What We Heard Report


This report provides a summary of feedback received during the Indigenous-only comment period on the draft Indigenous Knowledge Policy Framework for Project Reviews and Regulatory Decisions (the Framework). Funding was made available in May 2021 to support Indigenous communities and organizations review of the draft Framework.


In June 2019, the Government of Canada passed legislation that includes the requirement for decision makers to consider any Indigenous Knowledge provided during project reviews and regulatory decisions under the following Acts:

  • Impact Assessment Act;
  • Canadian Navigable Waters Act;
  • Canadian Energy Regulator Act; and
  • the fish and fish habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act.

These Acts also protect Indigenous Knowledge from unauthorized disclosure when provided in confidence.

2019 National Engagement

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Snapshot of Engagement

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Indigenous Peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their Indigenous Knowledge. When Indigenous Peoples decide to share their Indigenous Knowledge during project reviews and regulatory decisions, it can provide federal departments and agencies with a deeper understanding of potential impacts on Indigenous rights, on the environment, and on the social and economic interests of Indigenous peoples and other Canadians.

The Framework is intended to guide the respectful, consistent, and effective consideration and protection of Indigenous Knowledge under these four Acts.

Development of the Indigenous Knowledge Policy Framework

The Government of Canada has been engaging widely on a principles-based approach to support the consistent application of the Indigenous Knowledge provisions across the four Acts. From February to June 2019, hundreds of individuals and organizations across Canada, including Indigenous organizations, government agencies, and industry organizations participated in engagement sessions or provided written submissions responding to a discussion paper.

In August 2020, the Agency’s Indigenous Advisory Committee penned a document on high-level Principles to inform the development of an Indigenous Knowledge Policy Framework. Building on the feedback received, the four implicated departments - the Impact Assessment Agency of Canada (IAAC), Transport Canada (TC), Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), and the Canada Energy Regulator (CER) - developed a draft Framework.

In May 2021, the draft Framework was shared with Indigenous communities and organization for feedback. The IAAC allotted Policy Dialogue Program funding to support Indigenous communities and organizations review of the Draft Framework. 79 submissions have been provided. A list of submissions can be found in Annex I.

This document summarizes the feedback received during the 2021 engagement phase, how comments received influenced the final version of the Framework, and what comes next.

What We Heard and Revisions to the Framework

Throughout our engagement activities we heard that mandatory consideration of Indigenous Knowledge within project reviews and regulatory decisions represents a positive step forward by the government in fulfilling its commitment to advancing Reconciliation and upholding the rights of Indigenous Peoples. We heard that the Framework provides much-improved guidelines as to how Indigenous Knowledge is to be included and protected in project reviews and regulatory decisions.

However, we also heard that the Framework was too narrow in scope and missing some key information. We heard that some elements of the Framework were confusing, given the varying responsibilities of the departments and agencies to which the Framework applies. In response to these comments, certain sections of the Framework have been updated, as noted below. We worked to balance all the comments received to improve the Framework. We have also done our best to explain why other feedback or priorities as outlined by Indigenous Nations and communities are not included in the Framework.

We thank each of the Indigenous Nations and communities that took the time to provide feedback on the Framework.

General updates and clarification

The types and form of Indigenous Knowledge will vary from community to community and from Knowledge Holder to Knowledge Holder. This diversity of Knowledge needs to be respected and considered holistically with no piece of Knowledge superseding another. Because there exists such diversity in Indigenous Knowledge, every effort needs to be made to collect as much as possible so the regulatory process can construct a fuller holistic view of Knowledge for consideration in their reviews and decisions. (Métis Nation of Alberta)

We heard that the language in the Framework was not strong enough to adequately convey the importance of Indigenous Knowledge and how it will be considered in project reviews and regulatory decisions. We note that some flexibilities in language were necessary given the different Acts, but we have updated the guidance within the five principles to be more direct and action-based and strengthened wording throughout, replacing phrases such as "may be" with "will be"; "keep in mind" with "understand"; and "should be" with "are".

Other updates include simplifying sentences that we heard caused confusion, clarifying:

  • How the Framework applies to each Act and department or agency.
  • How the Framework applies to each Act and department or agency.
  • That the Framework does not apply to other federal departments and agencies when making decisions on non-designated projects on federal lands and outside Canada under section 82 and 83 of the Impact Assessment Act.
  • That it is up to Indigenous Nations and communities themselves to decide if they want to share Indigenous Knowledge and who within their community will provide the information.
  • That federal officials will respect and use existing community protocols where possible.

Feedback on Section 3.0 (Indigenous Knowledge) was generally supportive given the diversity of views around the term Indigenous Knowledge. We updated some of the wording in this section to reflect:

In addition to the feedback related to clarifications, views and comments provided may be categorized according to the following broad topics.

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN Declaration)

We heard that the purpose of the Framework should rest in the Government of Canada’s commitment to the implementation of the UN Declaration and should state this outright. We heard that Canada’s United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Act has changed the landscape in which decision-makers must engaged with Indigenous Knowledge. Indigenous Nations and communities indicated that more emphasis should be placed on the principles and relevant articles within the UN Declaration and how they should be implemented in policy development. As a result of this feedback, Section 2.0 (Context) has been expanded to highlight:

Collaborative Decision-Making

When viewed from the perspective of FPIC, several Nations and communities indicated that the goals of the Framework do not go far enough. We heard that there is an interest in moving beyond the consideration of Indigenous Knowledge in regulatory decision making, towards a collaborative model for decision-making. We received comments noting that Indigenous Peoples would like to be partners in the decision-making process, including in determining the evaluation criteria for project assessment, and drawing their own conclusions on the consideration of Indigenous Knowledge and how it contributes to project reviews and regulatory decisions. The Framework cannot address decision-making authorities, but it aims to improve how indigenous Knowledge is included in those decisions.

These Acts include provisions for the development of collaborative processes and ministerial arrangements with Indigenous peoples. The development of these processes is ongoing. The Framework is just one aspect of the various departmental policies to foster Reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples and meet the Government of Canada’s commitments under the UN Declaration.

Canada’s colonial legacy

We heard that Canada’s history of colonialism should be acknowledged in the Framework. The comments received explained that government policies such as the Indian Act and residential schools aimed to erase Indigenous culture and identity and have been successful at separating Indigenous peoples from their knowledge. We heard that these policies targeted at eroding Indigenous Knowledge have left many Indigenous Nations and communities with a deep mistrust of the regulatory bodies that are now asking them to share their knowledge. As a result, strong policies guiding the collection, re-vitalization and use of Indigenous Knowledge are a step towards re-building that trust. Section 3.0 has been updated to reflect the ongoing impacts of colonialism.

Respect for Indigenous and Treaty rights

We heard that the language around rights was not strong enough and so we’ve clarified and strengthened that language throughout to reflect that federal officials should understand the context in which Indigenous and treaty rights are affirmed and apply it in practice when working with Indigenous Knowledge. The Framework has also been updated throughout to acknowledge the importance of Indigenous rightsFootnote1, including inherent and Treaty rights, in the relationship between Indigenous peoples and the Crown, and that the Framework does not diminish existing Treaty obligations or replace other formal consultation agreements between Canada and Indigenous Nations and communities.

Consideration of Indigenous Knowledge

A flexible approach to Indigenous Knowledge means securing sufficient time ahead of a governmental decision to ensure the meaningful participation of Knowledge Holders, notably by initiating contact with Nations and communities at the very early stages of a project as well as adapting to their potential need for additional time in the Indigenous Knowledge sharing process (Makivik Corporation)

Many of the comments received suggested that the term "consideration" is not a strong enough term. We heard that this term implies that Indigenous Knowledge is not essential, that it could be considered and dismissed, or that consideration does not guarantee inclusion. We also received comments that consideration was a better term than "use" or "integrate". Submissions did not have consensus about which terms would be preferable. The Acts use the term 'consider’ so this wording was kept to maintain consistency. In addition:

  • Section 4.0 (Indigenous Knowledge in the Acts) makes clear that Indigenous Knowledge and western scientific knowledge are equally valued.
  • Principle 5.1 has been edited to reflect the role that Indigenous Knowledge has in enhancing the understanding of potential impacts of projects, including whether a project is approved.
  • Principle 5.2 has updated language to make it clear that in order to ensure that the context and conditions for the consideration of Indigenous Knowledge is fully understood, early and ongoing dialogue between Indigenous Peoples and federal officials is important.
  • Principle 5.3 of the Framework has been updated to better reflect that:
  • consideration must be meaningful;
  • Indigenous Knowledge will not be disregarded; and
  • the manner in which Indigenous Knowledge was considered will be communicated as part of the outcome of the project review or regulatory decision.

Capacity Building Related to Indigenous Knowledge

Many submissions indicated that capacity funding must be available and easily accessible. They indicated that in addition to a base level of funding for specific projects, funding should be provided by the Government of Canada on a long-term capacity basis so that Indigenous Knowledge is preserved and enhanced within Nations and communities on an ongoing basis, rather than just a project-specific, one-time grant or contribution agreement. We heard that community leaders, Knowledge Holders and elders have many competing priorities and there are limited resources when it comes to gathering Indigenous Knowledge. We heard that the Framework lacks specificity for the type and amount of support that Indigenous Peoples will receive to share their Indigenous Knowledge and that funding supports should be comparable to what the government would provide to procure other environmental, technical, or expert reports.

Capacity building means providing sufficient and flexible funding, adequate time to participate, collect and share Indigenous Knowledge, as well as training to enable better participation in project design and review. Beyond project-specific reviews, Indigenous communities require adequate resources to collect, preserve, manage and control our knowledge. (Cook’s Ferry Indian Band)

We heard that Indigenous peoples also require adequate time and resources to collect and manage Indigenous Knowledge, including human resources, education, training, research, translation, information storage and management, among other activities. In response to comments received:

  • Principle 5.2 has been updated to state that federal officials should communicate early with Indigenous Peoples about opportunities to share Indigenous Knowledge, including information about available funding.
  • Principle 5.5 has been updated to note:
  • the need for funding to be both accessible and provided as early as possible in the process;
  • the need to support the collection and analysis of Indigenous Knowledge; and
  • the importance of community-specific protocols that reflect that Nation or community’s capacity needs

While we heard requests that the Framework be updated to include requirements for capacity funding arrangements, a base level of funding cannot be guaranteed through this Framework. Each department and agency administers its own funding program, within its own operational requirements, following rules set by the Government of Canada. Given these complexities, individual departments and agencies determine the scope of their funding programs related to Indigenous Knowledge.

Capacity funding, and the lack of a long-term whole of government funding structure has been an ongoing priority for Indigenous Peoples. Given this clear priority, there is work going on within government to create new funding systems, including funding programs that are better coordinated to minimize engagement fatigue and provide longer-term capacity funding for Indigenous Nations and communities for a variety of initiatives.

Training for Federal Officials

We received feedback that additional training should be required for federal government officials specific to working with Indigenous Knowledge, along with the importance of Indigenous Knowledge under the Acts and cultural competency relating to the diverse interests, priorities and circumstances of First Nations, Métis and Inuit. Principle 5.5 has been updated to reflect the need to support building cultural competency and awareness of federal officials, including training on the following:

We heard one approach to ensure Indigenous Knowledge is considered properly is to hire additional Indigenous People, including Indigenous Knowledge translators. We note that Indigenous employment and recruitment policies are department specific and beyond the scope of this work.

The conclusion section of the Framework has also been updated to underline the importance of adequate resources and training for the implementation of the Framework.

Management and Protection of Indigenous Knowledge

Many comments were supportive of the inclusion of guidelines regarding the rights of Indigenous Peoples to maintain, control, protect and develop their Indigenous Knowledge. As a result:

Many submissions raised concerns with the sections in the Acts that provide certain exceptions to the requirements for the protection of confidential Indigenous Knowledge. We cannot remove these exceptions from the legislation, but the guidance in Principle 5.4 has been updated with the following expectations:

There is a long history of distrust between Indigenous peoples and the Crown when it comes to data collection. Data collection has been imposed on Indigenous peoples without their consent and used for harmful and racist purposes. In addition to discussing how IK will be used/protection, the Framework should expressly recognize this history of distrust around data use and state Canada’s intent to leave behind this colonial data legacy and work in partnership with Indigenous peoples about their knowledge. (Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation)

  • Federal officials will clearly communicate about the exceptions in the Acts so that Nations and communities can determine how they will share their confidential Indigenous Knowledge.
  • Federal officials will discuss how confidential Indigenous Knowledge will be safeguarded including its handling and storage.
  • Confidential Indigenous Knowledge will not be posted on a public registry.
  • Information regarding the protection of confidential Indigenous Knowledge in the Access to Information Act

As noted in the implementation section below, examples of potential disclosures of confidential knowledge and how this would be managed, will form part of department-specific guidance.

Applicability of the Framework

We heard some concerns regarding the applicability of the Framework across the Government of Canada generally, and within the Acts of the four departments and agencies specifically.

Now that the Framework has been finalized, department and agency-specific guidance will be developed to provide greater clarity on how the principles within the Framework are being put into action by each department and agency. Section 1.1 (Purpose of the Framework) has been updated to note that the Framework will provide a basis for the four participating departments and agencies to develop policies and guidance tailored to each of their specific operational requirements. The Framework will ensure consistency of application of their respective guidance, processes and policies regarding the consideration of Indigenous Knowledge.

These departments and agencies will continue to share best practices with the goal of achieving the highest standard for the consideration of Indigenous Knowledge.

There were recommendations that other federal government departments should use this Framework as well, so that there is consistency across the federal government and better coordination regarding Indigenous Knowledge policies. While this Framework was drafted to implement new mandatory provisions related to Indigenous Knowledge, we note that the Framework is already a relevant tool for other agencies. For example, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission indicated that it uses an approach to working with Indigenous Knowledge that is consistent and informed by this Framework. The principles within the Framework can be used by other departments as a guide for their work with Indigenous Knowledge. We also recognize the important role that Indigenous voices and Indigenous Knowledge play in decision-making across other government departments and acknowledge the need to coordinate within government as much as possible in order to ensure consistency and reduce engagement fatigue.

Some of the comments received suggested that the Framework should be expanded to apply to project proponents. Given the Framework was developed to support the work of federal officials and the role of proponents in project reviews and regulatory decisions differs for each of the departments and agencies, it has not been updated to apply to proponents. That said, the guiding principles can certainly inform the work of proponents, including how they engage and work with Indigenous Peoples and their Indigenous Knowledge.

Implementation of the Framework

Some Nations and communities commented that the scope of the Framework is too broad, without enough detail regarding the inclusion of Indigenous Knowledge. There were concerns that without more specific examples, the implementation of the Framework would lead to levels of subjectivity by federal officials around how Indigenous Knowledge is considered and safeguarded. While flexibility is needed to allow for the different operational realities of the departments and agencies, the Framework will support greater predictability in how Indigenous Knowledge is considered in project reviews and regulatory decisions. The Framework’s Guiding Principles (Section 5.0):

Each department and agency’s more tailored documents will reflect the different circumstances and operational realities of project reviews and regulatory decisions and may include specific examples. We would stress that all the feedback that has been provided throughout the engagement process will be used by the departments and agencies to build upon the baseline provided by the Framework itself. Other concerns that are better addressed by more specific operational guidance may include, among other things, the following:

Engagement Process on the Framework

We also heard from some Nations and communities that our engagement efforts to develop the Framework were not sufficient considering the importance of Indigenous Knowledge. We heard that the initial engagement workshops were too broad, which resulted in a lack of diversity amongst Indigenous Peoples. Some submissions noted that there was insufficient time and resources to engage community members and Knowledge Holders. We also heard that the process should have been co-created or led by Indigenous Peoples. We acknowledge the amount of work put in by Indigenous Nations and communities to participate in the different rounds of engagement and comment on the Framework. We note that the work to develop this Framework has been ongoing since 2018. From May 2021 to December 2021, we received 79 written submissions representing many Nations and communities across Canada... All the feedback provided has been carefully considered in the development of the Framework. The Government of Canada as a whole continues to work with Indigenous Peoples to learn how to best work with Indigenous Knowledge. This Framework is a first step for the implementation of the specific provisions for these Acts, but there is ongoing work elsewhere on Indigenous Knowledge.

What Comes Next

All the comments received in this round of engagement will continue to be used by federal officials at DFO, TC, IAAC and the CER to inform department and agency-specific guidance on Indigenous Knowledge. The updated principles in the Framework will support the consistent application of Indigenous Knowledge provisions in the Acts, while recognizing regional, cultural, and distinctions-based approaches to Indigenous Knowledge. The Framework provides a foundation to support more collaboration among federal officials and Indigenous Peoples when considering Indigenous Knowledge in project reviews and regulatory decisions.

Annex I

The Impact Assessment Agency of Canada provided Policy Dialogue Program funding support to 79 Nations and communities under stream 3 funding (Engagement with Indigenous Rights holders and organizations). A list of Policy Dialogue submissions received in Fall 2022 can be found below.

Summary of Policy Dialogue Program Submissions:

Partner Indigenous Group/Organization


Acho Dene Koe First Nation

Fort Liard, Northwest Territories

Adams Lake Indian Band (ALIB)

Hillcrest Road, British Columbia

Algonquins of Ontario (AOO) - Algonquin Opportunity (No. 2) Corporation/

Pembroke, Ontario

Algonquins of Pikwàkanagàn First Nation

Pikwakanagan, Ontario

Anishinaabe Wiisookodaadiwin Treaty No. 3 Corporation (Grand Council Treaty #3 Representative Services)

Kenora, Ontario

Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nations Chiefs Secretariat

Dartmouth, Nova Scotia

Battle River IRC

North Battleford, Saskatchewan

BC First Nations Energy and Mining Council

North Vancouver, British Columbia

Cadotte Lake Métis Nation (CLM)

Cadotte Lake, Alberta

Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation

Sutton West, Ontario

Conseil de la Première Nation Innus Essipit (Essipit Innu First Nation)


Conseil de la Nation huronne-wendat

Wendake, Quebec

Cook’s Ferry Indian Band

Spence’s Bridge, British Columbia

Cowichan Tribes

Duncan, British Columbia

Cree Nation Government – Environment and Remedial Works Department

Mistissini, Quebec

Curve Lake First Nation

Curve Lake, Ontario

Elk Valley Métis Nation

Fernie, British Columbia

Federation of Sovereign Indigenous Nations (FSIN)

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

File Hills Qu’Appelle Tribal Council (FHQTC)

Fort Qu’appelle, Saskatchewan

First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun (FNNND)

Mayo, Yukon Territories

First Nations Major Projects Coalition

West Vancouver, British Columbia

Fisher River Cree Nation

Fisher River, Manitoba

Fisheries Joint Management Committee

Inuvik, Northwest Territories

Fort Albany First Nation

Fort Albany, Ontario

Fort McKay First Nation

Fort McMurray, Alberta

Fort McKay Métis Community Association

Fort McMurray, Alberta

Gitxaala Nation

Kitkatla, British Columbia

Grand Conseil de la Nation Waban-Aki (GCNWA)

Wolinak, Quebec

Grand Council Treaty #3

Kenora , Ontario

Gwich’in Tribal Council

Inuvik, Northwest Territories

IBA Braiding - representing 3 groups

Mississauga, Ontario

The Indigenous Caucus of the Indigenous Advisory and Monitoring Committee on the Trans Mountain Pipelines and Marine Shipping

British Columbia/Alberta

Innu Takuaikan Uashat mak Mani-utenam

Uashat, Quecbec

Interlake Reserves Tribal Council

Headingley, Manitoba

Kapawe’no First Nation

Grouard, Alberta

Kebaowek First Nation

Kebaowak, Quebec

Keewaytinook Okimakanak Tribal Council

Balmertown, Ontario

Kitselas Department of Lands and Resources

Terrace, British Columbia

Kwakiutl First Nation

Port Hardy, British Columbia

Kwilmu’kw Maw-Klusuaqn Negotiation Office (KMK)

Truro, Nova Scotia

Lac Ste. Anne Métis Community Association

Stony Plain, Alberta

Lake Winnipeg Foundation (together with the Lake Winnipeg Indigenous Collective)

Swan Lake First Nation, Manitoba

Lakeland Métis Community Association

Lac La Biche, Alberta

Lower Nicola Indian Band (LNIB)

Merritt, British Columbia

Makivik Corporation

Kuujjuaq, Quebec

Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation

Loon Lake, Saskatchewan

Malahat Nation

Mill Bay, British Columbia

Manitoba Metis Federation

Winnipeg, Manitoba

Manto Sipi Cree Nation

Gods River, Manitoba

Marten Falls First Nation

Ogoki Post, Ontario

Matawa First Nations Management

Thunder Bay, Ontario

Metis Nation of Alberta Association

Edmonton, Alberta

Métis Nation of Ontario Secretariat

Ottawa, Ontario

Mi’gmawe’l Tplu’taqnn Inc. (MTI)

Eel ground, New Brunswick

Mikisew Cree First Nation

Fort Chipewyan, Alberta

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation (MCFN)

Hagersville, Ontario

Mohawk Council of Kahnawake (MCK)

Kahnawake, Quebec

Musqueam Indian Band

Vancouver, British Columbia

Native Women’s Association of Canada

Ottawa, Ontario

NunatuKavut Community Council Inc. (NCC)

Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland

O’Chiese First Nation

Rocky Mountain House, Alberta

Owl River Metis Community Association

Lac La Biche, Alberta

Pinaymootang First Nation

Fairford, Manitoba

Première Nation Wolastoqiyik Wahsipekuk

Cacouna, Quebec

S’ólh Téméxw Stewardship Alliance (STSA)

Chilliwack, British Columbia

Sagkeeng Anicinabe First Nation

Fort Alexander, Manitoba

Samson Cree Nation

Maskwacis, Alberta

Skeena Fisheries Commission

Kispiox, British Columbia

Smith’s Landing First Nation

Fort Smith, North West Territories

Southern Chiefs’ Organization Inc. (SCO)

Headingley, Manitoba


Enderby, British Columbia

Temagami First Nation

Bear Island, Lake Temagami, Ontario

Toquaht Nation

Ucluelet, British Columbia

Tsleil-Waututh Nation

North Vancouver, British Columbia

Uchucklesaht Tribe Government

Port Alberni, British Columbia

Wabun Tribal Council

Gogama, Ontario

Whitefish Lake First Nation

Goodfish Lake, Alberta

Wolastoqey Nation

Fredericton, New Brunswick

Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ Government-Ucluelet First Nation

Hitacu, British Columbia

Annex 2

Indigenous Nations and communities were invited to share any resources about Indigenous Knowledge. This included any publicly available resources (videos, guides, informational documents, etc.) related to Indigenous Knowledge. The list below is not an exhaustive list, and reflects resources provided by Nations and communities in their written submissions.

Indigenous Knowledge Resources:

Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights – Assembly of First Nations

Aboriginal Women and Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK): Input and Insight on Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge – Native Women’s Association of Canada

Akwé: Kon guidelines – Convention on Biological Diversity Best Practices for Project Planning with Indigenous Traditional Knowledge – Canadian International Development Agency

Deh Cho First Nations Traditional Knowledge Research Protocol Framework for Research, Engagement with First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples – University of Manitoba

Guide to Effective Indigenous Involvement in Federal Impact Assessment – First Nations Major Project Coalition

Guidelines for Incorporating Traditional Knowledge in Environmental Impact Assessment – Mackenzie Valley Review Board

Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Environmental Governance in Canada (2021) – Deborah McGregor

Indigenous Policy Framework – City of Calgary

Indigenous Traditional Knowledge Framework – Cumulative Environmental Management Association

Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit – Nunavut Impact Review Board

"Learning Together": Braiding Indigenous and Western Knowledge Systems to Understand Freshwater Mussel Health in the Lower Athabasca Region of Alberta, Canada (2019) – Hopkins, D. et al.

Maliseet Nation TK Protocol – Maliseet Nation Conservation Council Traditional Knowledge Working Group

Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Protocol – Assembly of Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq Chiefs

National Inuit Strategy on Research – Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami

New Brunswick Mi’gmaq Indigenous Knowledge Study – Mi’gmaq Sagamaq Mawiomi

Nindokiikayencikewin: To Seek Learning or Knowledges, Indigenous Knowledges & Data Governance Protocols – Indigenous Innovation Initiative

Roundtable on Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science: Summary of Literature – Institute on Governance Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological and Resource Management (2008) by Berkes, F.

ScIQ: an invitation and recommendations to combine science and Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit for meaningful engagement of Inuit communities in research and video presentation– Ikaarvik Youth SciQ Summit

Traditional Knowledge Guide for the Inuvialuit Settlement Region Volume I and Volume II – Environmental Studies Research Funds Report No. 153

Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices (Article 8(j)) – Convention on Biological Diversity

Traditional Knowledge Policy and Traditional Knowledge Policy Implementation Framework – Government of Northwest Territories

The First Nations Principles of OCAP® – First Nations Information Governance Centre

The Land is Our Teacher: Reflections and Stories on Working with Aboriginal Knowledge Holders to Manage Parks Canada’s Heritage Places – Parks Canada

Two-Eyed Seeing and other lessons learned within a co-learning journey of bringing together indigenous and mainstream knowledges and ways of knowing (2012) – Bartlett, C., Marshall, M. and Marshall, A.

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Voices of Understanding: Looking Through the Window – Alberta Energy Regulator

Ways of Knowing: Promising Directions for Métis Research – Métis Nation of Ontario

What is Indigenous Knowledge in Protecting Indigenous Knowledge and Heritage: A Global Challenge (2000) by Battiste, M. and J. Youngblood Henderson.

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