Chapter 1. Design and Methods



The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS), created in 2002, is a national program dedicated to the collection, integration, analysis, and communication of trends in antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in selected bacteria from humans, animals, and animal-derived food sources across Canada. This information supports (i) the creation of evidence-based policies for AMU in hospitals, communities, and food-animal production with the aim of prolonging the effectiveness of these drugs and (ii) the identification of appropriate measures to contain the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria among animals, food, and people.

During 2012, CIPARS held discussions on new ways of analyzing and presenting the surveillance data, to adjust for different data closure dates and to maximize the integration of existing data. The Annual Report will now be released in a Chapter format to improve the timeliness of the data release where possible and consist of four chapters: Chapter 1 - Design and Methods, Chapter 2 - Antimicrobial Resistance, Chapter 3 - Antimicrobial Use, and Chapter 4 - Integrated Findings and Discussion. Chapter 1 includes detailed information on the design and methods used by CIPARS to obtain and analyze the AMR and AMU data, including two tables (AMR and AMU) describing changes that have been implemented since the beginning of the program. Chapter 2 and 3 present results for AMR and AMU, respectively, with each one including a section presenting the top key findings. Chapter 4 aims to bring together some of the results across surveillance components, over time and regions, and across host/bacterial species in an integrated manner and includes interpretation of this integration.

CIPARS Objectives

  • Provide a unified approach to monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in humans and animals.
  • Facilitate assessment of the public health impact of antimicrobials used in humans and agricultural sectors.
  • Allow accurate comparisons with data from other countries that use similar surveillance systems.

CIPARS Surveillance Components

Figure 1. Diagram of CIPARS surveillance components in 2012

Text Equivalent - Figure 1

In 2012, CIPARS included 2 passive and 3 active antimicrobial resistance surveillance components, as well as antimicrobial use surveillance in humans and animals. The surveillance components are:

  • Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates involved passive surveillance of human clinical Salmonella isolates.
  • Retail Meat Surveillance involved active sample collection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of generic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in retail chicken and turkey and of E. coli in beef and pork.
  • Abattoir Surveillance involved active sample collection of caecal content and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella and generic E. coli of healthy chickens and pigs and of Campylobacter and generic E. coli from healthy beef cattle across Canada.
  • Farm Surveillance involved active collection of pooled fecal samples from pigs and the isolation of generic E. coli and Salmonella isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
  • Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates involved passive surveillance of clinical Salmonella isolates from animals in multiple provinces.
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