Annual Report on Official Languages 2019–2020

On this page

List of figures

List of tables

List of acronyms and abbreviations

Note: The acronyms and abbreviations in this document have been used for ease of reading.

ACOA
Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency
Act
Official Languages Act
Action Plan 2018–2023
Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future
AWC
Acadian World Congress
CanNor
Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency
CBC
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
CHSSN
Community Health and Social Services Network
CMEC
Council of Ministers of Education, Canada
CNFS
Consortium national de formation en santé
CRTC
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
FAAFC
Fédération des aînées et aînés francophones du Canada
FCCF
Fédération culturelle canadienne-française
FCFA
Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne
FedDev Ontario
Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario
FedNor
Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario
FJCF
Fédération de la jeunesse canadienne-française
IRCC
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
N/A
Not available
NAC
National Arts Centre
OLHCP
Official Languages Health Contribution Program
PHAC
Public Health Agency of Canada
Protocol for Agreements for Education
Protocol for Agreements for Minority-Language Education and Second-Language Instruction
PSPC
Public Services and Procurement Canada
QCGN
Quebec Community Groups Network
RCMP
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
RDÉE Canada
Réseau de développement économique et d’employabilité Canada
RIF
Francophone Immigration Networks
SSF
Société Santé en français
UOF
Université de l’Ontario français
WD
Western Economic Diversification Canada
Y4Y
Youth for Youth

Alternate format

Annual Report on Official Languages 2019–2020 [PDF version - 4.0 MB]

Message from the minister

Melanie Joly

As Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages, I am pleased to present the Annual Report on Official Languages 2019–2020. The global health crisis has had a major impact on us as individuals and as a society. It is against this backdrop that, over the past fiscal year, the Department of Canadian Heritage has continued its work in support of official languages and Anglophone and Francophone minority communities. Although we face numerous challenges in this changing environment, our government’s commitment to our country’s two official languages remains firm.

Federal institutions’ actions in 2019–2020 were taken amid the 50th anniversary celebration of the Official Languages Act. This Act established the equal status of English and French and introduced language rights for all Canadian citizens. In marking this anniversary, we looked back on 50 years of progress, while working to modernize the Act so it continues to meet Canadians’ needs and aspirations. It is with this outlook that I recently presented our intentions for the reform of the Act in a document entitled "English and French: Towards a Substantive Equality of Official Languages in Canada."

The year 2019–2020 was also the second year of implementation of a historic investment of $2.7 billion in initiatives under the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018-2023: Investing in Our Future. As you read through this report, you will see the results of the new initiatives in this plan, which is well under way, as well as an overview of all the actions taken by federal institutions in support of communities and bilingualism.

I am particularly proud of the progress made in creating a free app for learning and maintaining English and French, called Mauril in tribute to the Honourable Mauril Bélanger. Designed and implemented by CBC/Radio Canada, this tool will provide access to a virtual learning environment and engaging learning tools to help learners develop their understanding and expression in either official language.

I encourage you to read this report to get an overview of the work being done by Canadian Heritage and all federal institutions in support of official languages. You will see how we are pursuing the Government of Canada’s objectives and encouraging the building of an inclusive and resilient society.

The Honourable Mélanie Joly
Minister of Economic Development
and Official Languages

2019–2020 highlights

Figure 1. 2019–2020 highlights
Figure 1. 2019–2020 highlights – text version
  • Celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act and held the Symposium on the 50th Anniversary of the Official Languages Act
  • Second year of implementation of the historic investment of $2.7 billion in initiatives under the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future (Action Plan 2018–2023)
  • An additional $60 million over four years, on top of the investments under Action Plan 2018–2023, to support minority language education
  • Start of implementation of the new Court Challenges Program: 30 cases supported
  • After extensive consultations, amendments to the Official Languages (Communications with and Services to the Public) Regulations came into force in the summer of 2019, expanding bilingual services for Canadians
  • 22 school and community infrastructure projects were approved, totalling $39.1 million in funding
  • 25 new projects for Quebec’s English-speaking communities
  • 20 new Francophone organizations were selected to provide settlement services to newcomers
  • 1 memorandum of understanding was signed between Canadian Heritage and CBC/Radio-Canada, in October 2019, for the development of Mauril, a free platform for learning and maintaining English and French
  • Launch of a National Table on French as a Second Language to foster coordination and collaboration among federal, provincial and territorial government representatives and community organizations working in education and second language learning
  • 343 partnerships delivering 457 bilingual activities involving 25,149 participants through projects supporting bilingualism in Ottawa
  • Support for 36 community newspapers and radio stations through Action Plan 2018–2023
  • 19 internships in community media
  • The enhancement of bilateral agreements with territorial governments generated significant results for Francophone communities

Introduction

The year 2019–2020 was an important one for official languages. It marked the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Official Languages Act (the Act), and many federal institutions and community organizations recognized this milestone in their regular activities or by organizing targeted events.

The year began with the conclusion of a series of round tables and forums held in connection with the review by the Minister responsible for Official Languages in preparation for a modernization of the Act. A major symposium was held in May to celebrate the progress made over the past 50 years and to reflect on the place of our two official languages in Canadian society over the next 50 years. Minister Joly released the report of her consultations over the summer and was mandated in December to proceed with the modernization of the Act.

Lastly, the vast majority of the new initiatives announced in March 2018 in the Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in our Future (Action Plan 2018–2023) hit their stride in 2019–2020. In many cases, the stakeholder dialogue sessions held in 2018–2019 led federal institutions to have community organizations implement various initiatives, using a “by and for” approach.

Once again this year, the structure of the Annual Report reflects the pillars established in Action Plan 2018-2023. Following the first chapter highlighting the major events of the year, the Report describes the main initiatives undertaken to support the vital forces of communities and strengthen access to services in the minority language. The final chapter discusses the advancement of English and French in Canadian society and abroad.

1. A renewed commitment by federal institutions

This year, federal institutions once again affirmed their commitment to official languages. The Act celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2019; this important milestone was marked by many celebrations and events. This year also marked the second year of implementation of Action Plan 2018–2023. It launched reflections on the history of official languages, but also on their future, as work continued to modernize and strengthen the Act.

1.1 Strong government collaboration

Federal institutions worked together in 2019–2020 to meet the Government of Canada’s priorities regarding official languages. Pursuant to its mandate under section 42 of the Act, Canadian Heritage (PCH) coordinated activities in this area. In particular, PCH is responsible for the Steering Committee on Federal Horizontal Strategies, which met in April 2019 to discuss key elements of Action Plan 2018–2023. This committee, which reports to the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers on Official Languages, was created to assist in the horizontal coordination of official languages initiatives, including Action Plan 2018–2023. It comprises directors general representing the federal institutions that implement the initiatives set out in Annex 1 of Action Plan 2018–2023.

PCH also coordinates the national network of persons responsible for section 41 of the Official Languages Act, which seeks to encourage and promote the implementation of section 41 in federal institutions. The year 2019–2020 also saw the development of closer relationships between PCH and other federal institutions, increased awareness, accountability and mobilization of senior management in PCH and other federal institutions, as well as improved collaboration and coordination among communities and federal institutions.

To deliver on its mandate under section 42 of the Act, PCH continues to rely on its Interdepartmental Coordination Network. This network comprises national and regional employees located across Canada. In 2019–2020, considerable effort was made to foster a common vision of interdepartmental coordination both regionally and nationally, with the objective of improving collaboration and coordination between PCH and federal institutions. In addition to participating in several bilateral meetings during the year, members met in Gatineau in November 2019 to continue discussions on the network’s priorities, evaluation and future.

PCH also renewed its toolkit and in 2019–2020 made it available on Canada.ca to help federal institutions, within their mandate, fulfil their role in relation to Part VII of the Act. The Guide on Part VII of the Official Languages Act: Support to communities and promotion of English and French details the role and obligations of federal institutions under Part VII of the Act. The Reflection tool for the implementation of section 41 of the Official Languages Act (long and short versions) proposes a series of questions to help federal institutions think about what they can do to support the development of communities and promote English and French in Canadian society. The Key questions to facilitate decision-making that may impact on the implementation of section 41 of the Official Languages Act offer questions for federal institutions to consider in evaluating how their public policy and program decisions may impact on the implementation of section 41 of the Act. And the Guiding principles for the consultation process with official language minority communities suggest ways for federal institutions to hold effective consultations with stakeholders.

1.2 A brief look back at the major events of the year

The year 2019–2020 was very significant for official languages. The Act celebrated its 50th anniversary, a milestone that was marked by extensive national programming, in addition to being celebrated at numerous other events, as well as through promotional tools and visual identities. Work to modernize the Act also continued, as outlined in Minister Joly’s mandate letter, including reaching out to Canadians to learn about their priorities and the issues that are important to them. Also in 2019, the Acadian World Congress was held, the premier gathering of the Acadian diaspora, celebrating its culture and heritage.

50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act

The Act came into effect on September 7, 1969. The year 2019 marked its 50th anniversary, an important milestone for this piece of legislation that contributes to Canadians’ sense of pride and shaping their identity. An effort coordinated by PCH, the anniversary was marked in a variety of ways by many federal institutions, celebrating the history of official languages while looking to the future.

National programming

PCH coordinated national programming across the public service to mark the 50th anniversary of the Act. Once again this year, PCH, along with the Treasury Board Secretariat and the Council of the Network of Official Languages Champions, co-hosted the Official Languages Best Practices Forum, which highlighted the 50th anniversary of the Act. This much-anticipated annual public service event, attended by more than 200 people, took stock of key issues and related priorities while showcasing best practices in federal institutions.

PCH also provided funding to several organizations representing communities to implement projects celebrating this anniversary, for example, to the Association canadienne d’éducation de langue française for a project to develop 50 new instructional activities, and to the Société de la francophonie manitobaine for the creation and distribution of a magazine on the 50th anniversary of the Act.

PCH funding also enabled the Association for Canadian Studies, in partnership with Canadian Parents for French and the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, to plan and organize a national history conference to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Act. This three-day bilingual summit provided an opportunity for extensive discussion on how both official languages have shaped Canada’s historical narrative.

Other federal institutions also took the opportunity to mark the anniversary across the country. Global Affairs Canada prepared a 21-month calendar, from April 2019 to December 2020, which presented the official languages timeline and highlighted key community activities in each province and territory. The National Arts Centre (NAC) displayed the 50/50 exhibit, a look back at five decades of linguistic duality within the institution, at the Symposium on the 50th Anniversary of the Official Languages Act. Lastly, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada marked the 50th anniversary of the Act at the citizenship ceremonies held in 2019 with a mention in the bilingual speaking notes of the presiding officials of the ceremonies.

Symposium on the 50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act

Minister Joly took part in the Symposium on the 50th Anniversary of the Official Languages Act held on May 27 and 28, 2019, at the NAC in Ottawa. The much-anticipated event, organized by PCH together with Justice Canada and the Treasury Board Secretariat, in collaboration with the Canadian Foundation for Cross-Cultural Dialogue, provided an opportunity to build on the discussions that took place during consultations on the modernization of the Act between March and May 2019.

Just over 500 people attended the event, including many key official languages stakeholders and Canadians from all walks of life. Attendees were able to take part in the discussions and take advantage of the many workshops, presentations and booths run by representatives of federal institutions and community organizations. A demonstration was given of “hackathon” projects; during these earlier programming marathons, young people from all over Canada proposed innovative solutions to facilitate the use of both official languages in the digital age.

Armchair discussion on official languages

A webcast event promoted to all public servants was held on September 6, 2019, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Act. The event, organized by PCH in partnership with the Canada School of Public Service, provided an opportunity to engage federal public servants and guests representing Canadian youth on the theme “50th Anniversary of the Official Languages Act: How Today’s Youth Imagine Tomorrow’s Official Languages.” Participants were able to take part in discussions on the future of official languages and hear testimonials from people whose lives have been influenced by official languages. Spoken word artists Yao, a Franco-Ontarian, and Jamaal Jackson Rodgers, an Anglophone from Ottawa, gave bilingual performances to open and close the event, drawing inspiration from the topics discussed.

Northern lights

Once again this year, PCH held the Northern Lights show every evening from July 9 to September 8. The fifth edition of this sound and light show, which projects images on the Centre Block of Parliament in Ottawa, featured the theme “[i]f we would know something of the future, we have only to look at our past” [Notre passé illumine notre avenir]. The 60 projections drew over 230,000 spectators from Canada and abroad, and illuminated Canadian stories of nation-building, partnership, discovery, valour and pride.

The show marked the 50th anniversary of the Act in a 90-second segment describing the importance of our two official languages and their contribution to Canadian pride and identity. Community representatives from all of Canada’s provinces and territories, as well as bilingual, Anglophone and Francophone artists participated in the narration that accompanied the segment, alternating between English and French. The flags of Canada and the Canadian Francophonie, images representative of the communities as well as a mosaic of Canadian artists who have made their mark through their art in English and French were displayed on the Parliament building, showcasing official languages and their contribution to Canadian society over the past 50 years.

Promotional videos and visual identity
Figure 2: Visual identity for the 50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act

To mark the 50th anniversary of the Act, PCH launched a bilingual promotional video featuring testimonials from Canadians across the country who describe the value of learning a second official language and the sense of pride they have in speaking with their accent. PCH also worked with other federal institutions to create a variety of communication products, including an anniversary banner and logo, which were distributed and used in multiple ways across the public service to celebrate this milestone year.

Figure 3: Launch of the official coin of the 50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act

Other federal institutions also created visual elements to mark the occasion. The Royal Canadian Mint, for example, created a coin to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Act. That coin was given out as an award during various events highlighting this milestone. The official launch in June 2019 was marked by the Minister responsible for Official Languages, the Commissioner of Official Languages and the Secretary General of La Francophonie, who were present at the minting of the coin.

Excellence and leadership in official languages award
Figure 4: A team that received the Excellent and Leadership in Official Languages Award

To recognize excellence and leadership in official languages across the public service, PCH partnered with ten other federal institutions to create the Excellence and Leadership in Official Languages Award. As part of the 50th anniversary of the Act, this award recognized 50 individuals or teams in the public service whose commitment contributed to a culture of bilingualism in their federal institution and Canadian society.

The awards ceremony took place during activities highlighting the 10th anniversary of Linguistic Duality Day, on September 12, 2019. The recipients, representing 26 federal institutions from various regions across the country, received a certificate and a commemorative coin from the Royal Canadian Mint specially designed for the anniversary.

Modernization of the Official Languages Act: engaging Canadians

In 2019–2020, work continued to conduct a review leading to the modernization and strengthening of the Act. To get a sense of Canadians’ views on official languages and their future, Minister Joly took part in five regional forums and held 12 round tables between March and May 2019 in as many Canadian cities. More than 1,500 people from all walks of life participated in the discussions, which focused on the following themes:

  1. The mobilization, development and vitality of official language minority communities
  2. Federal institutions that embody official languages
  3. Promoting culture and bilingualism
  4. Official languages and Canada’s place in the world
  5. Official languages and Canada in the digital age

The points raised during the discussions, in all their diversity, reflected Canadians’ priorities with respect to the future of official languages. The Summary document: Engaging Canadians as a step towards modernizing the Official Languages Act presents the findings of these consultations. The discussions continued, and the initial reflections were explored in greater depth at the Symposium on the 50th Anniversary of the Official Languages Act held on May 27 and 28, 2019.

The consensus emerging from these pan-Canadian meetings is clear: Canadians want and expect the Act to be modernized. On the one hand, this modernization must aim to protect what has been achieved. On the other hand, it must address issues such as clarifying federal institutions’ obligations and considering official language minority communities’ specific circumstances in order to ensure that their vitality is supported with the most constructive actions possible. Canadians are concerned about defending French in Canada and are also interested in including linguistic majorities in the modernization exercise. The federal government is being asked to adapt the Act to the changes that have marked Canadian society in recent decades, including taking into account new realities such as digital technology.

Following this review, the Prime Minister confirmed in his mandate letter to Minister Joly in December 2019 that the government intends to modernize and strengthen the Act.

Acadian World Congress 2019

The Acadian World Congress (AWC) was held from August 10 to 24, 2019, in Prince Edward Island and southeastern New Brunswick. Held every five years in various regions of the Acadian diaspora, this large gathering of Acadians from all walks of life reunites families and features performances as well as cultural, social and artistic activities. More than 100,000 people participated in the AWC 2019, which provided an opportunity for the Acadian diaspora to come together and for Acadians and their communities to reaffirm their sense of belonging and pride.

PCH contributed $1.95 million to the AWC 2019, between 2015 and the date of the event. The funding was used in part to conceptualize the event. The funding was provided by PCH’s Development of Official Language Communities Program, which works to enhance the vitality of Canada’s Anglophone and Francophone minorities. AWC 2019 also received support from the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA), which awarded $1.5 million to the event organizers through its Innovative Communities Fund.

2. supporting the vital forces of communities

Having strong communities across the country contributes significantly to our cultural and social life, and to our vision of the country. Today, one million Francophones live in the provinces and territories with an Anglophone majority, and there is an equal number of English-speaking Quebecers. Again this year, several federal institutions made a direct contribution to the vitality of these communities. A growing number of their initiatives, particularly those stemming from Action Plan 2018–2023, were carried out under the "by and for" delivery model or following dialogue sessions. The initiatives are driven by the community organizations themselves.

Figure 5: Supporting the vital forces of communities: new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives
Figure 5: Supporting the vital forces of communities: new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives – text version
  • Second year of implementation of the $70 million increase over five years in core funding for community organizations, up 28%
  • 29 new organizations funded through PCH programming in 2019–2020
  • 22 school and community infrastructure projects approved, totalling $39.1 million in funding
  • Enhancement of the Community Cultural Action Fund: 10 additional cultural projects, 530 cultural activities in 822 minority schools
  • 25 new projects for Quebec’s English-speaking communities
  • Support for 36 community newspapers and radio stations through Action Plan 2018–2023
  • 19 internships in community media
  • Approximately 995 child care spaces and 202 jobs to be created with funding from the Support for Early Childhood Development program
  • 6 new contribution agreements with language training providers in support of the Francophone Integration Pathway
  • 182 clients from across Canada received language training in support of the Francophone Integration Pathway
  • 2.82% of immigrants admitted to Canada outside Quebec were French speakers, a 54% increase since 2018-2019
  • 22,618 publications dealing with Francophone immigration prepared by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada

2.1 Giving communities a voice

In response to the decline in the proportion of Francophones living outside Quebec and the particular challenges faced by English-speaking Quebecers outside Greater Montreal, Action Plan 2018–2023 proposed a series of measures to boost community action in key areas of life in society. The 2019–2020 fiscal year marks the second year of implementation of the plan.

Implementation of new action plan 2018–2023 initiatives

Action Plan 2018–2023 proposed to empower communities to see and hear one another, to mobilize, to coordinate and to take action. To do so, Action Plan 2018–2023 favoured the “by and for communities” approach in order to include communities in all decision-making processes and the delivery of projects and initiatives. This approach can be implemented in various ways, for example by having community organizations implement and administer certain initiatives. Involving these communities in decision-making processes and project planning ensures their interests are fully represented.

Increasing core funding for organizations

Community organizations reported that the freeze on funding for more than 10 years had significantly reduced their capacity to act. Action Plan 2018–2023 therefore announced a significant increase in programming funding for organizations working in the areas of community development, culture, education, health, economic development and justice. This increase, totalling $70 million over five years, will bring the core funding for organizations to $320 million over five years.

In 2019–2020, PCH was able to provide increases of 20% or more to 262 organizations, enabling them to consolidate and even expand the scope of their activities in their communities. In addition, PCH was able to provide programming funding to 29 new organizations. For example:

Through this initiative, Health Canada was able to strengthen the health networking capacity of Quebec’s English-speaking community. In 2019–2020, the Community Health and Social Services Network (CHSSN) was thus able to create two new networks (in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and Mauricie-Centre-du-Québec) and eight new satellites to further mobilize health facilities and service providers.

Lastly, the Department of Justice continued to strengthen the financial stability and organizational capacity of 12 legal organizations (11 provincial/territorial and one national) through the provision of core funding. Discussions are ongoing in Nunavut and Prince Edward Island to achieve the goal of funding one organization in every province and territory by 2020–2021.

Special fund for Quebec’s English-speaking communities

Action Plan 2018–2023 recognized that many of the programs designed to support communities were poorly adapted to the situation of Quebec’s English-speaking communities. Consequently, Action Plan 2018-2023 injected $5.3 million over five years into a special fund to support initiatives designed to improve the delivery of community services, particularly to rural and vulnerable clients.

Following a call for proposals, PCH funded 25 projects in fiscal year 2019–2020. The projects, most of which span multiple years, will enable Quebec’s English-speaking communities to gain a better understanding of how to identify, preserve and promote their local heritage. These initiatives will help break seniors’ isolation by introducing them to modern communication technologies and promoting regular exchanges with young people through intergenerational activities. Interagency partnerships have been established to help young people overcome academic challenges or deal with discrimination.

Of particular note is the Youth Employment Services Foundation’s project “Connecting Creative Youth through the Arts.” This community mobilization initiative offered a series of practical lessons enabling young people in the community to gain a better understanding of the arts and culture sector in Quebec, build networks and collectively strengthen their identity and well-being.

Seizing new opportunities: strengthening strategic investments

Action Plan 2018–2023 also provided for additional funding to support growth-generating projects enabling communities to seize new opportunities for development.

In 2019–2020, this additional funding enabled PCH to support the preliminary work leading to the launch of the Carrefour francophone du savoir et de l’innovation in Toronto, part of the Université de l’Ontario français (total amount: $1.9 million, including $1.5 million for 2019–2020). Created in partnership with other Francophone organizations, the Carrefour will assemble a community of students, professors, trainers and researchers from the Université de l’Ontario français, as well as partner institutions, organizations and businesses that will interact and pool their resources.

Investing in community gathering places

The existence of physical gathering places, such as cultural centres or community educational centres, plays a decisive role in the vitality of communities. In addition to becoming a symbol that enhances the visibility of communities, these gathering places also provide an opportunity to consolidate organizations and services for an entire population. Action Plan 2018–2023 therefore provided an additional $67.3 million over five years for the creation or renovation of educational and cultural infrastructure in the communities. A portion of this investment is earmarked for the new Community Spaces Fund, launched in April 2019. The Action Plan 2018-2023 funding is in addition to the $80 million over 10 years for community and educational infrastructure in the communities, which was announced in Budget 2017 as part of the federal government’s Investing in Canada plan. All of this PCH funding is being used to fund infrastructure projects that come under federal–provincial/territorial agreements on education (for community spaces associated with educational institutions or work related to post-secondary institutions), or to fund such initiatives directly with community organizations.

In 2019–2020, PCH was able to fund 22 new community and educational infrastructure projects in 15 different communities, including 20 provincial/territorial government projects through bilateral agreements on education. For example:

In addition, through the Community Spaces Fund, PCH supported two feasibility studies for the creation of two Maisons de la Francophonie: one in Iqaluit, Nunavut ($70,000 to the Association des francophones du Nunavut), and one in Barrie, Ontario ($50,201 to La Clé d’la Baie en Huronie).

Early learning and child care

Access to quality child care services in a minority Francophone environment is essential in ensuring the enhancement and transmission of the French language among children. This is why Action Plan 2018–2023 allocated $20 million over five years to two Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) initiatives to support professional training for child care workers and foster the development of start-up capacities by early childhood educators to open more daycares and child care services.

In 2019–2020, the Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie canadienne (ACUFC) produced a report on the status of training for early childhood educators in Francophone minority communities. The study provides provincial and territorial overviews; establishes training standards; and lists best practices in initial and continuing training, identity building, and staff recruitment and retention. The ACUFC subsequently signed 24 contribution agreements for early childhood training initiatives that will help develop training to fit the needs of Francophone communities and ensure the recruitment and retention of educators through initial and continuing training.

In November 2019, as part of the entrepreneurship for early childhood development initiative, EDSC signed an agreement with the Réseau de développement économique et d’employabilité Canada (RDÉE Canada) to coordinate and distribute funding to organizations in Francophone minority communities across Canada. The objective was to support projects that promote the creation and development of early childhood services in these communities by offering professional development opportunities to entrepreneurs and creating administrative centres to ensure the best use of resources. It is estimated that these projects will create close to 1,000 new child care spaces and 200 jobs.

Taking action to increase linguistic security

Without a doubt, 2019–2020 brought greater awareness that the future of Canada’s Francophone communities hinges on building linguistic security among Francophones, particularly among young people.

With that in mind, the Fédération de la jeunesse canadienne-française (FJCF), with support from PCH, developed the National Strategy for Linguistic Security so that “everyone can express themselves in French with confidence, resilience and pride.” This initiative was created following a symposium held in May 2019 with over 158 participants, young and old, from various sectors (education, economy, health, legal and community organizations, culture, media and youth) in all ten provinces and three territories. Launched in March 2020, the Strategy targets young people, teachers, parents and cultural stakeholders from all segments of Canadian society.

On a smaller scale, PCH supported a number of projects seeking to attain this same objective. For example:

2.2 Continuing to invest in community economic development

Economic development Initiative

Action Plan 2018–2023 marked the renewal of the Economic Development Initiative (EDI) for five more years, with a budget of $30.5 million. Under the coordination of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, the EDI’s partner regional development agencies provide financial support for economic development projects that promote diversification, business expansion, innovation and partnerships, and increased support for small and medium-sized businesses in the communities. In 2019–2020, through the EDI and their other programs, the regional development agencies contributed to numerous promising projects in all regions of the country, particularly in the tourism sector.

For example, in the Atlantic region, the ACOA supported the product development and marketing efforts of the Commission du tourisme acadien du Canada atlantique, a not-for-profit organization that represents private sector Acadian tourism operators in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. This support will help with product development and marketing activities in support of the “Expérience Acadie” tourism brand and, ultimately, should enhance the visibility, recognition and reputation of Acadian destinations in Quebec, Ontario, the New England states and Louisiana. The ACOA also supported the creation of a French tourism guide for Newfoundland and Labrador in collaboration with the province’s Réseau de développement économique et d’employabilité.

Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions supported the implementation of the 2018–2023 regional tourism action plan developed by the Committee for Anglophone Social Action. This initiative seeks to increase Anglophone participation in the tourism industry on the Gaspé Coast and the Magdalen Islands. The main activities proposed include a program identifying businesses offering services in English for English-speaking tourists, a tour showcasing key heritage features of the English-speaking community and a support service for businesses wishing to enhance their offer of English-language products and services.

The Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario (FedNor) supported the Cooperation Council of Ontario to foster community-based entrepreneurship throughout northern Ontario. The Council offers many services (management training, market studies, forums, business coaching) to support community economic development, the start-up and management of social or cooperative enterprises, and social innovation within the Francophone and Francophile community. For example, the Council supported a project to incorporate the Finlandia Cooperative of Thunder Bay Inc. The new cooperative intends to revive this historic institution and keep it in the hands of the community following the sale of the building. This project combines community economic development with cooperative and social enterprises. FedNor also supported the Regional Tourism Organization in developing Francophone travel itineraries on BaladoDiscovery, a well-established app that offers multimedia tours that can be taken on foot, by car, by bus or on a bicycle. The project involved setting up eight routes with help from partners in the communities. FedNor also funded the construction of the Mooseback Trail System in Dubreuilville, a network linking several of the region’s rural and remote Francophone communities.

Through the Canadian Experiences Fund, the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario (FedDev Ontario) was able to support projects designed to enhance the range of Francophone tourism offerings, such as the Festival de la Bine de Plantagenet, the Village d’antan franco-ontarien and the Larose Forest (United Counties of Prescott and Russell). Other supported projects showcased the rich and diverse historical contributions of Francophone communities throughout southern Ontario, such as the École de la résistance (Huronia high school) and the commemoration of Francophone heritage and travellers’ contributions in LaSalle, near Windsor.

Western Economic Diversification Canada (WD), in collaboration with the Economic Development Corporation of British Columbia (SDECB), supported the growth of new small businesses in the Kootenay region through workshops for local artisans and organizations based on the international concept of Economuseum, a business where artisan entrepreneurs practise their craft and showcase their products directly in their workshops to provide visitors with an authentic cultural experience. This initiative helped strengthen the network of Francophone entrepreneurs in the Kootenay region and establish a small business created by a Francophone artisan (Lillie & Cohoe) as a bilingual tourist attraction. Other artisans and small and medium-sized enterprises in the region are working closely with the SDECB to join British Columbia’s Economuseum network. Similarly, WD worked with the Conseil économique et coopératif de la Saskatchewan to make Francophone business Over the Hill Orchards and Winery the first accredited Economuseum in Saskatchewan. The introduction of this business model offers a unique new Canadian experience that will boost tourism in the communities.

Lastly, the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency (CanNor) supported the Conseil de développement économique des Territoires du Nord-Ouest (CDETNO) to promote tourism and provide Francophone entrepreneurs in the Northwest Territories with the tools and training they need to increase their capacity to attract new investors from key Francophone markets. By participating in targeted promotional activities and events, the CDETNO also promoted economic opportunities for the Northwest Territories in Francophone markets such as Quebec, France and Belgium. CanNor also supported a French-language tourism marketing campaign led by the Association franco-yukonnaise for Francophone markets, specifically Quebec and certain Francophone markets in Europe.

Promoting opportunities for communities

In 2019–2020, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada increased its efforts to promote the Youth Employment and Skills Program in the communities in partnership with RDÉE Canada, the Quebec Community Groups Network (QCGN) and the ACUFC. The program supports community organizations that offer a variety of activities to help young people between ages 15 and 30 overcome barriers to employment and acquire a wide range of skills and knowledge enabling them to participate in the current and future labour market. The program also provides additional incentives for young people facing barriers to employment such as disabilities, geographic isolation or other socio-economic needs. In 2019–2020, six community organizations received funding under the program, including Roots and Shoots Farm Inc. in Quebec and Cocagne Sustainable Development Group Inc. in Atlantic Canada.

Through webinars, presentations and targeted meetings, Public Services and Procurement Canada’s Office of Small and Medium Enterprises (OSME) created more opportunities to educate entrepreneurs in communities across the country on how to do business with the Government of Canada. Of particular note is the OSME’s participation in the Government of Canada pavilion at the AWC in Moncton, which provided an opportunity to network with more than 2,300 entrepreneurs, and its participation in community events in 2019–2020 where it met with more than 350 members of Quebec’s English-speaking communities. The information available to entrepreneurs on how to sell goods and services and respond to federal government calls for tenders enhances their business success and generates economic benefits for their local communities.

In 2019–2020, through its partnership with RDÉE Canada, Destination Canada continued to promote the Corridor (corridorcanada.ca), a select range of Francophone heritage, cultural and tourism products in Canada that offer visitor services in French. This initiative further encourages tourism in Francophone communities by providing global visibility for their tourism products and enhancing Canada’s reputation as an officially bilingual and culturally diverse destination. In addition, through the partnership, Destination Canada provides RDÉE Canada’s provincial and territorial partners with research data on the factors that drive travellers from France to visit Canada and travellers from Quebec to venture outside their province. These data enable businesses in each region to adapt their tourism offer to a wider market.

Social partnership initiative in the communities

Employment and Social Development Canada’s Social Partnership Initiative aims to help community organizations find new sources of income to develop and support local activities that enhance social and economic participation in their communities. Two partner organizations were selected to coordinate the initiative: the Fédération des aînées et aînés francophones du Canada (FAAFC) for Francophone communities, and the Quebec Community Groups Network (QCGN) for English-speaking communities.

In its first year of funding, the FAAFC successfully conducted an open call for proposals and signed funding agreements with 18 umbrella organizations. Already, the projects have reached 375,386 Francophones and Francophiles across the country and served 16,029 citizens in more than 365 Francophone communities. The FAAFC also raised $1,704,607 in funding from other sources, representing 61% of its overall goal.

Meanwhile, the QCGN issued an open call for proposals and received a total of 28 proposals, 10 of which were selected to receive funding. The QCGN also established key partnerships with the John Molson School of Business Community Service Initiative, which will provide in-kind support to assist organizations in creating projects and building their organizational capacity, and with LEARN Quebec, Innoweave and ThinkR (McGill University) to begin developing an action plan for a mentoring program.

2.3 Promoting vibrant media for informed communities

Implementation of new action plan 2018–2023 initiatives

The crisis affecting traditional media has not spared minority media, newspapers and community radio stations, which are often the only ones serving their communities in their language. Action Plan 2018–2023 therefore provided for two new measures totalling $14.5 million in investments.

Following dialogue sessions with representatives of official language minority community media in 2018 and 2019, PCH’s new Community Media Strategic Support Fund ($10 million over five years) was launched in the fall of 2019. Officially piloted by the Association de la presse francophone on behalf of the Consortium of Official Language Minority Community Media (comprising the Alliance des radios communautaires du Canada, the Association de la presse francophone, the Quebec Community Newspapers Association and the English Language Arts Network), this fund aims to build the capacity of radio stations and newspapers by helping them create business plans, adapt their structure or diversify their revenue sources.

In 2019–2020, the fund supported 36 official language minority community media: 17 French-language radio stations (out of a total of 27), nine French-language newspapers (out of 26), nine English-language newspapers (out of 30) and one English-language radio station (out of six).

In addition, in order to train a new generation of community media professionals, Action Plan 2018–2023 provided $4.5 million over five years to create internships offering young students and graduates the opportunity to develop their skills. Managed by the FJCF as part of the Young Canada Works program, this initiative led to the creation of 19 internships in community newspapers and radio stations in 2019–2020.

Other support for community media

In addition to the measures taken under Action Plan 2018–2023, a number of regular programs contributed to the vitality of community media once again this year.

For instance, the Aid to Publishers component of the Canada Periodical Fund awarded nearly $800,000 to periodicals from the communities, including Le Moniteur Acadien in New Brunswick, La Liberté in Manitoba, Le Franco in Alberta, and Maisonneuve in Quebec. The Canada Periodical Fund is also responsible for the Local Journalism Initiative, which in 2019–2020 disbursed $1.4 million to 73 recipients for community services through seven not-for-profit administrator organizations including the Association de la presse francophone and the Quebec Community Newspapers Association. This funding contributed to the hiring of 73 journalists published in 174 communities across the country.

PCH continued to support the renewal of equipment in community radio stations in all regions of the country. In 2019–2020, five radio stations benefited from this type of grant, including the Coopérative Radio Richmond in Petit-de-Grat, Nova Scotia. With this support, the station was able to replace the transmitter and purchase a remote monitor so it could respond more quickly in emergencies. The purchase of this equipment will ensure the continued delivery of web-based radio content to the Francophone community of Isle Madame and its surrounding area.

In an effort to train the next generation, PCH’s Community Cultural Action Fund supported the Association des radios communautaires acadiennes du Nouveau-Brunswick’s “En mode radio-école” project, which introduced 350 young people between ages 10 and 20 in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to radio production. For several months, the young people took part in weekly theoretical and practical training sessions offered by employees of the 14 Francophone community radio stations in the Atlantic region. Subsequently, young people from each region had the opportunity to produce several hours of radio programs to be aired on community radio stations. In addition to supporting the production capacity of student radio stations in Acadia, this project will also help prepare a new generation of young people to become involved in Francophone community radio stations in the Atlantic region.

2.4 Fostering cultural outreach

Initiatives in the field of arts and culture help bring communities together. They serve as catalysts and strengthen the vitality and identity of communities. In order to promote collaboration among federal institutions and communities, thereby supporting the implementation of positive measures in this sector, PCH and the Fédération culturelle canadienne-française (FCCF) are coordinating the Collaboration Agreement for the Development of Arts and Culture in the Francophone Minority Communities of Canada 2018–2023. The six federal institutions that are signatories to the agreement (PCH, NAC, Canada Council for the Arts, National Film Board, CBC/Radio-Canada and Telefilm Canada) participate in working groups co-chaired by federal and community representatives in order to advance the priorities established by the committee of signatories.

Figure 6: Some key figures on Canadian Heritage and Canada Council for the Arts support to community artists in 2019–2020
Figure 6: Some key figures on Canadian Heritage and Canada Council for the Arts support to community artists in 2019–2020 – text version
  • $1,150,000: Funding provided by Canadian Heritage for the organization of music showcases promoting market access for community artists and organizations
    • 761 music showcases
    • 329 community-based artists or arts organizations
  • $550,000: Funding in 2019–2020 from the Canada Council for the Arts to assist community artists or arts organizations in accessing existing or promising markets and in touring
    • 33 artists or arts organizations receiving funding
  • $7,328,364: Total Canada Council for the Arts funding to community artists and arts organizations in 2019–2020 
    • $3,737,710 to individuals, groups and organizations in English-speaking communities
    • $3,590,654 to individuals, groups and organizations in Francophone communities
  • The Canada Media Fund invested:
    • $14.2 M in the production of French-language programs outside Quebec for 27 productions and 33 development projects
    • $14.2 M in the production of English-language programs in Quebec for 19 projects
  • More than 91 French-language Canadian productions, totalling more than 523 hours, were broadcast on TV5MONDE, a channel available in 197 countries and territories
  • 6 organizations supported by the Canada Book Fund for the marketing and promotion of community-authored books
  • 35 publishers received funding to translate 67 Canadian-authored books (in English or French)
  • $800,000 from the Canada Periodical Fund goes to community periodicals

Implementation of new action plan 2018–2023 initiatives

To increase the number of local and regional cultural activities in minority communities and schools, Action Plan 2018–2023 provided $11 million over five years, doubling PCH’s Community Cultural Action Fund.

Through the Community Cultural Action Fund, in 2019–2020, PCH reached agreements to create two micro-grants programs to support minority schools and communities through cultural and artistic activities: PassePART (delivered by the FCCF for French activities outside Quebec) and ArtistsInspire Grants (delivered by the English Language Arts Network for English activities in Quebec). In 2019–2020, 680 French schools took part in the PassePART program, and 142 English schools received ArtistsInspire Grants. These micro-grants were used to carry out various projects. For example:

Content Production

In 2019-2020, PCH’s Canada Media Fund invested $14.2 million in the production of French-language programs outside Quebec. The Francophone Minority Program supported 27 productions and 33 development projects. In addition, $14.2 million went to the production of English-language programs in Quebec, supporting 19 projects. As part of the Collaboration Agreement for the Development of Arts and Culture in the Francophone Minority Communities of Canada 2018-2023, the Canada Media Fund actively participates in the Media Arts Working Group, which is a mechanism for consultation and collaboration between the Francophone community and federal institutions on the measures to be put in place to foster the vitality of the artistic and cultural sector of the Canadian Francophonie.

Broadcasting

TV5, which is partially funded by PCH, contributes to Canada’s international outreach by offering French-Canadian artists, artisans and producers a prime showcase abroad. In 2019–2020, 91 French-Canadian productions (523 hours) were broadcast on TV5MONDE, made available in 197 countries and territories around the world and subtitled in 14 languages. Many of these programs were produced or co-produced outside Quebec, including Cowboy urbain in Alberta, Les Newbies in New Brunswick and À la Valdrague in New Brunswick. PCH will invest an additional $14.6 million over five years to set up the new French-language digital platform TV5MONDEplus, to be launched in the fall of 2020. This investment aims to enhance the online presence of French-language content, increase the visibility of French-Canadian content, provide additional outreach opportunities for Canadian artists and producers, and facilitate access to French-Canadian programming worldwide.

The Alliance des producteurs francophones du Canada, in partnership with Telefilm Canada and the Canada Media Fund, has created a bank of tools and templates to help all French-Canadian producers increase the “discoverability” of relevant content targeting community audiences. Several other cultural sectors, such as the music and publishing industries, will benefit from the information gathered and templates created through this project.

In 2019–2020, the Canada Council for the Arts disbursed a total of $550,000 under the Market Access Strategy Fund to fund 36 projects. These initiatives reached artists and organizations in 14 communities across Canada. The fund supported a wide range of activities, including marketing presentations, networking events, promotional materials, translations, marketing strategies and performances.

Bringing art and culture to the heart of communities

In addition to the previously mentioned results relating to the new funding in Action Plan 2018-2023, PCH’s Community Cultural Action Fund supports and strengthens the cultural, artistic and heritage expressions of communities. It encourages community members to become directly involved in the creation and appreciation of artistic and cultural expression. Of the 78 projects supported in 2019–2020, we note the following:

2.5 Increasing francophone immigration

New action plan 2018–2023 initiatives: consolidated francophone integration pathway

Immigration plays a decisive role in the vitality of communities. Action Plan 2018–2023 therefore allocated significant funding to this component (more than $40 million in additional funding over five years) to bring the proportion of Francophone immigrants outside Quebec to 4.4% by 2023 (it was 2.8% in 2019). These efforts are intended to create a truly consolidated Francophone integration pathway that would start before the immigrant arrives in Canada and support them until they become a citizen.

Figure 7: Francophone Immigration Strategy - Meeting our objectives

These activities are consistent with the second year of the Francophone Immigration Strategy, which aims to achieve three main objectives to support the vitality of the Francophone communities:

Strengthening the capacity of the francophone settlement sector

In 2019–2020, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) implemented the Francophone Integration Pathway to strengthen settlement and resettlement services offered to French-speaking clients by Francophone organizations. The increased support for the Francophone Immigration Networks (RIF) enabled greater coordination among service providers. A call for proposals also allowed for an increase from 50 to 70 in the number of Francophone organizations selected to provide settlement services. IRCC was thus able to better meet the needs of Francophone newcomers, including refugees. In addition, about a dozen recommended projects will be implemented beginning in April 2020. These projects provide access to training, tools and best practices to support Francophone service providers in building their capacity to work with various target segments of the Francophone immigrant population, such as women, seniors, families and refugees. In 2019–2020, 7,908 French-speaking clients accessed at least one service offered by a Francophone provider.

In October 2019, IRCC funding enabled the Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne (FCFA) to organize a forum involving all key stakeholders of the Welcoming Francophone Communities Initiative (RIF coordinators and community advisory board members) across Canada. This is one of the ways the FCFA has contributed to building the capacity of the RIF and their partners, and better equipping their representatives.

New welcoming francophone communities initiative

In 2019–2020, the 14 communities selected to participate in the Welcoming Francophone Communities Initiative established local community advisory boards that are diverse and representative of their respective communities, and developed community business plans that they submitted to IRCC in the fall of 2019. These community plans will subsequently be used to develop contribution agreements and will be signed as early as April 2020.

The 14 communities selected to welcome Francophone newcomers are:

Language training in support of the francophone integration pathway

In 2019–2020, IRCC signed contribution agreements with six language training providers, and discussions are ongoing with a seventh organization. The addition of these services offers newcomers an opportunity to get intensive training in one of Canada’s official languages and improve their proficiency in the other. At the same time, this experience enables them to acquire the English and French language skills they need on a daily basis, at work and in their new Francophone community. To date, 182 clients across Canada have participated in this training.

Promotion and recruitment abroad and in Canada

Events held abroad to promote Francophone immigration are essential. They present the Franco-Canadian reality to hundreds of millions of French speakers around the world. These events also connect potential candidates, employers, stakeholders and government officials with one another in order to build relationships, create employment opportunities, exchange ideas and influence policy.

In 2019–2020, IRCC organized 407 events in its network abroad where the topic of Francophone immigration was highlighted or was included in a broader presentation to a pool of potential candidates. Of these events, 206 were information sessions on the Express Entry, Francophone Mobility and Study Permit programs.

The department’s flagship activity, Destination Canada Mobility Forum, alone accounts for 94 events. More than 11,000 people applied to attend the forum, 2,800 of whom were invited. These participants were selected by IRCC and its partners, France’s and Belgium’s public employment services. In April 2019, IRCC also supported the “Destination Acadie” project, an initiative of the Atlantic provinces consisting of nine events held in France, Portugal and Morocco.

Through its programs promoting economic immigration, IRCC has an extensive network of outreach officers across Canada who organize hundreds of information sessions every year with employers, international students, Francophone community organizations and participating communities. In 2019–2020, these officers promoted Francophone immigration at 349 events held across Canada, including 37 in communities participating in the Rural and Northern Immigration Pilot. They actively participated in organizing and presenting liaison tours, which promote the recruitment of Francophones and the Destination Canada program to employers across the country. They also made 93 presentations to students at designated educational institutions, with a particular focus on the additional points awarded under the Express Entry system for French language proficiency and bilingualism, and on settlement assistance for Francophones.

Strengthening coordination and policies

Lastly, Action Plan 2018–2023 investments enabled IRCC to increase its capacities for internal and external stakeholder coordination, reporting and research. For example, since July 2019, IRCC has been producing a quarterly dashboard on Francophone immigration to Canada outside Quebec. This tool contains data based on the new, more accurate and more inclusive measure concerning French-speaking immigrants and provides information on highlights observed, including admissions of French-speaking immigrants, trends in temporary migration (Francophone Mobility), an inventory of applications from French-speaking candidates, and updates on promotion and recruitment support activities.

Express entry

In June 2017, IRCC made changes to the Express Entry basic points system to award additional points to candidates with strong French language skills. These additional points increase the likelihood that the candidate will receive an invitation to apply for permanent residence under one of Canada’s economic immigration programs managed by Express Entry. As a result, in 2019, a total of 4.0% of Express Entry admissions outside Quebec were Francophone applicants, compared to 2.3% in 2018 and 2.4% in 2017. This percentage represents approximately 5,500 Francophone permanent residents outside Quebec selected in the economic category, which corresponds to about two-thirds (65%) of all Francophone admissions outside Quebec.

Provincial settlement memoranda of understanding

Newcomer settlement and integration require the coordinated efforts of the federal government, communities, and provincial and territorial governments. IRCC therefore has bilateral settlement memoranda of understanding in place with Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, British Columbia and the Yukon. These memoranda of understanding are key to formalizing relationships and ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness of bilateral settlement programs.

3. Strengthening access to services

Access to quality public services in one’s own language plays an important role in increasing the recognition of communities and supporting their vitality. In addition to offering federal services in both official languages, a number of federal institutions are working with communities to improve access to essential services through the new measures in Action Plan 2018–2023 or through their regular programs.

Figure 8: Strengthening access to services: new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives
Figure 8: Strengthening access to services: new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives – text version
  • 3 enhanced bilateral agreements with the territories for the delivery of services in the minority language, in effect in 2019–2020
  • $60 million in additional funding over four years, on top of investments, under Action Plan 2018–2023, to support minority language education
  • $265 million awarded to the provinces and territories to support minority language education
  • 9 provinces and territories benefited from at least one teacher recruitment or retention initiative in French minority schools
  • 5 Canada-wide projects by national community organizations for teacher recruitment or retention in French minority schools
  • 40 projects funded by Vice-Versa to enrich the life of civic community schools, totalling 5,863 student participants in 371 French schools outside Quebec
  • 64 funded projects carried out by 24 organizations and associations, 6 academic institutions and 7 provincial governments to increase the capacity of the justice system and its stakeholders to offer services in both official languages
  • 30 cases supported by the Court Challenges Program, totalling $1.7 million
  • 10 funded projects to mobilize various players to provide end-of-life support to individuals (and their families) in the communities
  • 45 funded projects aiming to improve access to early childhood health promotion programs for vulnerable families in the communities reached 2,764 participants:
    • Men (fathers): 204
    • Women (mothers): 780
    • Pregnant women: 65
    • Children (0-6 years): 1,715

3.1 Support for minority language education

Implementation of new action plan 2018–2023 initiatives

Schools play a fundamental role in the transmission of language and culture within communities. However, minority schools, pillars of their community, face significant challenges in accomplishing their mission. Therefore, in addition to maintaining existing federal programs, Action Plan 2018–2023 provided for new measures to strengthen relations between minority schools and communities and help recruit qualified teachers.

Civic community school support fund

Action Plan 2018–2023 invested $5.3 million over four years beginning in 2019–2020 to enrich French minority schools with identity-building and cultural activities. Through micro-grants administered by the FJCF (Vice-Versa program), PCH’s Civic Community School Support Fund helps Francophone organizations lead community school projects in partnership with schools. In 2019–2020, the first year of the fund, these micro-grants were awarded to 371 schools (out of 721 French schools outside Quebec) and reached more than 5,800 students. School projects were carried out on themes including the environment, civic engagement, personal and social development, entrepreneurship, as well as physical and mental health.

For instance, a group of students from École Carrefour de l’Acadie in Dieppe, New Brunswick, were given an opportunity to build relationships with seniors in the community. As part of their French course, the students began corresponding with seniors in the “Pivot santé pour aînés” program. In addition, three social gatherings were held with residents of a seniors’ home, providing opportunities for sharing and collaborative activities.

In recognition of the Month of La Francophonie and Nutrition Month, and in partnership with the Association franco-yukonnaise, grade 5 and 6 students at École Émilie-Tremblay in Whitehorse, Yukon, organized a food fair at their school. To prepare for this activity, the students took part in workshops on healthy eating. The students then set up a food fair in the school gymnasium to share lessons learned and healthy recipes. A meal was prepared for all elementary students, parents and members of the community.

To support this first year of the fund, the Fédération nationale des conseils scolaires francophones conducted a promotional campaign among its 28 member school boards and their schools.

Teacher recruitment and retention strategy

As part of Action Plan 2018–2023, an envelope of $31.3 million over four years, beginning in 2019–2020, was established to support teacher recruitment and retention in French minority schools. Following consultations, PCH launched a national call for proposals to the provinces and territories, community organizations and professional associations to identify projects that will help better understand the shortage in the teaching sector, promote teaching as a career, or develop and deliver continuing education for practising teachers. In 2019–2020, PCH invested a total of approximately $15.8 million to support 28 projects. For example:

Federal–provincial/territorial agreements

The Protocol for Agreements for Minority-Language Education and Second-Language Instruction 2019–2020 to 2022–2023 between the Government of Canada and the provinces and territories, except Quebec, was reached in February 2020. The new protocol contains the guiding principles for intergovernmental collaboration in minority language education and second language instruction, including the importance of transparency and accountability to taxpayers, collaboration and consultation with key stakeholders, recognition of the education continuum, and respect for the provinces’ and territories’ exclusive jurisdiction in education.

The protocol also provides for an additional contribution of $60 million over four years, which will be made available to the provinces and territories beginning in 2019–2020 to increase support for minority language education. The allocation of this funding, announced in Budget 2019, is conditional on enhanced commitments to reporting and stakeholder consultation in bilateral agreements on education with these governments.

After this new protocol was reached, bilateral agreements on education were concluded with each province and territory, including the province of Quebec. The agreements vary from one to four years. Multi-year service agreements were reached with most of the provinces and territories. Agreements with Quebec and Alberta ended in March 2020 and will be renegotiated for renewal until 2022–2023.

In 2019–2020, PCH allocated nearly $165 million to the provinces and territories through bilateral agreements supporting minority language education, in English in Quebec and in French elsewhere in Canada. These agreements help ensure that more than 250,000 elementary and high students benefit from quality education in school boards controlled by their communities. The agreements also support program development at colleges and universities that serve minority communities across Canada. Lastly, this PCH program supports one-time projects of importance in developing minority language education. For example, in 2019–2020:

Partnerships for knowledge

With funding from PCH, the Réseau des cégeps et des collèges francophones du Canada was able to further its project to create interprovincial cooperation between CEGEPs in Quebec and Francophone colleges outside Quebec in the field of technical and vocational training. In 2019–2020, the Réseau supported a collaboration between the Centre collégial d’expertise en gérontologie (Cégep de Drummondville) and Collège Boréal in Ontario for the purpose of creating a guide for implementing a geriatric simulator in a nursing department [Guide d’implantation d’une unité de simulation en gérontologie dans un département de soins infirmiers], as well as a collaboration between Collège La Cité in Ontario and Collège Mathieu in Saskatchewan for the implementation of a journalism techniques program at Collège Mathieu.

A partnership between the Canada Science and Technology Museum and the Conseil des écoles catholiques du Centre-Est led to offering a summer science camp to Kingston’s Francophone community. Camp Robo-lab was offered exclusively in French at École secondaire catholique Marie-Rivier in Kingston. In total, 41 young people between ages 7 and 12 participated in the camp.

In the Atlantic region, a memorandum of understanding with the Criminology program at the Université de Moncton enabled Correctional Services Canada to provide teaching and leadership development resources and offer internships to more than 60 students in the program. This arrangement allows students to gain front-line experience and exposure to the criminal justice system, while providing them with employment opportunities upon graduating.

Natural Resources Canada continues to actively engage with Francophone communities to promote scientific studies and inform young people of employment opportunities in the field of science. For example, Natural Resources Canada’s CanmetENERGY, Canada’s leading agency for clean energy research and technology, hosted an outreach event in collaboration with the Collège catholique Franco Ouest in Ottawa. The purpose of the event was to encourage high school students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics and to provide them with information on the Department’s clean energy research and development. Natural Resources Canada is also working with the Conseil des écoles catholiques du Centre-Est to offer French-language co-op placements to students.

In 2019–2020, Global Affairs Canada’s International Education Division organized more than 270 events to promote education, including fairs around the world. Many of these events were held in predominantly Francophone countries in an effort to attract international students to various bilingual and French-language educational institutions in communities across Canada. In collaboration with the ACUFC, the division also supported Canada’s language schools in attracting students to French-language programs, particularly in Francophone minority settings.

3.2 Improving access to justice

Implementation of new action plan 2018–2023 initiatives

Access to justice is a very important value for Canadian society, and the communities are no exception. Action Plan 2018–2023 therefore invested an additional $10 million in the Access to Justice in Both Official Languages Support Fund administered by Justice Canada, bringing the funding to more than $50 million over five years.

In 2019–2020, the Support Fund funded 64 projects carried out by 24 organizations and associations, six academic institutions and seven provincial governments. These projects increased the capacity of the justice system and its stakeholders to offer services in both official languages.

The majority of projects focused on raising awareness of rights through legal information activities. This includes, for example, funding the Côte-Nord Community Justice Centre in Quebec to provide legal information to English-speaking communities that are currently underserved. The Support Fund also facilitated the creation of similar partnerships with the Fédération des francophones de Terre-Neuve et du Labrador, the Association franco-yukonnaise and the Fédération franco-ténoise to reach underserved Francophone communities.

Other projects contributed to the development of curricula and of language tools and language training for legal professionals. The Support Fund also assisted with the translation of 122 judgments in 2019–2020. Lastly, a new family justice training project was set up by the Centre canadien de français juridique. Twenty-one participants took part in this project, bringing the number of professionals who have received training to 351.

New court challenges program

The new PCH-funded Court Challenges Program, implemented and administered by the University of Ottawa, has been operational since January 2019. It aims to facilitate access to justice and ensure government accountability in the protection of human rights and official languages rights. It contributes to community development by providing funding to protect and enforce official languages rights. In 2019–2020, the Court Challenges Program supported 30 cases involving official languages rights, totalling $1.7 million.

3.3 Access to health care and social services in the minority language

Implementation of new action plan 2018–2023 initiatives

Action Plan 2018-2023 announced an additional investment of $22.5 million over five years to improve access to health care services in the communities. Of this amount, $12.5 million would support the three components of Health Canada’s Official Languages Health Contribution Program (OLHCP) (training, networking and innovative projects), bringing the total funding to more than $186 million over five years. An investment of $10 million over five years in the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) was also intended to help improve the health of young children.

Training and retention

In 2019–2020, the OLHCP supported various training and retention initiatives to increase the number of bilingual health care professionals and improve access to services in the communities.

Outside Quebec, the 16 member institutions of the Consortium national de formation en santé (CNFS), five of which were added in 2018–2019 with funding from Action Plan 2018–2023, posted 1,095 additional enrolments and 712 graduates from 108 health care training programs. According to the latest survey conducted in the first half of 2020, 88% of these graduates were employed in Francophone minority communities and 96% of them reported offering services in French in their workplace.

In Quebec, McGill University enrolled more than 1,636 health care and social services professionals in its language training program. In total, 1,229 health care professionals completed their language training, representing a success rate of 75%.

Health networking

Each network funded by Health Canada unites a region’s Anglophone or Francophone minority community in order to mobilize health care institutions, facilities and service providers to improve health conditions in the communities.

In 2019–2020 in Quebec, the CHSSN supported the creation of three new networks (Montérégie East Partnership for the English-speaking Community, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean English Community Organization, and the Centre for Access to Services in English in Mauricie-Centre-du-Québec) and 10 new satellites, in addition to funding the 20 existing networks. These efforts expanded the networks’ reach in Quebec to facilitate access to health care services for English-speaking Quebecers in the language of their choice. The 23 networks provide opportunities, resources, tools and data to inform the planning, development and implementation of initiatives to meet the health care needs of English-speaking Quebecers.

Outside Quebec, the 16 networks of the Société Santé en français (SSF) developed collaborations with local health care decision-makers and stakeholders in order to better serve Francophone minority communities. For example:

Innovative projects

The innovative projects component enables Health Canada and its partners to fund knowledge development and dissemination to improve health outcomes in the communities. In 2019–2020, these activities led to the publication of research on understanding emotions in young Francophone children and on the mental health of students in minority communities. In addition, 15 new research projects were approved (coordinated by the CNFS [9] and McGill University [6]). They cover topics as diverse as the study of job integration experiences in Francophone minority settings among interns and professionals from immigrant backgrounds, linguistically and culturally sensitive psychotherapy, and the provision of palliative and end-of-life care in minority communities in Quebec. The results of the studies will be used by the communities and health care institutions to facilitate informed decision-making in the planning, development and implementation of health care services that take into account the specific needs and priorities of minority communities.

Early childhood health

Through Action Plan 2018–2023, PHAC received $10 million over five years to support vulnerable families and young children in the communities. The Healthy Early Years program, made possible with this funding, supports early intervention and prevention activities to give children from birth to age 6 a better start in life, including preparing them to start school and improving their chances of becoming healthy adults who participate fully in Canadian society.

PHAC opted to deliver its program using the “by and for” communities approach by signing contribution agreements with the SSF and CHSSN in September 2019. These agreements will enable PHAC to better reach targeted vulnerable families and young children in the communities. For fiscal year 2019–2020, these partners funded projects from 46 organizations in all provinces and territories. These projects include activities tailored to local needs and aim to support parents and young children by providing counselling before, during and after pregnancy; teaching parenting skills; educating them on healthy eating; and promoting mental health.

A focus on seniors

Employment and Social Development Canada’s New Horizons for Seniors Program aims to increase the social inclusion of seniors by funding projects that reach the most vulnerable seniors, including those from a community. For example, in 2019–2020:

Canada’s first national dementia strategy (A Dementia Strategy for Canada: Together We Aspire) developed by PHAC highlights the lack of culturally appropriate information about dementia in English in Quebec and in French in the rest of Canada. This situation can affect quality of care, diagnosis, treatment and patient safety. Through this strategy, in 2019–2020 PHAC funded seven projects targeting minority communities in New Brunswick, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Ontario.

3.4 Agreements with the provinces and territories on minority language services

For over 30 years, the Government of Canada has been encouraging and helping the provinces and territories to offer provincial and municipal services in the minority language. Thanks to this support and the spirit of interprovincial and interterritorial cooperation established by the Ministerial Conference on the Canadian Francophonie (MCCF), today nine out of ten provinces have adopted legislation or policies guaranteeing certain services in the language of their minority or recognizing the contribution of this community.

In addition to supporting the provincial governments, the Government of Canada has an obligation to fund the implementation of French-language services in the three territories. Action Plan 2018-2023 therefore provided for significant additional spending ($60 million over five years) for the three territories. Considerable progress was made in 2019–2020 in each of these jurisdictions.

The territories

The enhancement of bilateral agreements with the territories led to the achievement of significant results in Francophone communities.

The provinces

Through its agreements with the provincial governments, PCH contributed to the completion of many diverse projects:

4. Promotion of official languages

Pursuant to the Act, federal institutions commit to fostering the full recognition and use of both English and French in Canadian society. This means, of course, promoting second language learning, but also encouraging Canadians to reach out to the other language group and gain a better appreciation of their language and its diverse cultures.

Figure 9: Promotion of official languages: new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives
Figure 9: Promotion of official languages: new Action Plan 2018–2023 initiatives – text version
  • 1 memorandum of understanding signed between PCH and CBC/Radio-Canada in October 2019 for the development of Mauril, a free online platform for learning and maintaining English and French
  • 5,614 participants in the Explore program
    • 38 institutions
  • 312 participants in the Odyssey program
    • Nearly 40,000 students had the opportunity to improve their language skills with help from an Odyssey program monitor
  • 1 contribution agreement signed amounting to $12 million over four years in order to implement bursaries for post-secondary education in French as a second language
  • 9 provinces and territories benefited from at least one recruitment or retention initiative targeting French immersion and French second language teachers
  • 5 pan-Canadian projects led by national community organizations to recruit or retain French immersion and French second language teachers
  • Statistics Canada took part in 16 research activities and developed 18 analytical products on official languages and the communities
  • 53 projects funded by the Bilingual Ottawa program to enhance the bilingual character of Canada’s capital
  • An additional $1.2 million for green jobs under Young Canada Works

4.1 Support for second language learning

Action Plan 2018–2023 set ambitious goals for second language learning in English and French in Canada. It set a target to increase the national rate of bilingualism from 17.9% in 2016 to 20% in 2036, notably by increasing the proportion of bilingual Anglophones outside Quebec from 6.8% to 9%. To realize this goal, the government intended to rely on new Action Plan initiatives, as well as ongoing actions by other governments and commitments from civil society organizations.

Implementation of new action plan 2018–2023 initiatives

Free learning for everyone

In an effort to offer all Canadians the opportunity to learn their second language, Action Plan 2018–2023 allocated $16.5 million to create a mobile app to achieve this goal. A memorandum of understanding was signed between PCH and CBC/Radio-Canada in October 2019 to develop this free app for learning and maintaining English and French. Called Mauril, in tribute to the Honourable Mauril Bélanger, a champion of Canada’s official languages, this tool will provide access to a virtual learning environment, materials based on Canadian current events, Canadian cultural and artistic content, educational resources to progress from beginner to advanced levels, and stimulating instructional tools to develop understanding and expression. The app will be launched and available to the general public in February 2021.

Increasing core funding for organizations

In addition to increasing programming funding for organizations working in community development, Action Plan 2018–2023 also increased the core funding for organizations promoting and supporting second language learning in French. In 2019–2020, PCH was thus able to award increases of 20% or more to 14 organizations, enabling them to strengthen and even expand their activities to support linguistic duality across the country.

Teacher recruitment and retention strategy

Though second language enrolments continue to grow, particularly in French immersion programs, all school boards in Canada face challenges in recruiting and retaining qualified teachers for the various French second language programs. Action Plan 2018–2023 proposed to inject $31.3 million over five years to help overcome these challenges. After extensive consultations in 2018–2019 with the provinces and territories and with national organizations that could help respond to this challenge, PCH finalized the program design and issued a call for proposals. Recruitment efforts will be made, but efforts will also be made to promote second language instruction as a career and provide ongoing support to those already working in the field.

Twenty-one projects received funding in 2019–2020, totalling an investment of $14.4 million. For example:

Opportunities for young people: post-secondary bursaries in french

Action Plan 2018–2023 also announced the creation of a new bursary program to encourage Anglophone students, particularly those coming out of immersion programs, to pursue post-secondary studies in French. An agreement was reached in September 2019 with the ACUFC to manage the program, in collaboration with 25 post-secondary institutions across Canada (15 universities and 10 colleges). The program will be fully operational in 2020–2021, and 850 bursaries of $3,000 each will be awarded annually until 2023.

Language monitors and summer programs

Since 1971, the Government of Canada has been offering young Canadians aged 16 and 17 the opportunity to immerse themselves in their second language in another part of the country. Over the years, more than 300,000 young people have participated in this summer program. Managed by the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC), the Explore program enabled 5,614 participants to study in 38 educational institutions in 2019–2020. Funding for Explore is provided directly to post-secondary institutions to cover participants’ tuition fees, course materials, meals and accommodations, workshops and other cultural activities. With these costs steadily increasing, the future of the program was in jeopardy. Action Plan 2018–2023 therefore announced an investment of $21 million over five years to increase the funding per participant from $2,200 to $2,800.

Also in 2019–2020, PCH and CMEC launched a Mini Explore program, to test the idea of introducing a new younger group (ages 13 to 15) for a shorter period of time (three weeks instead of five). Demand for the Mini Explore program in 2019 far exceeded supply, with 1,211 applications for 321 available spots.

The Odyssey program connects young elementary and high school students with second language monitors. The monitors support teachers and plan and lead daily activities to motivate students to learn more. For many students, this is the only contact they have with someone who is a native speaker of the language they are studying. In 2019–2020, 312 monitors were deployed across the country during the school year. School boards see this program as a complement to the Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy. To maintain the program’s appeal, Action Plan 2018–2023 announced an investment of $17.5 million over five years to raise the monitors’ pay from $18,500 to $25,000 per year and gradually increase the number of monitors in schools from 300 to 350 in 2021–2022. Initial results show that 84% of instructors surveyed were satisfied with their pay (compared to 44% in 2018) and 87% indicated that they would like to pursue a career in education. It is estimated that a total of approximately 42,000 elementary and high school students are connected with an Odyssey language monitor each year.

Continued presence in Canadian schools

For more than 50 years, PCH has supported teaching English and French as a second language in schools across Canada through agreements with the provinces and territories. In 2019–2020, these agreements totalled $86.3 million and helped nearly 2.5 million young Canadians attend second language programs, including more than 470,000 in French immersion outside Quebec. In 2019–2020, the projects supported under these agreements included:

In May 2019, representatives of the federal, provincial and territorial governments and community organizations working in education and second language learning agreed to establish a National Table on French as a Second Language to discuss common issues and foster coordination and collaboration among members. The Canadian Association of Immersion Professionals will serve as the Table’s secretariat. The first item on the agenda was the recruitment and retention of French second language teachers.

Canadian Heritage also piloted the Bilingual Advantage Initiative—micro-funding available to French second language teachers who wish to offer concrete experiences to their students in grades 3 to 9 through activities outside the classroom. In 2019–2020, 53 projects were funded across the country.

Other federal institutions support learning in schools. For example, Natural Resources Canada’s Atlantic Forestry Centre in New Brunswick participated in the annual River Valley Regional Science Fair organized by Science East. The science fair featured projects by English and French immersion students. The Centre provided judges for projects completed by Francophone high school students.

Figure 10: Increase in the number of enrolments in French immersion programs offered outside Quebec since 2003
Figure 10: Increase in the number of enrolments in French immersion programs offered outside Quebec since 2003 – text version
Year Number of enrolments in French immersion programs outside Quebec
2003–2004 282,837
2004–2005 288,970
2005–2006 295,197
2006–2007 300,464
2007–2008 311,115
2008–2009 317,662
2009–2010 328,716
2010–2011 341,694
2011–2012 356,580
2012–2013 372,879
2013–2014 392,430
2014–2015 409,899
2015–2016 428,619
2016–2017 449,769
2017–2018 463,119
2018–2019 477,675

68.9% increase since 2003–2004

Language training in family law

With assistance from Justice Canada’s Support Fund, the Centre canadien de français juridique offered terminology webinars as well as in-person training in legal French in the area of family law, including terminology related to the Divorce Act, parental obligations and support payments. More than 100 participants (legal aid lawyers, court interpreters, court clerks, etc.) from all regions of the country took part in this first training session, notably during national criminal law training week in Victoria in January 2020.

4.2 Fostering gathering and connection

Federal institutions strive to offer their services in both official languages so that Canadians can access them in the language of their choice. Some institutions take special measures to reach minority communities directly in all regions of the country. But some federal institutions go even further and organize or support activities that directly bring Anglophones and Francophones together and help each discover and appreciate the other’s language and culture. It is these activities that we would like to highlight here.

Language and cultural exchanges

PCH’s Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages program has provided many students and graduates with access to work experiences in an environment where they are improving their second language or working in both official languages, or are working with official language minority communities, often in another part of the country. A total of 776 jobs have been created under the program. Of these, 181 jobs were created in organizations or companies working specifically in the green economy, or in fields that require special skills to produce an environmental benefit for the organization, its users, or the community as a whole.

Moreover, 16 international internships were created under PCH’s Young Canada Works program for careers in English and French. These graduates were able to improve their English and French language skills while gaining skills and work experience abroad. The internships included a placement in Belgium as a communications officer serving immigrants, a placement in Benin at a village radio station in the commune of Sô-Ava, a French teaching placement in Guatemala, and a placement as a bilingual assistant in a school for activities and courses in China.

Lastly, the Exchanges Canada program has helped more than 12,000 young people travel to Canada through reciprocal bilingual exchanges, summer work experiences in their second official language, conferences and workshops. In 2018–2019 (the most recent year for which data are available), in collaboration with Destination Canada, more than 3,500 young people had the opportunity to visit a community in another part of the country and, afterwards, to host young people from the region they visited in their own community.

Furthermore, 660 young people aged 16 and 17 were given summer job opportunities in their second official language.

Festive events and gatherings

PCH’s Canada Arts Presentation Fund supports professional arts festivals and performances that foster the advancement of English and French in Canadian society. For example:

PCH’s Building Communities Through Arts and Heritage program funded over 737 festivals in 411 communities across Canada. These events are an opportunity for Canadians to celebrate their history and heritage and bring Anglophones and Francophones closer together. For example:

Every year, PCH’s Celebrations and Commemorations program supports approximately 1,600 community events across Canada to celebrate Canada Day and other days of national significance during the Celebrate Canada period. These celebrations have brought together close to 8 million Canadians, including those in the communities, to celebrate and appreciate Canada’s linguistic duality. In 2019–2020, the program funded more than 100 events celebrating Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day in most of Canada’s provinces and territories, reaching close to 1.4 million Canadians. These celebrations lead to cultural exchanges that foster greater recognition of Canada’s linguistic duality.

PCH’s Enhancement of Official Languages program also supports gathering and awareness activities. For example:

PCH and WD support the Festival du Voyageur in St. Boniface, Manitoba, the largest winter festival in western Canada. The Festival showcases and shares French-Canadian, First Nations and Métis cultures in a 10-day celebration of the fur trade, and draws more than 100,000 visitors each year, most of them English speakers.

Getting to know one another better

As part of their mandate, a number of federal institutions have taken to heart the need to help people get to know one another by organizing or supporting activities directly bringing together Anglophones and Francophones from all walks of life.

In its strategic plan, the NAC committed to seizing every possible opportunity to adapt its activities, programs and events for audiences in both official languages. In all of its programming, the NAC is committed to creating a space where artists and audiences of both languages and diversity can meet and exchange ideas. This approach of gathering and discovery was taken to the next level with the launch of the NAC Indigenous Theatre in 2019–2020. For example, Indigenous Theatre and French Theatre teamed up to present Là où le sang se mêle, the French version of Where the Blood Mixes. The almost exclusively Indigenous cast gave seven performances of the play, which combined English and French against an Indigenous backdrop. It generated many stimulating exchanges about languages and cultures, the experiences of Indigenous peoples, and the complexities of cross-cultural communication. The Indigenous Theatre’s artistic season was a veritable mosaic of languages and cultures reaching far beyond the two official languages. Wolastoqey, Innu, Inuktitut and Nattilik were featured in the season.

Through its funding programs, the Canada Council for the Arts supports many cultural organizations or events that unite Anglophones and Francophones and promote mutual discovery and understanding. For example:

To mark the 50th anniversary of the Act, the Société Radio-Canada broadcast Bi, an intimate, insightful and humorous documentary on the challenges and issues surrounding Canadian bilingualism. It examines the views of people in different regions of the country and delves into the world of Anglophone, Francophone, Indigenous and Allophone citizens of all ages.

In celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Act, a group of professionals from Library and Archives Canada (LAC) presented a public reading of archival excerpts and published documents to showcase unusual or particularly interesting aspects of LAC’s documentary heritage associated with official languages. While celebrating the anniversary, the initiative provided an opportunity for Anglophones and Francophones to come together and interact, to better get to know and appreciate one another.

Status of Women Canada encourages large Anglophone women’s organizations to reach out to and include Francophone women and women’s organizations in their activities. For example, PARO Centre for Women’s Enterprise, an organization located in Thunder Bay that provides training and support to women entrepreneurs, received funding to extend its reach to more Francophone women looking to start or expand their businesses. The organization arranged to have its program translated into French, hired bilingual team members to serve Francophone communities and partnered with organizations such as the Oasis Centre des Femmes, Centr’Elles, the Association des francophones du Nord-Ouest de l’Ontario, and Entrepreneurs Francophones PLUS.

Statistics Canada has developed a number of analytical products relating to official languages. These include a study and infographics to better understand the evolution, dynamics and factors associated with the acquisition and maintenance of English-French bilingualism among children and youth in Canada. Another study sought to provide an overview of the evolution of English-French bilingualism in Canada over the half-century following the adoption of the Act in 1969. The study presents the historical and political contexts as well as some of the demographic factors that have influenced the evolution of bilingualism. The role that the acquisition and maintenance of English-French bilingualism will play over the next two decades is also discussed.

Every year, Canada Post issues between 40 and 50 stamps on approximately 20 different subjects or themes. Many of these stamps will pay tribute to the cultural roles and contributions of prominent Canadians, celebrate our country’s natural resources, or highlight historical events that have promoted English and French in Canadian society. In 2019–2020, Canada Post marked the 150th anniversary of the Red River Resistance, the career of Leonard Cohen, and the contribution of Canadian aerospace manufacturer Héroux-Devtek to the Apollo 11 mission. Canada Post also marked the 150th anniversaries of the Princess Louise Fusiliers of Halifax, Nova Scotia, the St. Lawrence Fusiliers of Rimouski, Quebec, and the Fusiliers Mont-Royal of Montreal, Quebec, to honour the lasting contributions of Canada’s English- and French-speaking military personnel.

Under the Appreciation and Rapprochement component of the Official Languages Support Programs, PCH supports the activities of not-for-profit organizations that promote gatherings of Anglophones and Francophones. For example, in 2019–2020:

Lastly, in 2019, Destination Canada renewed its brand targeting foreign and Canadian consumers to appeal to the desire and passion for travel. The brand’s evolution was shaped by the results of extensive market research among travellers. An essential part of the work involved studying the nuances of Canada’s two official languages to ensure that the new brand created a strong emotional connection with Canadians at home, in both English and French, as well as with international travellers. The new slogans, “Canada. For Glowing Hearts” in English and “Canada. Le cœur grand ouvert” in French, are an invitation to get to know the people, the land and the local culture. The new brand has been deployed at home and abroad, thereby showcasing Canada’s linguistic duality.

Support for translation

Every year, PCH supports non-governmental organizations that wish to offer services in both official languages at public events and increase the availability of their materials in both official languages. In 2019–2020, the Enhancement of Official Languages Program supported 123 translation and interpretation projects. The funded activities create opportunities for Canadians to connect with one another and promote a better understanding and appreciation of the benefits of knowing and using both official languages in Canada.

Every year, the Canada Council for the Arts organizes the Translation Rights Fair for English- and French-language book publishers, a unique opportunity for Canada’s two publishing communities to come together to exchange information, share knowledge and promote their love of Canadian books, writers and literature. In 2019–2020, for its tenth edition, more than 100 people attended the fair including 85 English- and French-language publishers, through the Salon du livre de Montréal in November. The fair has become a flagship event thanks to the concerted efforts of the Council and PCH through the National Translation Program for Book Publishing.

In supporting publishers, the Canada Book Fund gives greater weight to translations of Canadian-authored books. In 2019–2020, 412 books were translated into English or French, giving Canadians better access to their country’s cultural wealth.

Bilingual character of Canada’s capital

In December 2017, the City of Ottawa’s bilingualism policy and French language services by-law were enshrined in the provincial City of Ottawa Act, thereby recognizing the city’s bilingual character. This was a major symbolic development for the capital of a bilingual country. But beyond municipal services, other important partners must be involved so that visitors and residents alike can witness the city’s bilingual character. In 2019–2020, the Government of Canada took concrete measures to reinforce the presence of both languages in Ottawa.

As part of its French language services agreement with the City of Ottawa, PCH supported the “One City, Two Languages” project to actively offer services to citizens, designed to increase the city’s capacity to support its employees in promoting an active offer of high-quality French-language services to residents and visitors to the nation’s capital, to strengthen the city’s bilingual character, and to enhance French-language programming in recreation and culture.

In addition, $1.25 million in funding over two years was provided to the Association of francophone communities of Ottawa to support bilingualism in Ottawa, including the establishment of a micro-grant program (Bilingual Ottawa) targeting not-for-profit organizations, social and cooperative enterprises and private businesses. The funded activities focus on community vitality, inclusion, community economic development, and bridging the gap between English and French speakers. In 2019–2020, the projects which received support funded 55 projects, created 343 partnerships, delivered 457 bilingual activities, and reached 25,149 participants.

Since 2004, PCH has supported the Regroupement des gens d’affaires de la capitale nationale’s Business Assistance Project, which provides development, support and information opportunities to strengthen bilingualism in businesses in the City of Ottawa and the National Capital Region. In 2019–2020, the association began building a database and publishing a qualitative classification directory of French-language services to better promote the efforts of businesses to offer bilingual services. This is in addition to recurring activities to educate businesses and consumers on the benefits of offering services in both official languages, to offer a low-cost translation service, to deliver French second-language development workshops focusing on customer service, and to facilitate the recruitment of bilingual staff.

Lastly, PCH’s Capital Experience continues to make every effort to ensure that cultural events held in the National Capital Region reflect Canada’s linguistic duality for more than 10 million visitors each year. For example, the launch of Christmas Lights Across Canada brought together Franco-Ontarian artist Damien Robitaille, Alberta artist Kiesza and Indigenous artist Tomson Highway in a multimedia show projected on Parliament Hill. The Canada Day noon and evening shows on Parliament Hill also feature French, English and Indigenous Canadian artists. These shows were broadcast in English and French to more than 11 million Canadians across the country.

Conclusion

The year 2019–2020 saw considerable progress made and significant milestones reached with respect to official languages.

After a year of preparation and dialogue sessions, the implementation of Action Plan 2018-2023 initiatives hit its stride. Be it through increased funding for community organizations, support for media or funding for infrastructure or gathering places, the progress is already remarkable. Projects aimed at recruiting French minority and second language teachers are under way. The enhanced structure of the Francophone immigration pathway is in place. Language exchange programs have been modernized and strengthened. And the list could go on.

Many federal institutions marked the 50th anniversary of the Official Languages Act, each in their own way. They took the opportunity to educate Canadians on the benefits of Canada’s linguistic duality or to highlight the contributions of the communities. A major symposium drew more than 500 people in Ottawa to reflect on the progress made over the past 50 years and to look towards the future.

Over the course of the year, the Minister responsible for Official Languages tabled a report on her exploratory consultations and her review of the conditions leading to a modernization of the Official Languages Act. In December, the Prime Minister gave her a mandate to modernize and strengthen the Act. This project would then take an important step forward on February 19, 2021 with the release of a document, entitled "English and French: Towards a Substantive Equality of Official Languages in Canada," which presents a range of changes and new measures to establish a new linguistic balance in Canada.

Everything was in place for other significant developments in 2020–2021, until something new came along that would disrupt the plans. The final days of 2019–2020 revealed the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and launched Canadians into their first weeks of nationwide lockdown. In the coming months, Canadian society will face unprecedented challenges. The world of official languages will be no exception, as community and cultural organizations will be vulnerable, and government institutions will have to quickly adapt to telework and the shift to virtual environments in order to maintain their day-to-day operations while developing and implementing emergency support measures.

Despite the turmoil, the government will stay the course!

Appendix 1: 2019-2020 Summary of government investments in official languages (including initiatives of Action Plan 2018-2023)

Table 1: 2019-2020 Summary of government investments in official languages
Initiatives Total allocated from 2018 to 2023 (in dollars) Planned Spending 2019-2020 (in dollars) Actual Spending 2019-2020 (in dollars) 2019-2020 Results
Canadian Heritage – historical base
Minority-language education (federal-provincial-territorial agreements) 805,100,000 157,257,357 164,912,889

Number of bilateral agreements on education with the provinces and territories: 13 bilateral agreements. New Brunswick, the Northwest Territories and Saskatchewan negotiated multi-year agreements (2019–2023) while the other provinces and territories negotiated bilateral agreements for one year (2019–2020).

Number of provincial and territorial projects and activities targeting education in the language of the communities: 9 projects (complementary funding)

Percentage of enrolments in the minority system: maintained rate of 4% of all school enrolments in the minority system (5.2% in 2018–2019)

Cooperation with the non-governmental sector (minority-language organizations) 8,750,000 1,750,000 1,750,000 Number of activities and projects receiving support for minority language education: 4 programs and 10 projects
Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority-Languages Services (federal-provincial-territorial agreements) 81,000,000 15,187,000 14,983,500 Number of bilateral agreements with the provinces and territories for minority language service delivery: 13 bilateral agreements in effect for 2019–2020. Multi-year agreements with the three territories ended on March 31, 2020, as did the agreements with Alberta (2018–2020) and Quebec (2019–2020). The other 8 provinces have multi-year agreements in place for 2018–2023.
Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority-Languages Services (federal-provincial-territorial agreements) 159,500,000 32,238,550 32,238,550

Number of collaboration agreements (with representatives of the communities in the provinces and territories): 13 community collaboration agreements

Number of projects receiving support: 463 projects receiving support (263 programming and 200 projects)

Strategic fundsFootnote 1 22,500,000 4,450,000 3,844,071 Number of strategic projects receiving funding: 20 projects
Community Cultural Action Fund 10,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 Number of cultural projects receiving funding: 78 projects
Support for second-language learning (federal-provincial-territorial agreements) 448,000,000 89,467,838 87,100,815

Number of bilateral agreements on education with the provinces and territories: 13 bilateral agreements. New Brunswick, the Northwest Territories and Saskatchewan negotiated multi-year agreements (2019–2023) while the other provinces and territories negotiated bilateral agreements for one year (2019–2020).

Number of provincial and territorial projects and activities targeting second language instruction: 7 projects (complementary funding)

Percentage of student enrolments in second language programs: 53.5% of enrolments in 2018–2019

Cooperation with the non-governmental sector (second-language organizations) 4,850,000 1,025,000 1,025,000 Number of activities and projects for second language instruction: 13 projects (3 programming and 10 projects)
Summer language bursaries (Explore, Destination Clic) 84,500,000 16,923,407 16,923,407

Number of agreements with the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) for awarding bursaries: 1 contribution agreement in effect for 2019–2020

Number of registrations in bursary programs: 5,782 participants (5,614 in Explore and 168 in Destination Clic) as well as 321 participants in the Mini-Explore program

Official-language monitors (Odyssey) 35,500,000 7,114,318 7,114,398

Number of agreements with CMEC for monitor positions: 1 contribution agreement in effect for 2019–2020

Number of participants in the Odyssey language monitors program: 312 participants (minority language and second language)

Promotion of linguistic duality (appreciation and rapprochement) 18,500,000 3,700,000 3,361,373 Number of projects receiving support: 33 projects (12 programming and 21 projects)
Promotion of bilingual services in the voluntary sector 1,100,000 212,571 212,606 Number of projects by not-for-profit organizations receiving support: 6 projects
Support for interpretation and translation 2,500,000 500,000 493,549 Number of projects by not-for-profit organizations receiving support: 123 projects receiving support
Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages 18,630,000 3,805,060 5,005,060

Number of students registered:

  • Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages (YCWBOL): 589
  • Young Canada Works at Building Careers in English and French (YCWBCEF): 29

Number of participating employers:

  • YCWBOL: 342
  • YCWBCEF: 65

Number of students who reported that they increased their employment skills, improving their employability, in an official language environment: 95%

Level of student satisfaction with their work experience: 86%

Note that this information is provided on a voluntary basis and is not representative of all participants.

Exchanges Canada (official-language initiative) 11,250,000 2,250,000 2,040,000

In 2018–2019 (most recent data) with $2.5 million, the Exchanges Canada Program provided about 12,000 young people with an opportunity to participate in forums and exchanges. Many of these activities enabled young Canadians to practise and improve their second language while connecting with young people from others parts of Canada.

The target of at least 80% was exceeded for the program’s three results indicators:

  1. Young participants enhance their knowledge and understanding of Canada;
  2. Young participants connect and create linkages with one another; and
  3. Young participants enhance their appreciation of the diversity and shared aspects of the Canadian experience.

In 2018–2019, the young participants confirmed they had:

  1. enhanced their knowledge and understanding of Canada (87%);
  2. connected and created linkages with one another (91%); and
  3. enhanced their appreciation of the diversity (87%) and shared aspects of the Canadian experience (82%).
Music Showcases Program for Artists from official-language minority communities 5,750,000 1,150,000 1,150,000

The contribution agreements between the Department of Canadian Heritage and the two third-party administrators of the Canada Music Fund, FACTOR and Musicaction, enabled the disbursement of contributions to organize music showcases for artists from OLMCs.

In 2019–2020, over 329 artists from OLMCs took part in more than 761 music showcases at regional, national and international events, in addition to participating in several tours. Many of the music showcases receiving support included a digital promotion component.

Ultimately, since the initiative’s launch in 2008, artists from OLMCs have been exposed to a larger audience, while OLMCs have had access to programming in their language (regional and national showcases). Concretely, the target is to support 200 artists and 400 showcases each year, compared with only 40 artists and 85 showcases prior to 2008. This has resulted in greater access (i.e. consumption) to music by artists from OLMCs, in multiple formats (live performances, online access, album sales, etc.).

National Translation Program for Book Publishing 4,000,000 800,000 800,000

Number of publishers that received a grant (single publishers): 35

Number of new business collaborations (original book publisher and the publisher of the translation working together for the first time on a translation supported by the Program): 39

Number of new collaborations on a book in the context of an existing business relationship (two publishers that previously worked together on a book translation with Program support working together again to translate another book): 27

Number of Canadian-authored books translated with Program support: 67

Canadian Heritage – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023Footnote 2
Additional funding for community organizations 57,370,000 11,475,000 11,324,610

Number of organizations receiving a 20% increase in programming funding in 2018–2019 (stabilized): 276 organizations

Number of organizations receiving an increase of more than 20% in core funding in 2019–2020: 160 organizations

Number of new organizations receiving programming funding: 29 new organizations in 2019–2020

Enhancement of the Community Cultural Action Fund 11,160,000 2,400,000 2,519,518

Number of projects receiving funding: 10 cultural projects receiving funding

Number of cultural activities for minority schools:

  • PassepART: 393 activities
  • ArtistsInspire Grants: 137 activities

Number of minority schools partnering in a cultural activity through the program: 822 schools

  • 680 participating schools of a total of 721 targeted (French schools outside Quebec)
  • 142 participating schools of a total of 297 targeted (English schools in Quebec)
Funding for Quebec English-speaking communitiesFootnote 3 5,280,000 1,200,000 949,682 Number of initiatives and projects receiving funding through the new fund: 25 projects
Strengthening community media and radio (Strategic support & Ensuring succession)Footnote 4 14,530,000 4,727,947 4,422,069

Number of radio stations and newspapers receiving support through service organizations (Association de la presse francophone, on behalf of the Consortium of Official Language Minority Community Media): 36 community radio stations and newspapers

  • 17 French language radio stations (of a total of 27 French language radio stations) = 63% of French language radio stations received funding from the Support Fund
  • 9 French language newspapers (of a total of 26 French language newspapers) = 34.5% of French language newspapers received funding from the Support Fund
  • 9 English language newspapers (of a total of 30 English language newspapers) = 30% of English language newspapers received funding from the Support Fund
  • 1 English language radio station (of a total of 6 English language radio stations) = 16.5% of English language radio stations received funding from the Support Fund

Number of domestic internships created in minority community media in 2019–2020: 18 internships

  • 6 French language newspapers (outside Quebec)
  • 9 French language radio stations (outside Quebec)
  • 3 English language newspapers (in Quebec)
Support for community spaces – infrastructureFootnote 5 67,250,000 14,800,000 9,926,953

Number of community educational infrastructure projects for OLMCs funded by PCH: 20 new projects

  • 18 provincial/territorial projects under bilateral agreements on education
  • 2 projects under the Community Spaces Fund

Number of separate OLMCs receiving investments for community educational infrastructure projects: 15 OLMCs

Strengthening strategic investment capacity 10,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 Number of additional strategic projects receiving funding: 2 additional strategic projects, including a project promoting the bilingual character of Canada’s capital
Support to Civic Community School Initiative 5,250,000 1,024,660 1,024,660

Number of students who participated in a civic community school project funded by PCH: 5,863 students

Number of civic community school projects undertaken with support from PCH: 40 projects

Number of French minority schools affected: 371 participating schools of a total of 721 targeted (French schools outside Quebec)

Recruitment of teachers for minority community schoolsFootnote 6 31,290,000 8,415,000 2,214,104

Number of provinces/territories benefiting from a teacher recruitment or retention initiative in French minority schools: 9 provinces/territories benefited from at least 1 initiative; 5 pan-Canadian projects were also approved

Percentage of initiatives with measurable benefits on the ground: to be confirmed by 2023

Enhanced support for French-language services in the territories (2017) 60,000,000 12,000,000 10,129,790 Number of bilateral agreements with the territories, with enhancements, for minority language service delivery: 3 bilateral agreements in place in 2019–2020
Support for educational community infrastructure ($80 million over 10 years) (2017)Footnote 7 28,000,000 3,892,062 2,165,687

Number of community educational infrastructure projects for OLMCs funded by PCH in the provinces and territories: 5 new projects

Number of separate OLMCs receiving investments for community educational infrastructure projects: 5 new separate OLMCs

Mobile application for learning French and English as a second language 16,500,000 6,000,000 6,000,000

A memorandum of understanding was signed between Canadian Heritage and CBC/Radio-Canada in October 2019 for the development of Mauril, a free platform for learning and maintaining English and French, which will enable all Canadians to develop skills in their second official language.

Mauril will provide access to a virtual learning environment, materials based on Canadian current events, Canadian cultural and artistic content, educational resources to progress from beginner to advanced levels, and stimulating instructional tools to develop understanding and expression.

Enhanced support for Explore language bursaries 21,000,000 4,200,000 4,200,000

Annual number of participants in the Explore program funded by PCH: 5,614 participants in the Explore program

Number of participating institutions: 38 institutions

Enhanced support for Odyssey official-language monitors 17,500,000 3,500,000 3,500,000

Number of students per year who are given an opportunity to improve their language skills through contact with an Odyssey language monitor: nearly 40,000 students

Number of annual participants in the Odyssey program whose participation is funded by PCH: 312 participants (minority language/second language)

Bursaries for post-secondary education in French as a second language 12,600,000 3,000,000 3,000,000 Number of young people with English as their first official language spoken who received a bursary from this program to pursue post-secondary studies in French: 0 young people received a bursary in 2019–2020. The contribution agreement was signed on September 4, 2019. As the 2019–2020 school year had already begun, the 2019–2020 funding was disbursed to post-secondary institutions prior to March 31, 2020, to award bursaries to students by March 31, 2021.
Recruitment of teachers for French immersion schools Footnote 8 31,290,000 8,415,000 2,988,411

Number of provinces/territories benefiting from a French immersion or French second language teacher recruitment or retention initiative: 9 provinces/territories benefited from at least 1 initiative; 5 pan-Canadian projects were also approved

Percentage of initiatives with measurable benefits on the ground: to be confirmed by 2023

Additional support for Young Canada Works in Both Official Languages (2017)Footnote 9 1,200,000 0 0 N/A
Employment and Social Development Canada – historical base
Social Partnership Initiative in OLMCs 4,000,000 1,150,000 1,149,953

Fédération des aînées et aînés francophones du Canada (FAAFC)

In its first year of funding, the FAAFC successfully conducted an open call for proposals and signed funding agreements with 18 organizations that will help 34 organizations work together and benefit from this funding. Already, the projects have reached 42,559 Francophones and Francophiles across the country, served 4,558 citizens in more than 185 Francophone OLMCs and mobilized 185 partners to support the projects in various ways. The projects also include 284 direct interventions led by volunteers, a support measure benefiting their community. The FAAFC also raised $1,704,607 in funding from other sources, representing 61% of its ultimate goal.

Quebec Community Groups Network (QCGN)

In July 2019, the QCGN planned and successfully launched an open call for proposals. It received a total of 28 proposals, 10 of which were selected to receive funding. Because of COVID-19, the 10 organizations selected had to close in mid-March. This therefore delayed the finalization and signing of the memoranda of understanding with them. In light of this situation, the QCGN decided to give more flexibility to the 10 organizations to amend or defer their projects.

In the first 10 months of the project, the QCGN established key partnerships with the John Molson School of Business Community Service Initiative, which will provide in-kind support to help recipient organizations in all areas of organizational capacity and project development, and with LEARN Québec, Innoweave and ThinkR (McGill University) to start developing an action plan for a mentoring program. It also raised about $5,000 in in-kind support from other sources.

OLMC Literacy and Essential Skills Initiative 7,500,000 1,500,000 1,924,358

The “Tourism and Francophone Human Resources in Official Language Minority Communities (OLMCs): An Integrated Approach” project has a goal to integrate essential skills into a tourism-related training program in order to provide less-literate Francophone participants, including newcomers, with essential skills needed in the hotel industry in Ontario. Through this project, 76 people have received training and 66% of them have gotten jobs.

Another project of the Coalition ontarienne de formation des adultes (COFA), “Réseau pancanadien de formation à distance pour le développement des compétences essentielles (2019–2023),” which aims to expand the successful online training platform funded by the Government of Ontario for Francophone OLMCs in Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, continued. This project targets Francophone adults with low literacy, numeracy, computer and communication skills. The project focuses on improving participants’ employability skills, taking into account local labour market demands. This project is still in the preliminary stages. Various contracts have been signed with service providers in order to expand the platform to different jurisdictions. Training tools have been developed for trainers. Preparations for the platform’s launch in Nova Scotia began towards the end of the year, but the launch was cancelled because of COVID-19.

A contribution agreement was signed with the Réseau pour le développement de l’alphabétisme et des compétences (RESDAC) to establish a national entity for literacy and essential skills in OLMCs. This initiative is currently facing implementation challenges that have been accentuated by COVID-19. ESDC is working with partners in Quebec’s English-speaking OLMCs and Francophone OLMCs elsewhere in Canada to come up with alternatives that may satisfy stakeholders.

Enabling Fund for OLMCs (Employability and economic development) including the increase in core funding to organizations ($4.5 million out of five) 73,500,000 14,457,755 14,178,768

14 multi-year agreements are in place to support a network of 14 organizations across Canada—1 national organization and 1 organization in each province and territory—to strengthen their capacity in human resource development and community economic development. The 14 organizations provide local leadership, promote partnerships, implement projects, address gaps in services and rely on networks for coordinated action.

In fiscal year 2019–2020, recipient organizations of the Enabling Fund for OLMCs established more than 4,300 partnerships with public, private, not-for-profit, community, volunteer and charitable organizations. In total, the recipients were able to raise approximately $2 from these partnerships for every dollar invested by the Enabling Fund for OLMCs.

Employment and Social Development Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Support for early childhood development - Support for the opening of daycares and daycare services 6,849,682 1,253,029 1,253,029

ESDC signed an agreement with the Réseau de développement économique et d’employabilité Canada (RDÉE Canada) to coordinate and distribute funding to Francophone minority community organizations throughout Canada. The objective is to support projects that promote the creation and development of early childhood services in these communities by offering professional development opportunities to entrepreneurs and creating administrative centres to ensure the best use of resources.

RDÉE Canada signed 12 sub-agreements with service providers to implement projects. The number of child care spaces and jobs to be created are estimated at 995 and 202 respectively.

The early childhood initiative began in November 2019. Given the short period of implementation, some results are not yet available.

Support for early childhood development - Training and capacity building for early childhood educators 13,150,000 2,608,095 4,077,907

The ACUFC’s project “Formation et renforcement des capacités des éducateurs/éducatrices de la petite enfance – Phase 1” ended on March 31, 2020. The project’s objective was to conduct an inventory of training for early childhood educators in Francophone minority communities. The ACUFC, in collaboration with its partners, completed the inventory including provincial and territorial profiles for each province and territory compiled in five reports available at https://acufc.ca/petiteenfance/. The inventory and technical reports will inform the community’s early childhood needs and lead to projects designed to improve the quality of early childhood services in Francophone OLMCs.

A new multi-year funding agreement with intermediary organization ACUFC was put in place for Phase 2 of the “Formation et renforcement des capacités des éducateurs/éducatrices de la petite enfance” project. From July 15, 2019, to June 30, 2023, the ACUFC, in collaboration with four intermediary partner organizations, will support the implementation of initiatives in the early childhood sector in Acadian and Francophone minority communities in Canada. Through its call for proposals in place from November 29, 2019, to January 20, 2020, the ACUFC established 24 contribution agreements for early childhood training initiatives for a period of two years. The selected projects will achieve the following objectives: develop training to fit the needs of Francophone OLMCs; and ensure the recruitment and retention of early childhood educators in Francophone OLMCs through initial and continuing training.

Health Canada – historical base
Official Languages Health Contribution Program (Networks, Training and Access to Health Services) 174,300,000 34,960,000 36,731,529

In 2019–2020, Health Canada continued to fund initiatives to improve access to health care services for OLMCs. Overall, the actual impacts of these initiatives include:

  1. increased availability of health care service providers with the knowledge and skills necessary to meet the health care needs of OLMCs; and
  2. networking with various health partners to improve access to health care services, and understanding and measurement of health care-related challenges and issues in OLMCs.

Through the Official Languages Health Contribution Program (OLHCP), Health Canada continued to provide financial support to designated recipients (the Société Santé en français [SSF], the Association des collèges et universités de la francophonie canadienne-Consortium national de formation en santé [ACUFC-CNFS], McGill University, and the Community Health and Social Services Network [CHSSN]) for initiatives relating to:

  1. training;
  2. networking with health partners; and
  3. innovative projects.
Health Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Additional Funding for community organizations 4,400,000 880,000 880,000 Idem.
Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program - Training and Retention of Health Human Resources 5,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 In 2019–2020, the five post-secondary institutions that joined the ACUFC-CNFS in 2018–2019 continued to recruit students and now offer training opportunities in health care fields. Students are thus able to gain knowledge and skills necessary to serve OLMCs in remote or underserved areas. These institutions contributed to an increase in the knowledge and skills required to work in OLMCs by offering targeted training opportunities to students in health care fields.
Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program – Strengthening the Capacity of English-Language Health Networks in Quebec 3,500,000 700,000 700,000 In 2019–2020, through its activities and partnerships, the CHSSN used $700,000 to continue to build its capacity to improve health outcomes in Quebec’s English-speaking communities through the creation of two new networks and eight new satellites. In so doing, the CHSSN fully achieved the new funding objectives set out in the Action Plan (creation of three new networks and ten satellites), as the others (one network and two satellites) were created in 2018–2019.
Enhancement of the Official Languages Health Contribution Program – Innovation Projects 4,000,000 1,000,000 1,168,000 In 2019–2020, Health Canada launched a call for innovative projects to improve access to health care services and selected 8 innovative projects from the 112 proposals received.
Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada – historical base
Immigration to official-languages minority communities 29,408,190 5,881,638 5,881,638

Promotional activities abroad

IRCC organized 399 events in its network abroad in 2019–2020 where the topic of Francophone immigration was highlighted or was included in a broader presentation to a pool of potential candidates. It is worth noting that several of the events scheduled in March 2020 were cancelled or deferred because of COVID-19.

Promotional activities in Canada

In 2019–2020, IRCC promoted Francophone immigration at 349 events across Canada. IRCC also made 93 presentations to students in designated learning institutions (DLIs), focusing on the additional points awarded in the Express Entry system for French proficiency and bilingualism, and on settlement assistance for Francophones. Lastly, the Department participated in seven events specifically targeting Francophone organizations providing services outside Quebec in order to promote permanent residence pathways to temporary residents and/or Francophone employers.

Research report

In 2019–2020, IRCC completed three funded research studies on the following topics:

  • The professional integration of Francophone immigrants in the education field in Canada outside Quebec
  • The professional integration of Francophone immigrants in the health care field in Canada outside Quebec
  • Drivers and challenges for Francophone immigrant entrepreneurs and self-employed workers in Canada outside Quebec

Coordination

Two external liaison activities (IRCC-FMC; Francophone round table, sessions with RIF, etc.) in 2019–2020. Although IRCC worked closely with the FCFA to organize a meeting of the IRCC-FMC Committee in 2019–2020, the meeting was rescheduled for May 5, 2020, to avoid the spread of COVID-19.

Welcome and settlement services and structures

In 2019–2020, 7,908 French-speaking clients accessed at least one service offered by a Francophone service provider, representing 51% of Francophone newcomers. In 2018–2019, this number was 44%.

In 2019–2020, 783 French-speaking clients accessed at least one service offered by a Francophone organization, representing 76% of French-speaking clients who received at least one settlement service.

Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Francophone integration pathway 36,553,615 4,241,738 4,051,093

In 2019–2020, IRCC implemented the Francophone Integration Pathway, which aims to strengthen settlement and resettlement services offered to French-speaking clients by Francophone organizations, and promote awareness of settlement and integration services to newcomers of all language backgrounds. The National Call For Proposals for the Settlement and Resettlement Program made consolidating the Francophone Integration Pathway a priority. The increased support for the Francophone immigration networks (RIF) enabled greater coordination among Francophone service providers. This translated to an increase in the number of Francophone settlement service providers, from 50 to 70 Francophone organizations selected to provide settlement services. OLSP funding provided financial support to certain projects.

In 2019–2020, the 14 communities selected to participate in the Welcoming Francophone Communities initiative established local community advisory boards that are diverse and representative of their respective communities, and developed community business plans that they submitted to IRCC in the fall of 2019. These community plans will subsequently be used to develop contribution agreements and will be signed as early as April 2020.

In 2019–2020, IRCC signed contribution agreements with six language training service providers in support of the Francophone Integration Pathway. Discussions are ongoing with a seventh organization. These new services will enable newcomers to get intensive training in one of Canada’s official languages while improving their skills in the other.

In 2019–2020, 182 clients across Canada received language training services in support of the Francophone Integration Pathway. Many factors explain why the target of 500 clients was not met in 2019–2020. First, the services were not offered throughout the entire year. The contribution agreements for these new services were signed early in the second quarter of 2019–2020 and courses did not begin until mid-September. Furthermore, since some organizations were launching programs for the first time, many of their activities were devoted to course planning and promotion, as well as recruitment. Second, the contribution agreement has still not been signed for one of the selected organizations, which has delayed the project. And third, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the last quarter and the closure of in-person services may have affected clients’ attendance and participation in training.

Cooperation and AccountabilityFootnote 10 4,185,138 828,162 569,482

IRCC produced many publications on the topic of Francophone immigration:

  • 19 press releases on the topic of Francophone immigration
  • 21 other communication products
  • 22,578 other promotional products

In 2019–2020, IRCC coordinated five interdepartmental and intergovernmental initiatives contributing to Francophone immigration.

IRCC developed and maintained three tools compiling data on Francophone immigrants and aiming to increase systematic reporting on Francophone immigration.

The Government of Canada committed to increasing Francophone immigration to Canada outside Quebec, to reach a target of 4.4% by 2023. In 2019, 2.82% of immigrants admitted to Canada outside Quebec were French speakers.

Justice Canada – historical base
Networks, Training and Access to Justice Services, including Additional funding for Access to Justice in Both Official Languages Support Fund (10 million over five years) 50,194,995 9,788,999 9,254,755 Through the Access to Justice in Both Official Languages Support Fund (Support Fund), 64 projects were funded in 2019–2020 under the Government of Canada’s Action Plan for Official Languages 2018–2023: Investing in Our Future.
Contraventions Act FundFootnote 11 49,611,635 9,922,327 6,006,983

Through the Contraventions Act Fund, the Department continued to provide funding to the provinces and municipalities where the Contraventions Regime is implemented so they can take measures to ensure that offenders’ language rights are respected in the administration and enforcement of federal contraventions.

The provinces and municipalities have thus successfully fulfilled their official languages responsibilities on behalf of the federal government by maintaining concrete measures to ensure that offenders’ language rights are respected. The Department is currently providing financial support to six provinces and one municipality where there are no provincial obligations to respect offenders’ language rights. No complaints were made regarding judicial and extra-judicial services in the official language of choice.

Canadians in designated zones who received a federal contravention ticket had access to communications in the official language of their choice and, in all courthouses, to judicial services in the language of their choice.

Justice Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Core funding to justice organizations 3,750,000 1,000,000 940,000 The Department continued to strengthen the financial stability and organizational capacity of 12 organizations (11 provincial/territorial and 1 national) through operational/core funding disbursed in 2019–2020. Discussions are ongoing with the remaining provinces and territories (Nunavut and PEI) in order to meet the 2020–2021 objective to have one eligible organization/recipient in each province and territory.
Innovation, Science, and Economic Development Canada – historical base
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (coordination) 1,600,000 380,000 277,562
  • Economic Development Initiative (EDI) coordination meetings in collaboration with regional development agencies provided for discussion on economic development issues in OLMCs. A data collection template was developed jointly to measure results.
  • Monitoring committees met to discuss the conduct and format of the upcoming consultations (dialogue days). In light of the COVID-19 situation, a suggestion was made to defer the in-person meeting to the following year. In the meantime, the Department wishes to facilitate activities (surveys, discussion groups) online and by other means to explore and identify priorities and topics for discussion during the next dialogue days.
  • The EDI research component conducted nine studies and analyses to better present the reality of OLMCs in sectors such as agriculture and agri-food, post-secondary education and community development, and also identified innovative approaches for OLMC organizations.
Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency 6,200,000 1,230,000 1,230,000 In 2019–2020, the ACOA approved 10 new projects totalling a commitment of $641,614. These projects created 9 partnerships and raised $285,513 in funding from other partners. This year, the ACOA projects approved under the EDI had benefits for many OLMCs in Atlantic Canada, as set out in the Strengthening our communities pillar in the Action Plan. These projects had an impact on Francophone and Acadian communities by supporting various community economic development initiatives, as well as Francophone immigration.
Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions 10,200,000 2,022,450 2,150,389 The annual target is to spend all the budget allocated to the EDI for OLMCs, which amounted to $2,022,450 in 2019–2020. With demand being higher than expected, the Agency exceeded its target by using its regular budget to meet needs.
Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency (CanNor) 400,000 80,000 80,000 In 2019–2020, CanNor supported three projects related to OLMCs; those projects were funded under components of the EDI and the Inclusive Diversification and Economic Advancement in the North (IDEANorth) program.
Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario 4,450,000 890,000 953,000

Two projects approved with a total investment from FedNor of $166,375, including $20,500 in additional resources from other sources

  • Projects were approved in two communities (Dubreuilville and Haileybury)
  • 12 FTEs maintained
  • 1 business created, maintained or developed
  • 2 strategic alliances created or maintained
  • 3 studies or plans developed
  • 18 events with 10,010 participants
Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario 4,450,000 890,000 874,000 FedDev Ontario supported five active projects in 2019–2020 through the EDI.
Western Economic Diversification Canada-Economic 3,200,000 640,000 630,649

WD’s projects under the EDI reported the following intermediate outcomes for 2019–2020:

  • 47 in-house training sessions
  • 23 businesses created, maintained or developed
  • 45 participants in conferences
  • 81 jobs maintained
  • 43 jobs created for employees other than highly qualified personnel
Public Health Agency of Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Enhanced early childhood health promotion programmingFootnote 12 10,000,000 3,125,000 2,293,305

The Healthy Early Years program providing funding to two main recipients (Société santé en français and the Community Health and Social Services Network). In 2019–2020, these two recipients funded 45 projects by third parties aiming to improve access to early childhood health promotion and support programs for vulnerable families in OLMCS to enable them to gain knowledge and skills and improve health practices.

Through these 45 projects, 2,764 participants/individuals benefited from the program in 2019–2020, as follows:

  • Men (fathers): 204
  • Women (mothers): 780
  • Pregnant women: 65
  • Children (0-6 years): 1,715
Canada Council for the Arts – historical base
Market Access Strategy for Artists from OLMCs 2,750,000 550,000 550,000

In 2019–2020, the Council received a total of 55 eligible applications under the Market Access Strategy Fund. Of those, 36 projects were funded, totalling 33 separate recipients. The total budget of $550,000 was disbursed to award these grants.

Overall, in 2019–2020, grants awarded under the Market Access Strategy Fund reached artists and organizations in 14 communities across Canada. The fund supported a wide range of activities, including marketing presentations, networking events, promotional materials, translations, marketing strategies and performances.

National Research Council (NRC) – historical base
Strengthening language industries and technologies 10,000,000 2,000,000 2,710,743

Several machine translation engines were delivered to federal partners, notably for the translation of weather reports, to assist in parliamentary translation, and for the neural translation of several languages for public safety.

Several reports were delivered to the Translation Bureau including:

  1. a report comparing neural and statistical approaches for the translation of parliamentary debates;
  2. a report on methods and tools for evaluating machine translation; and
  3. a report on assisted order management in the Translation Bureau.

Translation-related systems were delivered, including:

  1. a system for evaluating machine-translated texts, based on the YiSi metric designed and developed internally;
  2. a system for predicting a document’s subject field in order to assign it to the right translator, with a demonstration interface; and
  3. a demo of a translation memory cleaning system.

The NRC continued its work on neural style transfer methods, in order to adjust the style (e.g. sentiment or register) of a message without changing the content. This work continued in 2020 and will be published in a scientific paper. The team also continued its work on the automatic detection of languages, dialects and variants, with the aim of developing neural methods that use a minimum of information and are as free as possible from linguistic pre-processing such as segmentation or tokenization. The neural method developed by the group scored highest in an international evaluation in 2019.

In addition, four important resources were published last year:

  1. Lexichrome: a lexicon based on word-colour associations and a web visualization tool for creative writers and corporate communication specialists
  2. PoKi: a corpus of 62,000 poems written by children in grades 1 to 12, useful in studying child language
  3. SOLO: a corpus of over 4 million tweets relating to the state of being alone, to analyze the language associated with being alone
  4. WordWars: a dataset (from the early 1800s to the early 2000s) to examine how different words compete to represent the same meaning

A provisional patent application on a new unsupervised question-answer approach was prepared in 2019–2020.

Public Services and Procurement Canada (Translation Bureau) – historical base
Language Portal of Canada 16,000,000 3,200,000 3,200,000 In 2019–2020, the number of page views in the Language Portal of Canada and its writing tools reached 8.1 million. The Portal team published 2,945 new items on its site and social media, including 78 blog posts by external contributors, to help Canadians better communicate in both official languages, share Canada’s expertise in the language field and showcase Canada’s linguistic duality as well as the vitality of official language minority communities. In September 2019, the Language Portal launched the Official Languages Hub®, a new research tool for federal public servants and Canadians who are looking for information on any aspect of official languages. The Portal disseminated more than 100 promotional communications via email, on social media or through contributors’ newsletters, and took part in more than 70 events (conferences, booths, presentations, etc.) to promote its resources. Numerous promotional activities were carried out in collaboration with the Portal’s ambassadors. As of March 31, 2020, the Portal had 670 ambassadors.
Statistics Canada – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023
Additional, continued support to the language statistics section 2,997,270 599,454 670,131

During fiscal year 2019–2020, a total of 34 initiatives were carried out. Of the activities, we note consultation activities, various presentations, an event on the 50 years of the Official Languages Act, as well as a feasibility study to identify official language minority businesses. Of the products released, we note 7 information pamphlets on languages in the provinces and territories from 2001 to 2016, extensive analysis reports and analytical articles.

Number of activities per year: 16

Number of analytical products per year: 18

Percentage of clients satisfied with the statistical information produced and services: 82%

Totals
Total – historical base 2,169,194,820 429,374,270 432,739,545 N/A
Total – new funds in Action Plan 2018–2023Footnote 13 484,605,705 104,285,147 83,968,431 N/A
Total of government investments in official languages 2,653,800,525 533,659,417 516,707,976 N/A

Appendix 2: 2019-2020 Expenditures of the official languages support programs by component

Table 2: Expenditures of Canadian Heritage Official Languages Support Programs – Grand total (in dollars)
Program Expenditures
Development of Official Language Communities Program 270,308,814
Enhancement of Official Languages Program 131,104,076
Grand Total 401,412,890
Table 3: Expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by component (in dollars)
Component Sub-component Expenditures
Community Life Cooperation with the Community SectorFootnote 14 41,957,577
Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language ServicesFootnote 15 25,113,290
Fundfor Quebec English-speaking communities 949,682
Strategic FundFootnote 16 5,844,071
Community Media Strategic Support Fund 3,166,965
Community Cultural Action Fund 2,460,810
Community Cultural Action Micro-Grant Program for Minority Schools (Micro-grants) 2,058,708
Community Spaces Fund 120,201
Civic Community School 1,024,660
Young Canada Works in both official languages/ Building Careers in English and FrenchFootnote 17 2,567,401
Young Canada Works – Media internships 1,255,104
Subtotal: "Community Life" component 86,518,469
Minority Language Education Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language Educatio (Protcol) 154,459,139
Intergovernmental Cooperation on Minority Language Education (Complementary projects) 10,453,750
Complementary Support for Language Learning 2,695,913
Recruitment of teachers for minority community schools 2,214,104
Educational community infrastructure Fund (Investing in Canada Plan) 2,165,687
School and community infrastructure 9,806,752
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental SectorFootnote 14 1,995,000
Subtotal: "Minority Language Education" component 183,790,345
All components Total 270,308,814
Table 4: Expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by component (in dollars)
Component Sub-component Expenditures
Promotion of Linguistic Duality Appreciation and ReconciliationFootnote 14 4,378,644
Promotion of Bilingual Services 302,606
Support for Interpretation and Translation 493,549
Experimentation Initiative Bilingual Advantage 49,000
Subtotal: "Promotion of Linguistic Duality" 5,223,799
Second Language Learning Intergovernmental Cooperation on Second Language Learning (Protocol) 86,172,115
Intergovernmental Cooperation on Second Language Learning (Complementary projects) 928,700
Complementary Support for Language LearningFootnote 18 29,041,892
Recruitment of teachers for French immersion schools 2,988,411
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental SectorFootnote 14 1,311,500
Bursaries for post-secondary education in French as a second language 3,000,000
Young Canada Works in both official languages/ Building Careers in English and French 2,437,659
Subtotal: " Second Language Learning" component 125,880,277
All components Total 131,104,076

Appendix 3: 2019-2020 Expenditures of the Official Languages Support Programs by province and territory

Table 5: Official Languages Support Programs Expenditures by Province and Territory (in dollars)
Province or territory Province or territory Enhancement of Official Languages Program Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 3,178,522 2,803,347 5,981,869
Prince Edward Island 6,427,761 1,401,242 7,829,003
Nova Scotia 9,314,222 4,105,498 13,419,720
New Brunswick 28,236,423 5,219,812 33,456,235
Quebec 54,361,953 18,456,712 72,818,665
Ontario 73,141,387 26,567,619 99,709,006
Manitoba 14,165,922 5,855,647 20,021,569
Saskatchewan 7,833,014 4,868,697 12,701,711
Alberta 10,870,526 9,122,007 19,992,533
British Columbia 11,896,844 10,698,312 22,595,156
Northwest Territories 8,377,661 1,387,053 9,764,714
Yukon 13,604,285 977,100 14,581,385
Nunavut 6,255,300 429,746 6,685,046
National 15,280,575 3,172,373 18,452,948
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic 846,170 20,277,237 21,123,407
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey 1,849,743 8,764,655 10,614,398
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector/Education 2,101,105 4,559,360 6,660,465
Young Canada Works 2,567,401 2,437,659 5,005,060
Total 270,308,814 131,104,076 401,412,890
Table 6: Expenditures of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by province and territory (in dollars)
Province or territory "Community Life" component "Minority Language Education" component Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 1,876,971 1,301,551 3,178,522
Prince Edward Island 2,795,092 3,632,669 6,427,761
Nova Scotia 3,915,442 5,398,780 9,314,222
New Brunswick 7,233,167 21,003,256 28,236,423
Quebec 7,414,180 46,947,773 54,361,953
Ontario 10,227,550 62,913,837 73,141,387
Manitoba 5,029,430 9,136,492 14,165,922
Saskatchewan 3,814,790 4,018,224 7,833,014
Alberta 4,524,211 6,346,315 10,870,526
British Columbia 4,287,963 7,608,881 11,896,844
Northwest Territories 6,382,668 1,994,993 8,377,661
Yukon 5,996,551 7,607,734 13,604,285
Nunavut 5,172,478 1,082,822 6,255,300
National 15,280,575 0 15,280,575
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic 0 846,170 846,170
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey 0 1,849,743 1,849,743
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector/Education 0 2,101,105 2,101,105
Young Canada Works 2,567,401 0 2,567,401
Total 86,518,469 183,790,345 183,790,345
Table 7: Expenditures of the “Community Life” component of the Development of Official Language Communities Program by province and territory (in dollars)
Province or territory Support to organizations Support to provincial and territorial governments Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 1,526,971 350,000 1,876,971
Prince Edward Island 1,557,592 1,237,500 2,795,092
Nova Scotia 2,614,442 1,301,000 3,915,442
New Brunswick 5,823,167 1,410,000 7,233,167
Quebec 7,014,180 400,000 7,414,180
Ontario 8,827,550 1,400,000 10,227,550
Manitoba 3,629,430 1,400,000 5,029,430
Saskatchewan 3,054,790 760,000 3,814,790
Alberta 3,874,211 650,000 4,524,211
British Columbia 3,587,963 700,000 4,287,963
Northwest Territories 882,668 5,500,000 6,382,668
Yukon 749,805 5,246,746 5,996,551
Nunavut 689,434 4,483,044 5,172,478
National 15,005,575 275,000 15,280,575
Young Canada Works 2,567,401 0 2,567,401
Total 61,405,179 25,113,290 86,518,469
Table 8: Expenditures of the Enhancement of Official Languages Program by province and territory (in dollars)
Province or territory “Promotion of Linguistic Duality” component “Second Language Learning” component Subtotal by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 164,052 2,639,295 2,803,347
Prince Edward Island 134,640 1,266,602 1,401,242
Nova Scotia 177,156 3,928,342 4,105,498
New Brunswick 176,478 5,043,334 5,219,812
Quebec 0 18,456,712 18,456,712
Ontario 365,400 26,202,219 26,567,619
Manitoba 179,196 5,676,451 5,855,647
Saskatchewan 179,196 4,689,501 4,868,697
Alberta 227,148 8,894,859 9,122,007
British Columbia 364,512 10,333,800 10,698,312
Northwest Territories 83,648 1,303,405 1,387,053
Yukon 0 977,100 977,100
Nunavut 0 429,746 429,746
National 3,172,373 0 3,172,373
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Explore and Destination Clic 0 20,277,237 20,277,237
Complementary Support for Language Learning: Odyssey 0 8,764,655 8,764,655
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector/Education 0 4,559,360 4,559,360
Young Canada Works 0 2,437,659 2,437,659
Total 5,223,799 125,880,277 131,104,076

Appendix 4: 2019-2020 Education expenditures

Table 9: Breakdown of education expenditures (in dollars) - Support to provincial and territorial governments
Minority language education Second language learning Total
Bilateral agreements 157,155,052 115,214,007 272,369,059
Complimentary projects 10,453,750 928,700 116,142,707
Infrastructure 11,972,439 0 11,972,439
Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy 2,107,999 2,740,551 4,848,550
Total 181,689,240 118,883,258 300,572,498
Table 10: Breakdown of education expenditures (in dollars) - Support to organizations
Minority language education Second language learning Total
Cooperation with the Non-Governmental Sector 1,995,000 1,311,500 3,306,500
Bursaries for post-secondary education in French as a second language 0 3,000,000 3,000,000
Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy 106,105 247,860 353,965
Young Canada Works 0 2,437,659 2,437,659
Total 2,101,105 6,997,019 9,098,124
Table 11: Minority language education expenditures by province and territory – Intergovernmental cooperation
Province or territory Bilateral agreements Complimentary projects Infrastructure Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy Total by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 1,301,551 0 0 0 1,301,551
Prince Edward Island 1,778,339 0 1,854,330 0 3,632,669
Nova Scotia 4,483,117 330,000 530,000 55,663 5,398,780
New Brunswick 17,912,835 90,000 2,806,421 194,000 21,003,256
Quebec 46,525,473 0 422,300 0 46,947,773
Ontario 54,992,678 2,954,000 3,515,052 1,452,107 62,913,837
Manitoba 7,284,492 0 1,716,000 136,000 9,136,492
Saskatchewan 3,300,899 640,000 73,050 4,275 4,018,224
Alberta 5,310,966 70,000 965,349 0 6,346,315
British Columbia 7,273,177 69,750 0 265,954 7,608,881
Northwest Territories 1,694,993 300,000 0 0 1,994,993
Yukon 1,607,734 6,000,000 0 0 7,607,734
Nunavut 992,885 0 89,937 0 1,082,822
Total 154,459,139 10,453,750 11,972,439 2,107,999 178,993,327
Table 12: Second language learning expenditures by province and Province and Territory - Intergovernmental cooperation
Province or territory Bilateral agreements Complimentary projects Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy Total by province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 2,639,295 0 0 2,639,295
Prince Edward Island 1,076,602 190,000 0 1,266,602
Nova Scotia 3,761,355 0 166,987 3,928,342
New Brunswick 5,043,334 0 0 5,043,334
Quebec 18,406,662 0 50,050 18,456,712
Ontario 24,090,634 0 2,111,585 26,202,219
Manitoba 5,540,451 0 136,000 5,676,451
Saskatchewan 4,039,526 640,000 9,975 4,689,501
Alberta 8,894,859 0 0 8,894,859
British Columbia 10,067,846 0 265,954 10,333,800
Northwest Territories 1,204,705 98,700 0 1,303,405
Yukon 977,100 0 0 977,100
Nunavut 429,746 0 0 429,746
Total 86,172,115 928,700 2,740,551 89,841,366

Appendix 5: School enrolment in 2018-2019Footnote 19

Table 13: Enrolments in second language instruction programs in majority language school systems – All of Canada
Type of second language instruction program Year Total enrolment in majority schools Second language (including immersion) French immersion
Enrolment Enrolment Enrolment Percentage (of total population)
Total–Students in majority language school systems taking French as a second language combined with students taking English as a second language 1983-1984Table 13 note 1 4,401,997 2,199,253 50% 117,454 2.7%
2018-2019 4,662,555 2,492,223 53.5% 477,675 10.2%
Total–English language students in majority systems learning French as a second language (Canada minus Quebec) 1983-1984Table 13 note 1 3,464,272 1,607,335 46.4% 117,454 3.4%
2018-2019 3,801,819 1,733,484 45.6% 477,675 12.6%
Total–Students in the French language education system learning English as a second language in Quebec 1983-1984Table 13 note 1 937,725 591,918 63.1% 0 0
2018-2019 860,736 758,739 88.2% 0 0

Table 13 notes

Table 13 note 1

Second language totals for 1983–1984 do not include Yukon, Northwest Territories or Nunavut, for which no data were available. For each of these jurisdictions, the earliest year for which data is available is used to establish a base year.

Return to table 13 first note 1 referrer

Table 14: Enrolments in second language instruction programs in majority language school systems by province or territory
Type of second language instruction program Year Total enrolment in majority schools Second language (including immersion) French immersion
Enrolment Enrolment Enrolment Percentage (of total population)
Newfoundland and Labrador 1983-1984 147,500 75,056 50.9% 970 0.7%
2018-2019 63,840 37,629 58.9% 10,422 16.3%
Prince Edward Island 1983-1984 24,964 15,911 63.7% 1,833 7.3%
2018-2019 19,389 11,793 60.8% 5,151 26.6%
Nova Scotia 1983-1984 172,770 95,201 55.1% 894 0.5%
2018-2019 114,456 57,717 50.4% 15,495 13.5%
New Brunswick 1983-1984 98,284 70,289 71.5% 11,009 11.2%
2018-2019 68,754 47,055 68.4% 25,317 36.8%
Quebec 1983-1984 937,725 591,918 63.1% 0 0
2018-2019 860,736 758,739 88.2% 0 0
Ontario 1983-1984 1,682,302 909,290 54.1% 65,310 3.9%
2018-2019 1,929,450 1,021,923 53.0% 279,273 14.5%
Manitoba 1983-1984 194,182 91,058 46.9% 9,090 4.7%
2018-2019 180,744 82,920 45.9% 26,292 14.5%
Saskatchewan 1983-1984 200,362 52,324 26.1% 4,018 2%
2018-2019 180,594 49,398 27.4% 16,077 8.9%
Alberta 1983-1984 447,759 120,868 27% 14,523 3.2%
2018-2019 665,193 186,039 28.0% 43,794 6.6%
British Columbia 1983-1984 496,149 177,338 35.7% 9,807 2%
2018-2019 555,411 233,619 42.1% 53,994 9.7%
Yukon 1984-1985 4,667 2,221 47.6% 186 4%
2018-2019 5,163 2,670 51.7% 795 15.4%
Northwest Territories 1990-1991 14,016 4,360 31.1% 404 2.9%
2018-2019 8,265 2,721 32.9% 1,065 12.9%
Nunavut 2002-2003 8,861 0 N/A 0 N/A
2018-2019 10,560 0 N/A 0 N/A
Table 15: Enrolments in minority language education programs – All of Canada
Scope Year Total of school enrolment Enrolment in minority language schools Classes Minority language share of total school enrolment
Total – Canada 1983-1984Table 15 note 1 4,682,999 281,002 0 6%
2018-2019 4,917,432 254,877 0 5.2%
Total – French minority language schools 1983-1984Table 15 note 1 3,634,315 152,594 0 4.2%
2018-2019 3,972,504 170,685 0 4.3%

Table 15 notes

Table 15 note 1

Minority language figures for 1983–1984 exclude Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, where there were no minority language schools in 1983–1984. For each of these jurisdictions, the earliest year for which data is available is used to establish a base year.

Return to table 15 first note 1 referrer

Table 16: Enrolments in minority language education programs by province and territory
Province or territories Year Total of school enrolment Enrolment in minority language schools Classes Minority language share of total school enrolment
Newfoundland and Labrador 1983-1984 147,603 103 Kindergarten to 12 0.1%
2018-2019 64,182 342 Kindergarten to 12 0.5%
Prince Edward Island 1983-1984 25,480 516 1 to 12 2%
2018-2019 20,370 981 Kindergarten to 12 4.8%
Nova Scotia 1983-1984 177,240 4,470 Kindergarten to 12 2.5%
2018-2019 120,603 6,147 Kindergarten to 12 5.1%
New Brunswick 1983-1984 146,045 47,761 Kindergarten to 12 32.7%
2018-2019 97,890 29,136 Kindergarten to 12 29.8%
Quebec 1983-1984 1,066,133 128,408 Kindergarten to 11 12%
2018-2019 925,815 83,655 Kindergarten to 11 9.0%
Ontario 1983-1984 1,773,478 91,176 Kindergarten to 12 5.1%
2018-2019 2,040,474 111,024 Kindergarten to 12 5.4%
Manitoba 1983-1984 199,743 5,561 Kindergarten to 12 2.8%
2018-2019 186,525 5,781 Kindergarten to 12 3.1%
Saskatchewan 1983-1984 201,130 768 Kindergarten to 12 0.4%
2018-2019 182,574 1,980 Kindergarten to 12 1.1%
Alberta 1983-1984 448,835 1,076 Kindergarten to 12 0.2%
2018-2019 673,791 8,598 Kindergarten to 12 1.3%
British Columbia 1983-1984 497,312 1,163 Kindergarten to 12 0.1%
2018-2019 561,504 6,093 Kindergarten to 12 1.1%
Yukon 1984-1985 4,697 30 Kindergarten to 8 0.6%
2018-2019 5,454 291 Kindergarten to 12 5.3%
Northwest Territories 1990-1991 14,079 63 Kindergarten to 11 0.4%
2018-2019 8,493 228 Kindergarten to 12 2.7%
Nunavut 2002-2003 8,901 40 Kindergarten to 12 0.4%
2018-2019 10,644 84 Kindergarten to 12 0.8%

©Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2021
Catalogue number: CH10-2E-PDF
ISBN: 2562-704X

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