ARCHIVED - Recommendations on a Human Papillomavirus Immunization Program


  1. Erickson LJ, De Wals P, Farand L. An analytical framework for immunization programs in Canada. Vaccine 2005;23(19):2470-76.
  2. National Advisory Committee on Immunization. Statement on human papillomavirus vaccine. CCDR 2007;33(ACS-2):1-32.
  3. Adams M, Jasani B, Fiander A. Human papilloma virus (HPV) prophylactic vaccination: challenges for public health and implications for screening. Vaccine 2007;25(16):3007-13.
  4. Brassard P, Steensma C, Coutlee F et al. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in aboriginal women of Nunavik, Québec. Presented at the 22nd International Papillomavirus Conference, Vancouver, 2005.
  5. Richardson H, Franco E, Pintos J et al. Determinants of low-risk and high-risk cervical human papillomavirus infections in Montreal University students. Sex Transm Dis 2000;27(2):79-86.
  6. Richardson H, Kelsall G, Tellier P et al. The natural history of type-specific human papillomavirus infections in female university students. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12(6):485-90.
  7. Young TK, McNicol P, Beauvais J. Factors associated with human papillomavirus infection detected by polymerase chain reaction among urban Canadian aboriginal and non-aboriginal women. Sex Transm Dis 1997;24(5):293-8.
  8. Healey SM. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical dysplasia in Nunavut. Kingston, ON: Queen's University, 2000.
  9. Estimated new cases and deaths for cancers by sex, Canada, 2007. In: Canadian Cancer Society/National Cancer Institute of Canada. Canadian cancer statistics 2007. URL:
  10. Spence AR, Goggin P, Franco EL. Process of care failures in invasive cervical cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med 2007;45(2-3):93-106.
  11. Harper DM. Why am I scared of HPV? CA Cancer J Clin 2004;54(5):245-7.
  12. Ault KA, Giuliano AR, Edwards RP et al. A phase I study to evaluate a human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 L1 VLP vaccine. Vaccine 2004;22(23-24):3004-7.
  13. Villa LL, Costa RL, Petta CA et al. Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial. Lancet Oncol 2005;6(5):271-78.
  14. Villa LL. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: reducing the burden of HPV-related diseases. Vaccine 2005;24(Suppl 1):S21-S28.
  15. Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler C et al. Sustained efficacy up to 4-5 years of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18: follow-up from a randomised control trial. Lancet 2006;367:1247-55.
  16. Block SL, Nolan T, Sattler C et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in male and female adolescents and young adult women. Pediatrics 2006;118(5):2135-45.
  17. Garland SM, Steben M, Hernandez-Avila M et al. Noninferiority of antibody response to human papillomavirus type 16 in subjects vaccinated with monovalent and quadrivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2007;14(6):792-95.
  18. Villa LL, Costa RL, Petta CA et al. High sustained efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus types 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine through 5 years of follow-up. Br J Cancer 2006;95(11):1459-66.
  19. Olsson SE, Villa LL, Costa RL et al. Induction of immune memory following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Vaccine 2007;25(26):4931-39.
  20. Pagliusi SR, Teresa Aguado M. Efficacy and other milestones for human papillomavirus vaccine introduction. Vaccine 2004;23(5):569-78.
  21. Dillner J, Arbyn M, Dillner L. Translational mini-review series on vaccines: monitoring of human papillomavirus vaccination. Clin Exp Immunol 2007;148(2):199-207.
  22. Gall SA, Teixeira J, Wheeler CM et al. Substantial impact on precancerous lesions and HPV infections through 5.5 years in women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 L1 VLP AS04 candidate vaccine. Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, 2007.
  23. Eggertson L. Three provinces to study 2-dose HPV vaccine. CMAJ 2007;177(5):444-45.
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV: Gardasil and GBS . References and resources: fast facts. URL:
  25. Dasbach EJ, Elbasha EH, Insinga RP. Mathematical models for predicting the epidemiologic and economic impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus infection and disease. Epidemiol Rev 2006;28:88-100.
  26. The Future II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med 2007;356(19):1915-27.
  27. Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM et al. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med 2007;356(19):1928-43.
  28. Joura EA, Leodolter S, Hernandez-Avila M et al. Efficacy of a quadrivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine against high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions: a combined analysis of three randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2007;369(9574):1693-702.
  29. Hughes JP, Garnett GP, Koutsky L. The theoretical population-level impact of a prophylactic human papilloma virus vaccine. Epidemiology 2002;13(6):631-39.
  30. Taira AV. Evaluating human papillomavirus vaccination programs. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10(11):1915-23.
  31. Barnabas RV, Laukkanen P, Koskela P et al. Epidemiology of HPV 16 and cervical cancer in Finland and the potential impact of vaccination: mathematical modelling analyses. PLoS Med 2006;3(5):e138.
  32. Elbasha EH, Dasbach EJ, Insinga RP. Model for assessing human papillomavirus vaccination strategies. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13(1):28-41.
  33. French KM, Barnabas RV, Lehtinen M et al. Strategies for the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination: modelling the optimum age- and sex-specific pattern of vaccination in Finland. Br J Cancer 2007;96(3):514-18.
  34. Marra F, Gunther O, Ogilvie G, Marra CA, Pourbohloul B, Ehlen T, Miller D, Naus M, Patrick DM, Brunham RC. A dynamic model to determine cost effectiveness of HPV vaccine in girls and boys in Canada. ISSTDR, Seattle, Washington, July 29th – August 1st, 2007.
  35. Kulasingam SL, Myers ER. Potential health and economic impact of adding a human papillomavirus vaccine to screening programs. JAMA 2003;290(6):781-89.
  36. Sanders GD, Taira AV. Cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine for human papillomavirus. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9(1):37-48.
  37. Goldie SJ, Grima D, Kohli M et al. A comprehensive natural history model of HPV infection and cervical cancer to estimate the clinical impact of a prophylactic HPV-16/18 vaccine. Int J Cancer 2003;106(6):896-904.
  38. Goldie SJ, Kohli M, Grima D et al. Projected clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of a human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96(8):604-15.
  39. Kohli M, Ferko N, Martin A et al. Estimating the long-term impact of a prophylactic human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine on the burden of cervical cancer in the UK. Br J Cancer 2007;96:143-50.
  40. Brisson M, Van de Velde N, De Wals P et al. The potential cost-effectiveness of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines in Canada. Vaccine 2007;25(29):5399-408.
  41. Phillips C, Thompson G. What is a QALY? What Is. . .? series. URL:
  42. Pourbohloul B, Günther O. Mathematical modeling of the human papilloma virus transmission dynamics. Presented at the University of British Columbia, Centre for Disease Control, CIC meeting, Victoria BC, 18 April, 2007.
  43. Brisson M, Van de Velde N, De Wals P et al. Estimating the number needed to vaccinate to prevent diseases and death related to human papillomavirus infection. CMAJ 2007;177(5):464-68.
  44. Tiro JA, Meissner HI, Kobrin S et al. What do women in the U.S. know about human papillomavirus and cervical cancer? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16(2):288-94.
  45. Dempsey AF, Zimet GD, Davis RL et al. Factors that are associated with parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccines: a randomized intervention study of written information about HPV. Pediatrics 2006;117(5):1486-93.
  46. Olshen E, Woods ER, Austin SB et al. Parental acceptance of the human papillomavirus vaccine. J Adolesc Health 2005;37(3):248-51.
  47. Friedman AL, Shepeard H. Exploring the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and communication preferences of the general public regarding HPV: findings from CDC focus group research and implications for practice. Health Educ Behav 2007;34(3):471-85.
  48. Gudmundsdottir T, Tryggvadottir L, Allende M et al. Eligibility and willingness of young Icelandic women to participate in a HPV vaccination trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003;82(4):345-50.
  49. Hoover DR, Carfioli B, Moench EA. Attitudes of adolescent/young adult women toward human papillomavirus vaccination and clinical trials. Health Care Women Int 2000;21(5):375-91.
  50. Giles M, Garland S. A study of women's knowledge regarding human papillomavirus infection, cervical cancer and human papillomavirus vaccines. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2006;46(4):311-15.
  51. Brabin L, Roberts SA, Farzaneh F et al. Future acceptance of adolescent human papillomavirus vaccination: a survey of parental attitudes. Vaccine 2006;24(16):3087-94.
  52. Lenselink CH, Gerrits MM, Melchers WJ et al. Parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccines. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 16 March, 2007.
  53. Gerend MA, Lee SC, Shepherd JE. Predictors of human papillomavirus vaccination acceptability among underserved women. Sex Transm Dis 2007;34(7):468-71.
  54. Mays RM, Sturm LA, Zimet GD. Parental perspectives on vaccinating children against sexually transmitted infections. Soc Sci Med 2004;58(7):1405-13.
  55. Slomovitz BM, Sun CC, Frumovitz M et al. Are women ready for the HPV vaccine? Gynecol Oncol 2006;103(1):151-54.
  56. Zimet GD, Mays RM, Winston Y et al. Acceptability of human papillomavirus immunization. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000;9(1):47-50.
  57. Kahn JA, Rosenthal SL, Hamann T et al. Attitudes about human papillomavirus vaccine in young women. Int J STD AIDS 2003;14(5):300-6.
  58. Crosby R, Schoenberg N, Hopenhayn C et al. Correlates of intent to be vaccinated against human papillomavirus: an exploratory study of college-aged women. Sex Health 2007;4(1):71-3.
  59. Woodhall SC, Lehtinen M, Verho T et al. Anticipated acceptance of HPV vaccination at the baseline of implementation: a survey of parental and adolescent knowledge and attitudes in Finland. J Adolesc Health 2007;40(5):466-69.
  60. Ferris DG, Waller JL, Owen A et al. Midadult women's attitudes about receiving the prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccine. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2007;11(3):166-72.
  61. Waller J, Marlow LA, Wardle J. Mothers' attitudes towards preventing cervical cancer through human papillomavirus vaccination: a qualitative study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(7):1257-61.
  62. Davis K, Dickman E, Ferris D et al. Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability among parents of 10 to 15 year old adolescents. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2004;8(3):188-94.
  63. Boehner CW, Howe SR, Bernstein DI et al. Viral sexually transmitted disease vaccine acceptability among college students. Sex Transm Dis 2003;30(10):774-78.
  64. Marlow LA, Waller J, Wardle J. Parental attitudes to pre-pubertal HPV vaccination. Vaccine 2007;25(11):1945-52.
  65. Constantine NA, Jerman P. Acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination among Californian parents of daughters: a representative statewide analysis. J Adolesc Health 2007;40(2):108-15.
  66. Ogilvie GS, Remple VP, Marra F et al. Parental intention to vaccinate daughters with the HPV vaccine. CMAJ 4 December, 2007. URL:
  67. Fishbein MA. A theory of reasoned action: some applications and implications. In: Howe HE, ed. Beliefs, attitudes and values. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1980 vol. 27. Lincoln: University Press: 65.
  68. McNeil S, Gilca V, Dobson S. Primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer: optimizing immunization program implementation by understanding Canadian clinicians' knowledge, attitudes, and intention to recommend. Poster presented at the Infectious Disease Society of America meeting, 2007.
  69. Canadian Association on Adolescent Health. Sexual behaviours and attitudes, Canadian teenagers and mothers. URL:
  70. Statistics Canada. XIB.pdf
  71. Humiston SG, Rosenthal SL. Challenges to vaccinating adolescents: vaccine implementation issues. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24(6 Suppl):S134-40.
  72. Lehtinen M, Herrero R, Mayaud P et al. Chapter 28: studies to assess the long-term efficacy and effectiveness of HPV vaccination in developed and developing countries. Vaccine 2006;24(Suppl 3):S233-41.
  73. Saslow D, Castle PE, Cox JT et al. American Cancer Society Guideline for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. CA Cancer J Clin 2007;57(1):7-28.
  74. Soldan K, Dillner J. Comparable strategies needed to evaluated human papillomavirus vaccine efficiency across Europe. Euro Surveill 2006;11(11).
  75. Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Research Priorities Workshop – final report. CCDR 2006;32S1:66.
  76. Health Canada. National standards for immunization coverage assessment: Recommendations from the Canadian Immunization Registry Network. CCDR 2005;35(9):93-7. URL: Accessed August 2007.
  77. Jackson Y, Chappuis F, Mezger N et al. High immunogenicity of delayed third dose of hepatitis B vaccine in travellers. Vaccine 2007;25(17):3482-84.
  78. Duval B, Gilca V, Boulianne N et al. Comparative long term immunogenicity of two recombinant hepatitis B vaccines and the effect of a booster dose given after five years in a low endemicity country. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24(3):213-18.
  79. Duval B, Gilca V, Boulianne N et al. HBs antibody kinetics five years after booster vaccination with Engerix B. Presented at the 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Mc Cormick Place, Chicago, 2007.
  80. Health Canada. Cervical cancer screening in Canada: 1998 surveillance report. URL:
  81. Parikh S, Brennan P, Boffetta P. Meta-analysis of social inequality and the risk of cervical cancer. Int J Cancer 2003;105(5):687-91.
  82. Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian immunization guide, 7th ed. Ottawa: PHAC, 2006.
  83. Zimet GD. Improving adolescent health: focus on HPV vaccine acceptance. J Adolesc Health 2005;37(6 Suppl):S17-23.
  84. Agosti JM, Goldie SJ. Introducing HPV vaccine in developing countries–-key challenges and issues. N Engl J Med 2007;356(19):1908-10.
  85. Louchini R, Goggin P, Steben M. The evolution of HPV-related anogenital cancers reported in Quebec- Incidence and survival rates. Chronic Diseases in Canada 2008; 28: 145-52.
  86. Ault KA. Effect of prophylactic human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine on risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, grade 3, and adenocarcinoma in situ: a combined analysis of four randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2007;369(9576):1861-68.
  87. Lemeshow S, Robinson D. Surveys to measure programme coverage and impact: a review of the methodology used by the Expanded Programme on Immunization. World Health Stat Q 1985;38:65-75.
  88. Brookmyer R, Chen YQ. Person-time analysis of paired community intervention trials when the number of communities is small. Stat Med 1998;17(18):2121-32.
  89. Arbyn M, Dillner J. Review of current knowledge on HPV vaccination: an appendix to the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. J Clin Virol 2007;38(3):189-97.

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