IRCC Minister Transition Binder 2019: Citizenship

Introduction to Citizenship

Birth on Soil

Any child born in Canada is Canadian, with the exception of children of foreign diplomats and other employees or representatives of a foreign government.


Any child born outside Canada is Canadian if one of the parents was either born in Canada or became a naturalized Canadian before the birth of the child.


Anyone who meets specified requirements as set out in the Act may apply for a grant of citizenship to become Canadian.

The Act provides for various grants of citizenship, including a discretionary authority to alleviate cases of statelessness, special and unusual hardship, or to reward services of an exceptional value to Canada. The Minister or his/her delegate has the authority to grant citizenship under the Act.

Why Citizenship Matters to Newcomers

As described by the Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants:

The Citizenship Program

The Citizenship Program administers citizenship legislation along the following lines of business:

Citizenship Grants

Provided to permanent residents who have applied and successfully met the Act’s requirements for citizenship

Proof of Citizenship

Provided to Canadian citizens looking to confirm their claim to citizenship or to replace their certificate


Individuals may apply to renounce their citizenship if they meet certain requirements including being at least 18 years old and demonstrating that they have another citizenship


Individuals may have their citizenship revoked by the Federal Court if it was acquired through fraud or misrepresentation unless the individual requests the decision be made by the Minister

Citizenship Numbers by Program Activity

Citizenship by the Numbers
DecisionsFootnote 1 2018 to March 2019 April 1, 2019 to July 31, 2019
Grants 222,025 86,772
Proofs 63,440 11,791
Records search 1,466 329
Renunciations 291 34
Revocations 0 8
New citizensFootnote 2 207,994 86,306

Uptake of Citizenship

Citizenship rates of immigrations who meet the minimum residence requirement
Year All immigrants Adult immigrants who landed five to nine years ago
1991 81.6% 75.4%
1996 83.7% 75.8%
2001 84.5% 74.9%
2006 85.7% 74.2%
2011 86.3% 68.2%
2016 86.2% 60.4%

Grant Volumes

Total grant applications received
Fiscal year Applications
2016-2017 108,635
2017-2018 239,518
2018-2019 250,173

Citizenship Awareness

Citizenship Awareness Activities

Educational Resources

IRCC develops and administers the citizenship test and publishes a citizenship study guide, which includes all of the information required to pass the citizenship knowledge test.

Citizenship Ceremonies

Citizenship ceremonies are a rite of passage that pinpoint the moment someone becomes a Canadian citizen. These ceremonies also help raise awareness of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship in communities across Canada.

Current Status

Key Takeaways

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