 Table 9b footnote *** -0.164 Table 9b footnote ** -0.072
Other mother tongue, French -0.314 Table 9b footnote *** -0.291 -0.324 Table 9b footnote ** -0.281 Table 9b footnote *** -0.210 -0.200
Other mother tongue, English -0.167 Table 9b footnote *** -0.037 -0.181 Table 9b footnote *** -0.133 Table 9b footnote *** -0.068 Table 9b footnote * -0.204 Table 9b footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.198 Table 9b footnote ** 0.043 0.209 Table 9b footnote *** -0.086 -0.204 0.238 Table 9b footnote ***
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 0.213 Table 9b footnote *** -0.061 Table 9b footnote ** -0.030 Table 9b footnote * 0.148 Table 9b footnote ** 0.050 Table 9b footnote * 0.008
2 0.157 Table 9b footnote * -0.146 Table 9b footnote *** -0.005 -0.009 -0.049 Table 9b footnote * 0.037 Table 9b footnote *
3 -0.027 -0.156 Table 9b footnote *** -0.090 Table 9b footnote *** -0.083 -0.102 Table 9b footnote *** -0.053 Table 9b footnote **
4 -0.129 -0.093 Table 9b footnote * -0.122 Table 9b footnote *** -0.039 -0.060 -0.095 Table 9b footnote **
>=5 -0.376 -0.186 Table 9b footnote *** -0.109 Table 9b footnote *** -0.255 -0.145 Table 9b footnote ** -0.101 Table 9b footnote **
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.101 -0.039 -0.033 0.078 -0.082 -0.155 Table 9b footnote *
1 to less than 2 -0.134 -0.021 -0.161 Table 9b footnote *** 0.003 -0.116 Table 9b footnote * -0.080
2 to less than 3 -0.112 -0.061 -0.156 Table 9b footnote *** 0.005 -0.115 Table 9b footnote ** -0.026
3 to less than 4 -0.110 -0.205 Table 9b footnote *** -0.159 Table 9b footnote ** -0.160 -0.117 Table 9b footnote * -0.158 Table 9b footnote **
4 to less than 5 0.094 -0.176 Table 9b footnote *** -0.236 Table 9b footnote *** -0.247 Table 9b footnote * -0.185 Table 9b footnote *** -0.157 Table 9b footnote **
5 or more -0.037 -0.101 Table 9b footnote ** -0.242 Table 9b footnote *** -0.096 -0.259 Table 9b footnote *** -0.189 Table 9b footnote ***
Sample size 126,742 41,320 52,123 140,087 39,093 47,988
Model R -square 0.039 0.064 0.147 0.045 0.041 0.108

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

2005-2007 cohort
Coefficients 1 to 2 years 5 to 6 years 10 to 11 years
no earnings low earnings high earnings no earnings low earnings high earnings no earnings low earnings high earnings
Intercept 10.503 Table 9c footnote *** 10.812 Table 9c footnote *** 11.489 Table 9c footnote *** 10.833 Table 9c footnote *** 10.833 Table 9c footnote *** 11.426 Table 9c footnote *** 11.008 Table 9c footnote *** 11.018 Table 9c footnote *** 11.625 Table 9c footnote ***
Age (reference: 25 to 29) 20 to 24 -0.019 0.120 Table 9c footnote *** 0.034 -0.121 Table 9c footnote *** 0.017 0.036 -0.048 0.109 Table 9c footnote ** 0.092
30 to 34 -0.057 Table 9c footnote *** -0.088 Table 9c footnote *** 0.045 Table 9c footnote * -0.068 Table 9c footnote *** -0.148 Table 9c footnote *** 0.073 Table 9c footnote ** -0.046 Table 9c footnote *** -0.125 Table 9c footnote *** -0.045
35 to 39 -0.115 Table 9c footnote *** -0.101 Table 9c footnote *** 0.172 Table 9c footnote *** -0.141 Table 9c footnote *** -0.182 Table 9c footnote *** 0.121 Table 9c footnote *** -0.145 Table 9c footnote *** -0.271 Table 9c footnote *** -0.057
40 to 44 -0.182 Table 9c footnote *** -0.274 Table 9c footnote *** 0.237 Table 9c footnote *** -0.250 Table 9c footnote *** -0.346 Table 9c footnote *** 0.171 Table 9c footnote *** -0.281 Table 9c footnote *** -0.361 Table 9c footnote *** -0.090 Table 9c footnote *
45 to 49 -0.262 Table 9c footnote *** -0.277 Table 9c footnote *** 0.264 Table 9c footnote *** -0.369 Table 9c footnote *** -0.419 Table 9c footnote *** 0.186 Table 9c footnote *** -0.449 Table 9c footnote *** -0.520 Table 9c footnote *** -0.234 Table 9c footnote ***
50 to 54 -0.345 Table 9c footnote *** -0.403 Table 9c footnote *** 0.344 Table 9c footnote *** -0.511 Table 9c footnote *** -0.515 Table 9c footnote *** 0.234 Table 9c footnote *** -0.621 Table 9c footnote *** -0.781 Table 9c footnote *** -0.216 Table 9c footnote ***
Education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less 0.042 Table 9c footnote ** -0.087 Table 9c footnote * -0.527 Table 9c footnote *** -0.035 Table 9c footnote * -0.085 Table 9c footnote * -0.500 Table 9c footnote *** -0.117 Table 9c footnote *** -0.199 Table 9c footnote *** -0.443 Table 9c footnote ***
Trade Certificate 0.224 Table 9c footnote *** -0.092 Table 9c footnote * -0.477 Table 9c footnote *** 0.049 Table 9c footnote ** -0.184 Table 9c footnote *** -0.407 Table 9c footnote *** -0.113 Table 9c footnote *** -0.195 Table 9c footnote *** -0.406 Table 9c footnote ***
Non-University Certificate or Diploma 0.023 Table 9c footnote * -0.254 Table 9c footnote *** -0.329 Table 9c footnote *** -0.050 Table 9c footnote *** -0.310 Table 9c footnote *** -0.255 Table 9c footnote *** -0.088 Table 9c footnote *** -0.293 Table 9c footnote *** -0.193 Table 9c footnote ***
Some University – No Degree -0.111 Table 9c footnote *** -0.286 Table 9c footnote *** -0.250 Table 9c footnote *** -0.127 Table 9c footnote *** -0.446 Table 9c footnote *** -0.303 Table 9c footnote *** -0.124 Table 9c footnote *** -0.180 -0.247 Table 9c footnote *
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.058 Table 9c footnote *** -0.147 Table 9c footnote * -0.056 0.006 -0.049 0.025 -0.025 -0.095 -0.065
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.160 Table 9c footnote *** -0.150 Table 9c footnote * 0.093 -0.153 Table 9c footnote *** -0.071 0.128 -0.159 Table 9c footnote *** -0.083 0.062
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling -0.041 Table 9c footnote *** -0.223 Table 9c footnote *** 0.066 Table 9c footnote *** -0.030 Table 9c footnote *** 0.108 Table 9c footnote *** 0.099 Table 9c footnote *** -0.010 0.138 Table 9c footnote *** 0.150 Table 9c footnote ***
Doctorate 0.005 0.002 -0.044 Table 9c footnote * 0.051 Table 9c footnote ** 0.300 Table 9c footnote *** 0.114 Table 9c footnote *** 0.046 Table 9c footnote * 0.354 Table 9c footnote *** 0.197 Table 9c footnote ***
Language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.693 Table 9c footnote *** -0.223 Table 9c footnote *** -0.545 Table 9c footnote *** -0.532 Table 9c footnote *** -0.227 Table 9c footnote *** -0.567 Table 9c footnote *** -0.404 Table 9c footnote *** -0.328 Table 9c footnote *** -0.560 Table 9c footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.323 Table 9c footnote *** -0.205 Table 9c footnote *** -0.181 Table 9c footnote *** -0.271 Table 9c footnote *** -0.135 Table 9c footnote ** -0.131 Table 9c footnote *** -0.216 Table 9c footnote *** -0.198 Table 9c footnote *** -0.240 Table 9c footnote ***
Other mother tongue, French -0.635 Table 9c footnote *** -0.076 -1.342 Table 9c footnote * -0.554 Table 9c footnote *** 0.130 -1.197 -0.369 Table 9c footnote *** -0.067 -1.623 Table 9c footnote *
Other mother tongue, English -0.307 Table 9c footnote *** -0.163 Table 9c footnote *** -0.197 Table 9c footnote *** -0.286 Table 9c footnote *** -0.172 Table 9c footnote *** -0.227 Table 9c footnote *** -0.252 Table 9c footnote *** -0.153 Table 9c footnote *** -0.238 Table 9c footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.108 Table 9c footnote * -0.201 Table 9c footnote ** -0.076 -0.142 Table 9c footnote ** -0.145 -0.097 -0.195 Table 9c footnote *** -0.294 Table 9c footnote ** -0.196 Table 9c footnote *
Years of Canadian work experience (reference: >=5) 1 0.000 0.051 -0.087 Table 9c footnote *** 0.000 0.136 Table 9c footnote *** -0.024 0.000 0.078 Table 9c footnote * -0.064
2 0.000 -0.122 Table 9c footnote *** -0.094 Table 9c footnote *** 0.000 -0.035 -0.031 0.000 -0.025 -0.055
3 0.000 -0.091 Table 9c footnote *** -0.124 Table 9c footnote *** 0.000 -0.002 -0.041 0.000 -0.003 -0.037
4 0.000 -0.075 Table 9c footnote ** -0.056 Table 9c footnote * 0.000 -0.027 0.014 0.000 0.022 0.026
Years of Canadian study (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 0.160 Table 9c footnote ** -0.110 -0.200 Table 9c footnote *** -0.044 0.006 -0.077 -0.033 -0.097 -0.040
1 to less than 2 0.179 Table 9c footnote *** 0.087 Table 9c footnote * -0.007 0.168 Table 9c footnote *** 0.156 Table 9c footnote *** -0.036 0.132 Table 9c footnote ** 0.257 Table 9c footnote *** -0.031
2 to less than 3 -0.050 -0.006 -0.188 Table 9c footnote *** 0.040 0.152 Table 9c footnote *** -0.070 0.024 0.156 Table 9c footnote *** -0.038
3 to less than 4 -0.088 -0.158 Table 9c footnote *** -0.332 Table 9c footnote *** -0.030 0.154 Table 9c footnote *** -0.205 Table 9c footnote *** -0.064 0.166 Table 9c footnote *** -0.272 Table 9c footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.127 Table 9c footnote ** -0.277 Table 9c footnote *** -0.311 Table 9c footnote *** -0.044 0.130 Table 9c footnote *** -0.132 Table 9c footnote ** -0.037 0.164 Table 9c footnote *** -0.165 Table 9c footnote **
5 or more -0.103 Table 9c footnote * -0.274 Table 9c footnote *** -0.418 Table 9c footnote *** -0.054 0.070 Table 9c footnote * -0.189 Table 9c footnote *** 0.005 0.124 Table 9c footnote *** -0.228 Table 9c footnote ***
With a spouse 0.213 Table 9c footnote *** 0.206 Table 9c footnote *** 0.394 Table 9c footnote *** 0.253 Table 9c footnote *** 0.272 Table 9c footnote *** 0.359 Table 9c footnote *** 0.266 Table 9c footnote *** 0.469 Table 9c footnote *** 0.346 Table 9c footnote ***
Spouse education (reference: bachelor’s degree, >=15 years of schooling) Secondary or Less -0.092 Table 9c footnote *** -0.029 -0.142 Table 9c footnote *** -0.129 Table 9c footnote *** -0.042 -0.098 Table 9c footnote ** -0.106 Table 9c footnote *** -0.159 Table 9c footnote *** -0.050
Formal Trade Certificate or Apprenticeship -0.060 Table 9c footnote *** -0.003 -0.041 -0.085 Table 9c footnote *** -0.061 -0.068 -0.085 Table 9c footnote *** -0.120 -0.092
Non-University Certificate or Diploma -0.083 Table 9c footnote *** -0.050 -0.142 Table 9c footnote *** -0.080 Table 9c footnote *** -0.127 Table 9c footnote ** -0.156 Table 9c footnote *** -0.066 Table 9c footnote *** -0.147 Table 9c footnote ** -0.067
Some University – No Degree -0.072 Table 9c footnote *** 0.063 -0.190 Table 9c footnote ** -0.056 Table 9c footnote *** -0.047 -0.126 -0.017 -0.163 -0.211 Table 9c footnote *
Bachelor’s degree, <=14 years of schooling 0.053 Table 9c footnote *** 0.128 -0.250 Table 9c footnote *** 0.029 Table 9c footnote * 0.044 -0.083 0.001 0.002 -0.033
Master’s degree, <=16 years of schooling -0.125 Table 9c footnote *** -0.126 -0.095 -0.123 Table 9c footnote *** -0.092 -0.147 -0.066 Table 9c footnote ** -0.097 0.030
Master’s degree, >=17 years of schooling 0.003 0.042 0.004 0.002 0.039 0.079 Table 9c footnote * 0.008 -0.005 0.074
Doctorate -0.112 Table 9c footnote *** 0.019 -0.054 -0.127 Table 9c footnote *** -0.190 Table 9c footnote * 0.000 -0.079 Table 9c footnote * -0.011 -0.017
Spouse language (reference: English mother tongue) Not speaking English or French -0.185 Table 9c footnote *** -0.244 Table 9c footnote *** -0.476 Table 9c footnote *** -0.145 Table 9c footnote *** -0.215 Table 9c footnote *** -0.426 Table 9c footnote *** -0.176 Table 9c footnote *** -0.315 Table 9c footnote *** -0.458 Table 9c footnote ***
Other mother tongue, bilingual -0.062 Table 9c footnote * -0.170 Table 9c footnote * -0.042 -0.021 -0.189 Table 9c footnote * -0.108 Table 9c footnote * -0.030 -0.078 0.042
Other mother tongue, French -0.308 Table 9c footnote *** 0.213 0.010 -0.168 Table 9c footnote *** -0.595 Table 9c footnote * 0.112 -0.237 Table 9c footnote *** -0.461 0.273
Other mother tongue, English -0.108 Table 9c footnote *** -0.181 Table 9c footnote *** -0.178 Table 9c footnote *** -0.086 Table 9c footnote *** -0.114 Table 9c footnote * -0.183 Table 9c footnote *** -0.113 Table 9c footnote *** -0.265 Table 9c footnote *** -0.156 Table 9c footnote ***
Mother tongue French -0.222 Table 9c footnote ** -0.315 0.147 0.142 -0.443 Table 9c footnote * 0.028 0.123 -0.665 Table 9c footnote ** 0.294 Table 9c footnote *
Spouse Canadian work experience (reference: no) 1 -0.037 0.007 -0.099 Table 9c footnote *** -0.156 Table 9c footnote * 0.016 -0.073 Table 9c footnote * -0.050 0.002 -0.069
2 0.150 0.024 -0.090 Table 9c footnote *** 0.006 0.020 -0.054 0.288 Table 9c footnote *** 0.072 -0.015
3 -0.066 0.026 -0.052 0.050 0.128 Table 9c footnote ** -0.056 -0.053 0.106 -0.185 Table 9c footnote ***
4 0.013 0.063 -0.042 0.071 0.004 -0.136 Table 9c footnote ** 0.344 -0.012 -0.092
>=5 0.250 0.189 Table 9c footnote * -0.152 Table 9c footnote ** 0.132 -0.060 -0.168 Table 9c footnote ** 0.246 -0.121 -0.157 Table 9c footnote *
Spouse Canadian education (reference: no) More than 0 to less than 1 -0.058 -0.074 -0.001 0.030 0.010 -0.037 -0.211 Table 9c footnote * 0.048 -0.206
1 to less than 2 -0.049 -0.117 Table 9c footnote * -0.183 Table 9c footnote ** -0.036 -0.044 -0.047 0.051 -0.081 0.000
2 to less than 3 -0.289 Table 9c footnote ** -0.250 Table 9c footnote *** -0.125 -0.061 -0.217 Table 9c footnote *** -0.036 -0.176 -0.175 Table 9c footnote ** -0.223 Table 9c footnote *
3 to less than 4 -0.184 -0.176 Table 9c footnote ** -0.264 Table 9c footnote *** 0.057 -0.134 Table 9c footnote * -0.194 Table 9c footnote * -0.041 -0.120 -0.338 Table 9c footnote ***
4 to less than 5 -0.218 -0.184 Table 9c footnote ** -0.298 Table 9c footnote *** -0.184 -0.085 -0.268 Table 9c footnote ** -0.283 Table 9c footnote * -0.156 Table 9c footnote * -0.331 Table 9c footnote **
5 or more -0.347 Table 9c footnote ** -0.311 Table 9c footnote *** -0.294 Table 9c footnote *** -0.143 -0.362 Table 9c footnote *** -0.180 Table 9c footnote * -0.230 -0.423 Table 9c footnote *** -0.095
Sample size 112,214 16,406 16,300 100,000 14,392 14,460 93,607 10,258 10,397
Model R -square 0.057 0.061 0.159 0.043 0.061 0.111 0.045 0.088 0.086

Note: Independent variables in this table are measured at landing.
Source: Statistics Canada, Longitudinal Immigration Database.

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