Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Canada—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part E: Income

Sources and level of income

Sources of income vary by time in Canada

A similar proportion of both recent immigrants and the Canadian-born reported income from employment in the year 2000. Nearly two-thirds of Canadian-born women and three-quarters of Canadian-born men had earnings from employment in the year 2000, and men and women who landed during the 1986-1995 period showed much the same proportions. For immigrants who landed after 1995, the shares are somewhat smaller. Among immigrants who landed before 1986 the proportion with earnings income is low.

The share of persons with employment income was higher in 2000 than in 1995, particularly among very recent immigrants who find themselves much closer to the Canadian-born than their counterparts of five years earlier.

Compared to the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants, the proportion of recent immigrants with no income is large. However, the proportion of men and women immigrants who do not have income decreases significantly with length of stay in Canada, and ultimately falls below that of the Canadian-born. As well, the incidence of zero income among very recent immigrants declined markedly from 1995 to 2000, from 20% to 11% for women, and from 9% to 7% for men.

Recent immigrants are much less likely to have other private income—income from investments, pension plans, etc.—in comparison to the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants. These shares are much the same in 2000 as in 1995.

The incidence of government transfer payment income is about the same among recent immigrants and the Canadian-born. Among earlier immigrants it is higher, and this reflects the high share of seniors in this group, who generally receive Old Age Security and Canada or Quebec Pension Plan benefits.

The incidence of government transfer payment income has shifted markedly from men to women in 2000 in comparison to 1995. The decline for men is due in part to the stronger labour market, but the shift from men to women is due to the fact that in recent years child benefits are paid to the mother.

Table E-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—sources of income, by gender, Canada, 2000 (number and percentage)
  No income Employment income Other private income Government transfers Total
Women
Canadian-born 532,200 6,210,500 3,021,900 6,554,300 9,520,200
Immigrants 141,600 1,466,800 817,200 1,837,900 2,560,500
  Immigrated before 1986 52,000 809,900 607,900 1,113,500 1,529,900
  Immigrated 1986-1995 56,900 484,100 152,800 526,500 741,400
  Immigrated 1996-1999 32,800 172,800 56,500 198,000 289,200
Men
Canadian-born 334,900 6,907,100 2,583,600 5,607,900 9,078,500
Immigrants 59,400 1,661,900 743,000 1,552,500 2,363,800
  Immigrated before 1986 4,600 944,000 569,700 952,700 1,426,700
  Immigrated 1986-1995 37,000 519,900 121,200 425,700 674,500
  Immigrated 1996-1999 17,800 198,000 52,200 174,000 262,600
Total
Canadian-born 867,200 13,117,600 5,605,500 12,162,200 18,598,700
Immigrants 201,000 3,128,700 1,560,200 3,390,400 4,924,300
  Immigrated before 1986 56,600 1,753,900 1,177,500 2,066,200 2,956,600
  Immigrated 1986-1995 93,900 1,004,000 273,900 952,200 1,415,900
  Immigrated 1996-1999 50,600 370,800 108,700 372,000 551,800
 
Women
Canadian-born 6% 65% 32% 69% 9,520,200
Immigrants 6% 57% 32% 72% 2,560,500
  Immigrated before 1986 3% 53% 40% 73% 1,529,900
  Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 65% 21% 71% 741,400
  Immigrated 1996-1999 11% 60% 20% 68% 289,200
Men
Canadian-born 4% 76% 28% 62% 9,078,500
Immigrants 3% 70% 31% 66% 2,363,800
  Immigrated before 1986 0% 66% 40% 67% 1,426,700
  Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 77% 18% 63% 674,500
  Immigrated 1996-1999 7% 75% 20% 66% 262,600
Total
Canadian-born 5% 71% 30% 65% 18,598,700
Immigrants 4% 64% 32% 69% 4,924,300
  Immigrated before 1986 2% 59% 40% 70% 2,956,600
  Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 71% 19% 67% 1,415,900
  Immigrated 1996-1999 9% 67% 20% 67% 551,800

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. A person may have income from one, two or all three sources. The three sources are defined in the Glossary.

Average income increases with length of stay

The average income of immigrants who reported income in the year 2000, both men and women, was about the same as the average income of the Canadian-born. However, there were large differences among immigrants. Immigrants who landed before 1986 had incomes 10% to 15% higher than the Canadian-born; immigrants who landed during the 1986-1995 period were at about 80%, and the very recent cohort had about 70% of the average income of the Canadian-born. Earlier immigrants on average have a higher income than the Canadian-born.

The average income of women was about 60% of that of men, for the Canadian-born and the three immigrant groups. Lower labour force participation of women, higher incidence of part-time work, and jobs requiring a lower level of skill among women than men, as shown earlier, account for a large part of these differences.

Table E-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over with income—average income and sources of average income, by gender, Canada, 2000
  Sources of average income
  Average income of persons with income Employment income Other private income Government transfer payments Total
Women
Canadian-born $23,100 73% 12% 16% 100%
Immigrants $22,700 68% 13% 18% 100%
  Immigrated before 1986 $25,400 64% 16% 20% 100%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 $19,500 78% 7% 15% 100%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 $15,600 77% 7% 16% 100%
Men
Canadian-born $37,000 81% 11% 8% 100%
Immigrants $37,100 78% 11% 10% 100%
  Immigrated before 1986 $42,400 74% 14% 11% 100%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 $29,300 88% 5% 7% 100%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 $26,400 88% 5% 7% 100%
Total
Canadian-born $30,000 78% 11% 11% 100%
Immigrants $29,700 74% 12% 13% 100%
  Immigrated before 1986 $33,800 70% 15% 15% 100%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 $24,200 84% 6% 10% 100%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 $20,900 84% 6% 10% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Earnings from employment account for the bulk of income of all groups, and make up a higher proportion of the income of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born. The share of other private income is much lower for recent immigrants, and the share of government transfer payments is about the same. Thus, the average recent immigrant with income receives a lower amount in government transfer payments than his or her Canadian-born counterpart.

The employment share of income was higher in 2000 than in 1995 for the Canadian-born and recent immigrants, and very much so for very recent immigrants: by 5% for women and 9% for men. The share of other private income among very recent immigrants was 3% lower than in 1995, while it remained much the same for other groups. Government transfer payments generally made up a smaller share of income in the more recent year, and this was especially so for very recent immigrant men.

Earnings of recent immigrants who worked mostly full-time lower

The wages and salaries earned by recent immigrants who worked mostly full-time in 2000 are well below the Canadian average. This may be in part a result of the somewhat lower skill requirements of the jobs of recent immigrants. As well, annual earnings depend on whether a person was employed throughout the year or not. It is likely that recent immigrants do not have steady, year-round jobs as much as the Canadian-born.

Table E-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, employed mostly full-time—average earnings from wages and salaries, and earnings as percentage of overall Canadian average, Canada, 2000
  Amount Percentage of overall average
Canadian-born $37,900 100%
Immigrants $38,500 101%
  Immigrated before 1986 $44,300 117%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 $31,500 83%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $28,300 74%
All who worked mostly full-time $38,000 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

The relative level of wages and salaries of very recent immigrants, at 74% of the average, was higher than in 1995 when it was 65%. Those who had been in the country from five to fifteen years had about the same relative earnings level as their counterparts of five years earlier.

Transfer payments a larger share of household income of non-seniors

In the year 2000, a large majority of households received government transfer payments. Recent immigrant households were slightly more likely to receive transfer payments than other households. On average, however, the payments received were lower, both in dollar terms and relative to income.

Transfer payments vary considerably with the age of the oldest person in the household and so do differences between recent immigrant, earlier immigrant and Canadian-born households. Recent immigrant households of the very young receive lower amounts than their Canadian-born and earlier immigrant counterparts, while households of persons aged 25 to 44 years and 45 to 64 years receive amounts that are somewhat larger.

Transfers to households without seniors generally reflect benefits from Employment Insurance, Workers Compensation, social assistance, student assistance, or other programs. Tax credits such as the Canada Child Benefit, GST tax credits and provincial tax credits are included in these transfer payments. The somewhat greater incidence and amounts of transfer payments for recent immigrant households of persons 25 to 64 years old may have to do with the larger average number of children in families and with differences in labour market participation and unemployment reviewed in Part D.

Almost all households with persons 65 years of age and over received government transfer payments—Old Age Security and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, Canada or Quebec Pension Plan Benefits. Households of immigrants and Canadian-born households with persons 65 years of age and over received approximately the same amount, except for households consisting only of very recent immigrants who received much less. This is so because people who have not been in the country for long are not entitled to Old Age Security and have not built up substantial credits under the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan.

Table E-4: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—percentage of households receiving transfers, average amount of government transfer payments, and transfers as a share of income, by age of older parent in family or oldest person in non-family household, Canada, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 65 years 65 years and over Total
Share of households receiving government transfer payments
Canadian-born households 91% 83% 81% 100% 86%
Earlier immigrant households 93% 79% 80% 100% 87%
Recent immigrant households 88% 87% 91% 99% 89%
  1986-1995 immigrants 88% 86% 90% 99% 89%
  1996-1999 immigrants with others 92% 86% 93% 100% 90%
  1996-1999 immigrants only 84% 89% 95% 99% 91%
Average amount of transfer per receiving household
Canadian-born households $2,900 $3,600 $4,100 $16,800 $6,500
Earlier immigrant households $2,900 $3,600 $4,000 $17,500 $8,700
Recent immigrant households $2,500 $4,400 $4,700 $15,900 $5,600
  1986-1995 immigrants $2,500 $4,400 $4,400 $16,200 $5,700
  1996-1999 immigrants with others $3,100 $4,700 $6,200 $16,700 $6,500
  1996-1999 immigrants only $2,100 $4,100 $4,700 $11,100 $4,500
Transfers as a share of income, all households
Canadian-born households 10% 5% 5% 43% 10%
Earlier immigrant households 9% 4% 4% 36% 11%
Recent immigrant households 10% 7% 7% 27% 9%
  1986-1995 immigrants 10% 7% 6% 29% 9%
  1996-1999 immigrants with others 9% 7% 7% 21% 9%
  1996-1999 immigrants only 13% 9% 10% 32% 10%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

The distribution of income

Personal income higher with longer stay

Of very recent immigrants, one-half of women and one-third of men reported no income or income of less than $10,000 in 2000. The share reporting no income or income of less than $10,000 is lower for persons who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period. The share of persons without income is even lower for earlier immigrants, who also report income below $10,000 in much smaller proportions than recent immigrants. Of the three immigrant groups, only the earlier immigrants are found to a smaller extent in the lowest income ranges compared to the Canadian-born.

At the high end of the income scale, recent immigrants and especially very recent immigrants are underrepresented. The proportion with incomes of $50,000 and over is about half as large among immigrants who landed after 1995 as among the Canadian-born.

If the circumstances of earlier immigrants can be taken as an indication of what recent immigrants can be expected to achieve with time, there will be a general, widespread upward shift in incomes of persons who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period in years to come. Earlier immigrants are highly represented in the middle range of income of $10,000 to $30,000. In part, this reflects the fact that many earlier immigrants are seniors receiving old age benefits. They are also found more frequently in the highest income category than later immigrants and the Canadian-born.

The income distribution of very recent immigrants was more favourable in 2000 than in 1995, relative to that of other groups. This is a reflection of the higher employment and better jobs and incomes that they enjoyed compared to what the very recent immigrant cohort experienced five years earlier.

Table E-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born— 15 years of age and over—income levels, by gender (number and percentage distribution) and average income, by gender, Canada, 2000
  Without income $1 to $9,999 $10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $49,999 $50,000 and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 532,200 2,602,300 3,815,500 1,731,800 838,400 9,520,200
  Immigrants 141,600 673,700 1,104,400 431,300 209,600 2,560,500
 Immigrated before 1986 52,000 318,000 702,300 297,600 160,100 1,529,900
 Immigrated 1986-1995 56,900 237,300 301,100 106,800 39,200 741,400
 Immigrated 1996-1999 32,800 118,400 101,000 26,800 10,300 289,200
Men
Canadian-born 335,000 1,635,800 2,734,400 2,249,600 2,123,700 9,078,500
Immigrants 59,400 372,400 835,300 559,300 537,500 2,363,800
 Immigrated before 1986 4,600 144,500 511,000 363,200 403,400 1,426,700
 Immigrated 1986-1995 37,000 156,300 230,700 149,700 100,900 674,500
 Immigrated 1996-1999 17,800 71,600 93,600 46,400 33,200 262,600
Total
Canadian-born 867,200 4,238,100 6,549,900 3,981,300 2,962,100 18,598,700
Immigrants 201,000 1,046,100 1,939,600 990,600 747,100 4,924,300
 Immigrated before 1986 56,600 462,500 1,213,300 660,800 563,500 2,956,600
 Immigrated 1986-1995 93,900 393,600 531,800 256,500 140,100 1,415,900
 Immigrated 1996-1999 50,600 190,000 194,500 73,200 43,500 551,800
  Without income $1 to $9,999 $10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $49,999 $50,000 and over Total Average income
Women
Canadian-born 6% 27% 40% 18% 9% 100% $21,800
Immigrants 6% 26% 43% 17% 8% 100% $21,400
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 21% 46% 19% 10% 100% $24,500
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 32% 41% 14% 5% 100% $18,000
 Immigrated 1996-1999 11% 41% 35% 9% 4% 100% $13,800
Men
Canadian-born 4% 18% 30% 25% 23% 100% $35,700
Immigrants 3% 16% 35% 24% 23% 100% $36,200
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 10% 36% 25% 28% 100% $42,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 23% 34% 22% 15% 100% $27,700
 Immigrated 1996-1999 7% 27% 36% 18% 13% 100% $24,600
Total
Canadian-born 5% 23% 35% 21% 16% 100% $28,600
Immigrants 4% 21% 39% 20% 15% 100% $28,500
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 16% 41% 22% 19% 100% $33,100
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 28% 38% 18% 10% 100% $22,600
 Immigrated 1996-1999 9% 34% 35% 13% 8% 100% $19,000

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Household income is higher

In 2000, recent immigrant households had an average income of $59,000, a level greater than but comparable to the average income of Canadian-born households, and 86% of the income of earlier immigrant households. For households consisting of very recent immigrants only, average income was 76% of that of Canadian-born households.

A larger number of households consisting of only very recent immigrants are found in the lower income range than for Canadian-born. In fact, nearly three in ten households consisting entirely of very recent immigrants have incomes of $20,000 or less.

However, the distribution of income of all recent immigrant households as a whole, is somewhat more favourable than that of Canadian-born households, with a higher share in the top range of income and a lower share in the bottom range. Recent immigrant households tend to be large, and on average, they have more members who can earn income than Canadian-born households. The fact that households of immigrants who landed during the 1986-1995 period and households that combine immigrants who landed during 1996-1999 with other persons have members who have lived in Canada for more than five years and are more likely to participate in the labour market also plays a role.

Table E-6: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—household income levels (number and percentage distribution) and average household income, Canada, 2000
Households $0 to $19,999 $20,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $59,999 $60,000 to $79,999 $80,000 and
over
Total Average income
Canadian-born 1,691,600 2,042,700 1,742,900 1,273,800 1,827,100 8,578,100 $56,400
20% 24% 20% 15% 21% 100%
Earlier immigrants 278,700 410,700 336,400 277,900 572,600 1,876,300 $68,600
15% 22% 18% 15% 31% 100%
Recent immigrants 164,200 214,400 193,600 142,200 215,200 929,600 $59,024
18% 23% 21% 15% 23% 100%
 1986-1995  immigrants 106,700 140,500 132,100 101,500 159,400 640,300 $61,200
17% 22% 21% 16% 25% 100%
 1996-1999  immigrants  with others 12,500 26,800 31,100 22,600 37,900 130,900 $68,400
10% 20% 24% 17% 29% 100%
 1996-1999  immigrants  only 45,000 47,100 30,500 18,000 17,900 158,500 $42,600
28% 30% 19% 11% 11% 100%
All households 2,212,900 2,705,500 2,296,700 1,708,700 2,639,100 11,563,000 $58,400
19% 23% 20% 15% 23% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Low income twice as common among very recent immigrants

Recent immigrants are more likely than earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born to live in families with incomes that fall below the median family income, or if they do not live in families, to have income below the median for unattached individuals. They are also more likely to have income or live in families with income that falls below one-half of the median income. The percentage of immigrants with low income—income in the bottom quarter of the income distribution—declines in relation to their length of stay in Canada.

The share of very recent immigrants whose family or individual income is below one-half of the median income is more than twice as large as that of the Canadian-born. The proportion of very recent immigrants with income below the median is also much higher, with seven out of ten finding themselves in this situation. It is interesting to note that although earlier immigrant households have much higher average incomes than Canadian-born households (Table E-6), similar proportions of earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born find themselves with income below the median or below one-half of the median (Figure E-1).

Figure E-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage with family or individual income below the medsdian and below one-half of the median, Canada, 2000
Figure E-1

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all figures in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

The proportion of individuals with income below the median varies with age, and to a lesser extent gender. For the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants, the highest incidence of incomes that are below the median is found among seniors. However, this is not so for very recent immigrants. Persons who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period tend to occupy a middle ground.

In all age-gender groups, except women and men 65 years of age and over, the proportion of persons with income below the overall median is higher among recent immigrants than among the Canadian-born. More than three out of ten immigrants who landed between 1996 and 1999 have low incomes or live in low-income families, with income below one-half of the median, a share twice as high as that of the Canadian-born. The difference in the incidence of low income between very recent immigrants and Canadian-born is smallest for seniors.

Recent immigrant women 25 to 64 years of age are a little more likely than men in that age range to have very-low incomes or live in very low-income families. However, both older and younger recent immigrant women are a little less likely to be in a low-income situation than their male counterparts. The same patterns are seen among the Canadian-born.

Table E-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born — family or individual income below the median, by age and gender, Canada, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Under 15
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,330,900 805,600 2,816,900 1,013,700 5,967,000
Immigrants 82,400 131,700 912,300 366,800 1,493,200
  Immigrated before 1986 14,200 439,900 322,800 777,000
  Immigrated 1986-1995 34,300 77,100 319,400 35,800 466,600
  Immigrated 1996-1999 48,100 40,400 153,000 8,100 249,700
Men
Canadian-born 1,399,500 737,500 2,439,500 756,100 5,332,700
Immigrants 88,100 132,900 765,300 305,200 1,291,400
  Immigrated before 1986 13,800 366,700 271,500 652,100
  Immigrated 1986-1995 36,200 80,200 264,600 27,500 408,500
  Immigrated 1996-1999 51,900 38,800 133,900 6,100 230,800
Total
Canadian-born 2,730,400 1,543,100 5,256,300 1,769,800 11,299,700
Immigrants 170,400 264,600 1,677,600 672,000 2,784,600
  Immigrated before 1986 28,000 806,700 594,400 1,429,100
  Immigrated 1986-1995 70,400 157,300 584,000 63,300 875,200
  Immigrated 1996-1999 100,000 79,300 287,000 14,300 480,400
 
Women
Canadian-born 51% 48% 44% 69% 49%
Immigrants 67% 63% 51% 67% 56%
  Immigrated before 1986 51% 43% 68% 51%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 61% 61% 58% 57% 59%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 72% 73% 70% 57% 70%
Men
Canadian-born 51% 42% 40% 68% 45%
Immigrants 70% 60% 46% 65% 52%
  Immigrated before 1986 46% 37% 66% 46%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 64% 59% 54% 57% 56%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 75% 72% 68% 60% 70%
Total
Canadian-born 51% 45% 42% 69% 47%
Immigrants 69% 61% 48% 66% 54%
  Immigrated before 1986 48% 40% 67% 48%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 60% 56% 57% 57%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 74% 73% 69% 58% 70%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

Table E-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born — family or individual income below one-half of the median, by age and gender, Canada, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Under 15
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total
Women
Canadian-born 470,000 336,200 1,008,500 246,000 2,060,700
Immigrants 37,400 62,100 357,800 124,700 582,000
  Immigrated before 1986 6,300 156,100 106,200 268,600
  Immigrated 1986-1995 14,100 34,900 129,000 14,800 192,800
  Immigrated 1996-1999 23,300 21,000 72,800 3,600 120,600
Men
Canadian-born 490,000 279,100 783,700 242,800 1,795,600
Immigrants 40,600 61,700 271,200 121,400 494,800
  Immigrated before 1986 5,700 114,900 105,800 226,300
  Immigrated 1986-1995 15,000 36,000 95,000 12,600 158,600
  Immigrated 1996-1999 25,600 20,100 61,300 2,900 109,900
Total
Canadian-born 960,000 615,400 1,792,200 488,800 3,856,400
Immigrants 78,000 123,800 629,000 246,000 1,076,800
  Immigrated before 1986 11,900 271,000 212,100 495,000
  Immigrated 1986-1995 29,100 70,900 224,000 27,400 351,300
  Immigrated 1996-1999 48,800 41,000 134,100 6,600 230,500
 
Women
Canadian-born 18% 20% 16% 17% 17%
Immigrants 30% 30% 20% 23% 22%
  Immigrated before 1986 22% 15% 22% 18%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 25% 28% 23% 24% 24%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 35% 38% 33% 26% 34%
Men
Canadian-born 18% 16% 13% 22% 15%
Immigrants 32% 28% 16% 26% 20%
  Immigrated before 1986 19% 12% 26% 16%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 27% 26% 19% 26% 22%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 37% 37% 31% 29% 33%
Total
Canadian-born 18% 18% 14% 19% 16%
Immigrants 31% 29% 18% 24% 21%
  Immigrated before 1986 20% 13% 24% 17%
  Immigrated 1986-1995 26% 27% 22% 25% 23%
  Immigrated 1996-1999 36% 38% 32% 27% 34%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

 

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