Canadian Conservation Institute's Annual Reviews for 2015–2016 and 2016–2017

Table of contents

Canadian Conservation Institute’s mission

The Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) advances and promotes the conservation of Canada’s heritage collections through its expertise in conservation science, treatment and preventive conservation. CCI works with heritage institutions and professionals to ensure these heritage collections are preserved and accessible to Canadians now and in the future.

To achieve its mission, CCI organizes its operations into three core activity areas:

  1. Research and development in conservation, including scientific research, advanced techniques for treatment and restoration, and practical and innovative solutions for caring for collections
  2. Provision of expert services, including scientific services, conservation treatments and preservation advisory services, to heritage institutions and professionals
  3. Sharing of conservation knowledge, through training, professional development, online learning materials and publications, to assist those responsible for heritage objects and collections in making informed decisions about the care of their collections
Patricia E. Kell, Director General
Patricia E. Kell

Director General’s message

I am pleased to share with you the Canadian Conservation Institute's Annual Reviews for 2015–2016 and 2016–2017, which provide an overview of CCI's activities and accomplishments during these two fiscal years. It has been a period of change and notable innovation.

In September 2015, we welcomed the staff of the Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN) to our offices on Innes Road and, in January 2016, we completed an administrative merger with them. The two special operating agencies now collaborate on knowledge sharing with the heritage community, while each continues to deliver on its own mandate areas.

CHIN is undertaking a groundbreaking redevelopment of Artefacts Canada, an online searchable database of museum collections in Canada, as linked open data. The proof-of-concept project, 150 years of Canadian art, went live in 2016. CHIN’s focus on collections management and the use of technology complements CCI’s activities in the field of digital works and collections, a priority area for the Strategic Plan.

This report covers the first two years of CCI’s Strategic Plan 2015–2020. A few highlights of our progress on strategic plan priorities include:

  • Modernizing and diversifying opportunities for professional development for heritage professionals: In March 2016, the advanced professional development workshop Risk Management and Risk-based Decision Making for Museum, Gallery, Archive and Historic House Collections was presented at CCI using the ABC method developed in collaboration with ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) and the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE). For the first time, parts of the event were livestreamed over the Internet, allowing people around the world to participate. The recordings of those webcasts have been fully translated, made compliant with accessibility guidelines and posted on our website. We are monitoring the response to these new ways of sharing knowledge, to help us define better ways to serve our community going forward.
  • Contributing to the Government of Canada’s history priorities: CCI’s talented conservators treated some remarkable objects associated with the 150th anniversary of Confederation in 2017, including a compass and case worn by Major Andrew Ruthven Thompson during the First World War while serving with the 4th Battalion at Passchendaele, and the Confederation Quilt, which was stitched together from gowns worn to the balls held during the Charlottetown Conference in 1864.
  • Enhancing operational efficiencies: In 2015, CCI entered into an innovative licensing agreement with Zone Display Cases in order to permit the commercial production of a low-oxygen (anoxic) case, based on a prototype developed at CCI. This arrangement will make the technology more accessible and affordable.

CCI once again delivered significant benefits to the conservation community through its research program. One example is the pioneering introduction at CCI of the thermal separation probe gas chromatography methodology for conservation, which has opened the door to the use of this technique in cultural institutions around the world. Another is the 2015 publication of Jane Down’s Adhesives Compendium for Conservation, which has gone on to sell over 400 copies in English and French during this period.

In the last report, I wrote about the wave of retirement departures in the CCI ranks. Over the past two years, we have welcomed 14 new permanent employees, spread across the conservation, conservation science and administrative areas. The excellence and enthusiasm of the new staff takes some of the bite out of saying goodbye to those who have served CCI so well over, in many cases, more than 30 years. Rejuvenating the workforce and ensuring we have the skills required to lead conservation into the future will continue to be a priority over the next several years.

Once again, CCI staff were recognized with awards for their outstanding work. I also had the honour of representing Canada at the ICCROM General Assembly in 2015 and was elected to serve on the Council.

As we look to the future and to CCI’s 50th anniversary in 2022, it is clear that one of our most pressing needs is to find a new home. We have been taking stock of our requirements and are working with federal partners to ensure that CCI continues to have access to the physical spaces and resources needed to deliver on our mandate for Canadians.

During the review period, CCI underwent a program evaluation (required by Treasury Board once every five years). The evaluation paints a positive picture of the contributions that CCI continues to make to the heritage community, noting that “[CCI’s] services are responding to the needs of the heritage community, are deemed as of excellent quality, are recognized as useful to maintain and conserve heritage and as being an important value added to heritage institutions of all sizes and parts of Canada…” The two recommendations for improvement identified in the evaluation set the stage for increasing the efficiency with which CCI works.

As one of our inaugural video projects, we produced a short promotional video explaining CCI’s mandate and activities, to be posted on the Internet and used for training. You can check out this video and another one featuring some of our Canada 150 projects on the CCI YouTube channel. As you can see, we are proud of the contributions that we are making to preserve Canada's heritage. I hope that reading these annual reviews will show you why.

Patricia E. Kell
Director General
Canadian Conservation Institute

CCI results by core activity area

2015–16 CCI results, description follows.
Description: CCI results by core activity area for 2015–2016

Core activity area: research and development in conservation

The strategic objective of this activity area is that Canadian and international heritage communities have access to the results of CCI’s research and development activities.


  • 6 articles were authored and published by conservation professionals in specialized journals
  • 2,288 heritage and scientific professionals attended CCI presentations
  • 21 scientific and technical presentations were given to Canadian and international audiences

Core activity area: provision of expert services

The strategic objective of this activity area is that Canadian heritage institutions use CCI’s expert services to preserve their collections.


  • 735 requests for conservation services were processed for 442 Canadian clients
  • 880 objects and collections benefited from CCI preservation and conservation services

Core activity area: sharing of conservation knowledge

The strategic objective for this activity area is that Canadian and international heritage institutions and workers take part in CCI’s learning opportunities.


  • 258 Canadian participants attended CCI’s professional development activities
  • 163,335 unique visitors consulted CCI’s online conservation resources
2016–17 CCI results, description follows.
Description: CCI results by core activity area for 2016–2017

Core activity area: research and development in conservation

The strategic objective of this activity area is that Canadian and international heritage communities have access to the results of CCI’s research and development activities.


  • 14 articles were authored and published by conservation professionals in specialized journals
  • 3,871 heritage and scientific professionals attended CCI presentations
  • 25 scientific and technical presentation were given to Canadian and international audiences

Core activity area: provision of expert services

The strategic objective of this activity area is that Canadian heritage institutions use CCI’s expert services to preserve their collections.


  • 633 requests for conservation services were processed for 449 Canadian clients
  • 1,353 objects and collections benefited from CCI preservation and conservation services

Core activity area: sharing of conservation knowledge

The strategic objective for this activity area is that Canadian and international heritage institutions and workers take part in CCI’s learning opportunities.


  • 407 Canadian participants attended CCI’s professional development activities
  • 444,509 unique visitors consulted CCI’s online conservation resources

Highlights in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017

Research and development

During fiscal years 2015–2016 and 2016–2017, five research projects concluded with the publication of the results in specialized journals.

Amber deposit sites in Western and Northern Canada

Jennifer Poulin and Kate Helwig published “The Characterisation of Amber from Deposit Sites in Western and Northern Canada” in 2016. The article focuses on amber specimens from 11 deposits and includes case studies of Thule amber beads from three northern archaeological sites. Also reviewed in this final paper are the new amber subclass and three types of polymeric crosslinking, which were discovered through the research project and featured in previous articles published in Organic Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry. The complete list of papers published as part of the research project can be found in the “Project description” section of the Metal and amber web page.

Jean-Antoine Aide-Créquy

Élisabeth Forest, Marie-Claude Corbeil and Elizabeth Moffatt published “Jean-Antoine Aide-Créquy (1749-1780) : matériaux et technique picturale” in 2016. Jean-Antoine Aide-Créquy was an important Canadian artist of the second half of the 18th century and has been described as the first painter born in Canada. He was active during the years that followed the English conquest, a pivotal period when local art became more prominent due to the difficulty of importing paintings from France, which had been the custom until then. The results of the research add to our knowledge of this particular period in Canadian art history and provide more information about painting materials available during this time.

Varnishes on nineteenth-century Canadian furniture

Elizabeth Moffatt, Amanda Salmon, Jennifer Poulin, Alastair Fox and James Hay published “Characterization of Varnishes on Nineteenth-Century Canadian Furniture” in 2015. This project focused on a selection of wooden furniture pieces fabricated in Ontario and New Brunswick, primarily during the 19th century. The original varnishes were studied in order to test assumptions about which varnishes were commonly applied to such objects and to gain a better understanding of the varnishing practices of Canadian cabinetmakers. Analytical results suggest that the use of fixed oil varnishes incorporating Pinaceae resin and, often, imported copal resins was more common than the use of shellac and that the use of these varnishes persisted in Canada to at least the end of the 19th century.

Thermo-mechanical properties of artist paints

Eric W.S. Hagan published “Thermo-mechanical Properties of White Oil and Acrylic Artist Paints” in 2017. The mechanical properties of artist paints are affected by strain rate and temperature, depending largely on the type of binder present. Existing tensile data for these materials are typically given for a single rate of deformation, which does not fully characterize their time-dependent response. In order to expand upon existing literature, the effect of strain rate on the stiffness and failure properties of artist paints was studied, using different test speeds and temperatures. The article compares prior results from experiments on acrylic paints with new findings for traditional and modified oil media. Results from this research highlight the differences between artist paint binders across a broad range of practical conditions and provide an improved prediction of failure criteria.

Water immersion resistance of electronic storage media

Joe Iraci published “The Soaking Resistance of Electronic Storage Media” in 2017. In a disaster event involving water, the length of time that collection materials remain wet is a critical factor in determining whether a successful recovery is possible. There is a substantial knowledge base for the water immersion resistance of traditional information carriers, such as paper documents, but not for electronic storage media. In this study, floppy diskettes, VHS videotapes, optical discs and flash media were immersed in different water baths for various time intervals. Most electronic media survived well in clean tap water, but more damage became evident with electronic storage media when the immersion bath was more corrosive. Drying methods were also explored. Air-drying was determined to be the best method for recovering wet electronic storage media.

Expert services

During fiscal years 2015–2016 and 2016–2017, 2,233 objects and collections benefitted from CCI’s expert services. The following are some examples of these projects.

Confederation Quilt

The Confederation Quilt, sewn in the style of a traditional “crazy” quilt, arrived at CCI in a fragile and deteriorated state. The quilt was created by dressmaker Fannie Parlee from offcuts of the many gowns she made for the ladies attending social events associated with the 1864 Charlottetown Conference. The quilt blocks are constructed of small pieces of brightly coloured silks, silk velvets and silk ribbons, each edged with colourful and unique embroidery stitches. It is a visual reminder of these important events, and the losses of some silk patches not only diminished its impact, but did not allow it to be safely displayed. CCI textile conservators carried out carefully planned stitched repairs and used custom-dyed modern underlay fabric supports for those pieces with areas of loss requiring compensation. Finally, the quilt was fully supported on a lightly padded flat mount so that it could be safely returned and displayed in a locally made custom display case at the Kings County Museum in New Brunswick.

Confederation Quilt during treatment.
© Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute. CCI 69835-0082
Figure 1a. During treatment: a protective layer of custom-dyed silk crepeline fabric, which envelopes the original silk ruffle, is being stitched to the mount.
Confederation Quilt during treatment.
© Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute. CCI 69835-0086
Figure 1b. After treatment.

First World War bass drum of the 161st Battalion

Led by Carole Dignard, Senior Conservator (Objects), CCI’s treatment of the Huron County Museum’s 161st Battalion bass drum was completed for the planned exhibit commemorating the 100th anniversary of the regiment’s departure for the First World War. The main challenge was to repair a large tear across one of the parchment drum skins. The backing material had to respond to temperature changes in the same way as the drum’s parchment yet be strong enough to hold the tear in alignment. After testing different materials, CCI intern Sophia Zweifel developed a novel treatment by adapting an approach commonly used in book conservation. The repair was completed successfully, and a parchment fill was added to blend it visually. The drum’s surface was cleaned and its interior was photo-documented to record the historically significant band members’ signatures and manufacturer’s label, before being reassembled in time for the exhibition.

Bass drum before treatment.
© Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute. CCI 127528-0027
Figure 2a. Before treatment.
Bass drum before treatment.
© Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute. CCI 127528-0052
Figure 2b. After treatment.

Niagara Falls panoramas

Two panoramic photographs of Niagara Falls dating from 1912–1913 were discovered during renovations under the attic floor boards of Queen’s Park, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. These 5.7 metre-long (19 ft.), framed and mounted panoramas were the largest single-sheet, single-exposure photographs of their time. They had suffered extensive damage due to exposure to water and uncontrolled temperature and humidity. Also, at some point in their history, they had been mounted on sheets of galvanized metal, causing further structural damage. The most significant challenge was removing them from the metal support for treatment since both the adhesive and image-bearing emulsion were water soluble. Greg Hill, Senior Conservator (Paper), and his team of interns developed several innovative techniques to complete the full treatment on one of the panoramas. As part of the agreement with the Archives of Ontario, one of their conservators collaborated with CCI’s team. This arrangement gave the Archives the knowledge and experience required to complete the treatment of the second photograph.

Portrait of Eusèbe Cartier

Belonging to the library of the Seminary of Saint-Hyacinthe, the portrait of Eusèbe Cartier was painted at the time of the War of 1812 by the renowned Quebec portraitist, Louis Dulongpré, who also painted Eusèbe’s brother, Édouard Cartier. Eusèbe Cartier served in the St. Denis militia in the War of 1812 and later participated in the 1837 rebellion as a Patriote. He also served as a member of the Legislative Council, the Upper House of the legislature, in Québec from 1855 until his death in 1862. The painting was restored at CCI. The aim of the treatment was to retain all of the portrait’s original character along with its original frame. The treatment, led by Debra Daly Hartin, Senior Conservator (Fine Arts), focused on repairing canvas tears, removing hundreds of insect deposits, then cleaning and revarnishing to improve the appearance of the image.

Portrait of Eusèbe Cartier before treatment.
© Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute. CCI 69323-0012
Figure 3a. Before treatment.
Portrait of Eusèbe Cartier after treatment.
© Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute. CCI 69323-0037
Figure 3b. After treatment.

Ceiling mosaic at the Wellington Building in Ottawa

The CCI Heritage Interiors team, led by James Bourdeau, Manager, Treatments and Collection Division – Fine Arts, Furniture and Heritage Interiors, provided advice and oversaw the protection and conservation treatment of a significant and unique ceiling mosaic in the vestibule of the Wellington Building (Ottawa), former home of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. Titled Allegory of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company as Protecting Mother, the mosaic was designed and created by Barry Faulkner, an America artist, in 1927. CCI began monitoring this heritage space in 2012 and provided guidelines for its care on behalf of Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) while the rest of the building was being renovated to accommodate House of Commons functions. The final phase in 2015–2016, completed by the private sector, involved the replacement of missing smalt (glass mosaic tiles) and the consolidation, stabilization, regrouting and cleaning of the mosaic. CCI experts provided advice on treatment requirements, processes and materials in order to develop a request for proposal sent to the private sector. This was followed by assistance in contracting and with contract compliance through site inspections.

Sinclair Inn Museum National Historic Site (Annapolis Royal, N.S.)

The Sinclair Inn Museum is a New England–style, neoclassical wood frame building evidencing the Acadian period and interior décor of an inn of the late 18th, the 19th and the early 20th centuries. A recently discovered mural painted on all four walls of the large second-floor room was hidden beneath layers of wallpaper and may date to the early to mid-19th century. The facility assessment performed by Paul Marcon, Senior Conservation Scientist/Engineer, and John Ward, Preservation Development Advisor, prioritized significant challenges to the long-term preservation of the Sinclair Inn Museum’s important heritage building and its interior features. In keeping with the museum’s unheated operation over the winter when it is closed, its existing resources and a desire for minimal intervention, CCI’s main recommendations included the installation of a highly sensitive smoke-detection system capable of working in low temperatures, modern mist-based fire suppression systems and the addition of basic equipment and controls to supplement the building’s passive temperature and humidity control ability. The CCI assessment also enabled funding for conservation work aimed at revealing the room’s painted murals.

Testing light sensitivity of “Leaves of Grass”

Leaves of Grass by Geoffrey Farmer (1967–) was acquired by the National Gallery of Canada (NGC) in 2012. This work consists of 23,595 cut-out images from LIFE magazines dating from between 1935 and 1985. They were adhered onto miscanthus grass stalks, anchored onto floral foam and arranged chronologically into an approximately 37-metre (120-foot) installation. Some of the inks were known to be light sensitive as they had faded due to uncontrolled lighting in a previous exhibition. Therefore, the NGC requested microfade testing to assess the light sensitivity of the work. Season Tse, Senior Conservation Scientist, and Ainsley Walton, Paper Conservator at the NGC, carried out testing on 152 locations on Leaves of Grass and discovered that approximately 87% of the areas tested are highly light sensitive. The most light-sensitive areas are the skin and orange tones in images from the 1930s and 1980s. The results helped the NGC plan future exhibits and avoid light damage to the work.

The work Leaves of Grass.
Photo ©National Gallery of Canada
Geoffrey Farmer, Leaves of Grass, 2012.
Figure 4. Cut-out images from LIFE magazines, archival glue, miscanthus grass, floral foam and wooden table. Purchased in 2012 with the generous support of the Audain Endowment for Contemporary Canadian Art of the National Gallery of Canada Foundation. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.

Analysis of photographs by Josef Sudek

As part of the research at the NGC for an exhibition of works by Czech photographer Josef Sudek (1896–1976), CCI Senior Conservation Scientists Kate Helwig and Jennifer Poulin analyzed samples from five of his photographs, believed to be carbon prints. Analysis was undertaken to confirm the technique and to identify the pigments for comparison with those described in the literature. As expected for carbon prints, the photographs all had a hardened gelatin layer, coloured with carbon black and smaller amounts of other pigments. Red to orange iron oxide pigments were identified in three prints from the 1950s that had a black to dark brown tone. Two prints from the 1920s were examined: a print with a blue tone contained indigo; one with a violet tone included both indigo and an organic red pigment. Cellulose nitrate, a common varnish for carbon photographs, was present on the surface of the three prints from the 1950s.

Testing of Cleaver Collection collages

In July and August 2015, CCI scientists carried out microfade testing and analysis on sixteen original collages and four monoprinted pages created by Canadian illustrator Elizabeth Cleaver (1939–1985) for the 1968 book The Wind Has Wings: Poems from Canada, owned by the Toronto Public Library. The works were in need of conservation treatment because the original colours of the collage were fading and the collage elements were lifting as a result of degradation of the adhesive. Senior Conservation Scientist Nancy Binnie performed extensive microfade testing on the works, and Conservation Scientist Eric Henderson, along with Senior Conservation Scientists Jennifer Poulin and Kate Helwig, analyzed the binding media in ink and paint samples, as well as samples of adhesives. They found that 90% of the colours should be considered highly light sensitive, that the adhesives were, for the most part, complex mixtures and that the binders were typical of what is found in water-based paint and ink media. The results of the analysis were used to inform a treatment plan for the objects, as well as exhibition and loan procedures.

Microfade testing on the work For the <cite>Sisters of the Hotel Dieu</cite>.
© Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute. CCI 128156-0065
Figure 5. Microfade testing on Elizabeth Cleaver's For the Sisters of the Hotel Dieu, a collage of cut, monoprinted paper on illustration board and one of the featured illustrations in the 1968 book The Wind Has Wings: Poems from Canada, which are held in the Osborne Collection of Early Children's Books at the Lillian H. Smith Branch of the Toronto Public Library.

Interior heritage asset inventory for the former U.S. Embassy (Chancery) Building

In anticipation of a new use for the former U.S. Embassy building (100 Wellington St.), PSPC engaged CCI to undertake an inventory of heritage assets within the unoccupied building, in keeping with stewardship best practices and in compliance with Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat policies. CCI developed and undertook the inventory, recording room-by-room fixed and fixed-removable heritage assets. A final report outlined the inventory methodology, future recommendations and mapping of the room alterations over the building’s history.


Risk assessment advanced professional development workshop and manual

Heritage professionals today face new challenges such as exhibitions in non-museum spaces, events in collection spaces and unstable modern materials. From March 15 to 18, 2016, CCI delivered the four-day workshop Risk Management and Risk-based Decision Making for Museum, Gallery, Archive and Historic House Collections. Irene Karsten, Preservation Development Advisor, Stefan Michalski, Senior Conservation Scientist, and José Luiz Pedersoli Jr., Conservation Scientist at the Scientia Pro Cultura, Brazil, led the workshop, which was designed to build capacity to deal with complex preservation issues.

On the first day of the workshop, the instructors reviewed risk management techniques, the role of collection value in risk-based decision making and case studies of heritage institutions that have already benefited from risk assessments. An estimated 186 online participants joined the 22 attendees at CCI. A manual, The ABC Method: A risk management approach to the preservation of cultural heritage, was completed in partnership with ICCROM to complement the workshop.

RE-ORG Atlantic

From October 2015 to October 2016, the second edition of RE-ORG: Canada was organized in the Atlantic Region, under the leadership of Simon Lambert, Preservation Development Advisor, with the collaboration of the Association of Nova Scotia Museums (ANSM) and with the financial support of the Museums Assistance Program (MAP). Over the twelve-month period, six museums and galleries assessed their storage needs, prepared action plans and implemented them. Midway through the program, all participating museums gathered in Truro, Nova Scotia, for a hands-on advanced workshop in which they reorganized the Colchester Historeum’s storage in three days. A one-day conference open to the wider professional community was organized on the fourth day, giving the participants an opportunity to share the progress of their work with their colleagues from the region. View the video of this remarkable transformation at the Colchester Historeum.

RE-ORG Atlantic participants in a group photograph.

Figure 6. Participating museums: New Brunswick Museum, Galerie d’art Louise-et-Reuben-Cohen (Université de Moncton), Musée acadien (Université de Moncton), PEI Museum and Heritage Foundation, Community Museums Association of Prince Edward Island, Baile nan Gàidheal Highland Village and Nova Scotia Museum.

150 years of Canadian art – a linked open data project

CHIN undertook 150 years of Canadian art – a linked open data project to evaluate linked open data as a means of better leveraging the information being made available to the public through Canada’s national inventory of museum objects, Artefacts Canada. Eight museums from coast to coast partnered in this innovative project: the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, the Art Gallery of Ontario, the McCord Museum, the McMichael Canadian Art Collection, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, the National Gallery of Canada and the Vancouver Art Gallery. This proof-of-concept project, which used a subset of about 85,000 records from these institutions, was designed to explore advanced approaches to publishing, connecting and enriching museum collections information.

External publications

The book and 19 articles below, which were published externally by professional journals and international organizations, were written or co-written by the 16 CCI scientists and conservators identified in bold.

Corbeil, Marie-Claude. “Conservation Institutions as Agents of Change.” Studies in Conservation 60, Supplement 2 (2015), pp. S2-32–S2-38.

Down, Jane L. “The Effect of Modifiers on the Stability of a Vinyl Acetate/Ethylene Copolymer Dispersion.” Studies in Conservation 61,1 (January 2016), pp. 26–45.

Forest, Élisabeth, Marie-Claude Corbeil and Elizabeth Moffatt. “Jean-Antoine Aide-Créquy (1749-1780) : matériaux et technique picturale.” Journal of Canadian Art History 36,2 (2015), pp. 10–47.

Hagan, Eric W.S., Maria Charalambides, Christina Young and Thomas Learner. “The Effects of Strain Rate and Temperature on Commercial Acrylic Artist Paints Aged One Year to Decades.” Applied Physics A 121,3 (2015), pp. 823–835.

Hagan, Eric W.S. “Thermo-mechanical Properties of White Oil and Acrylic Artist Paints.” Progress in Organic Coatings 104 (March 2017), pp. 28–33.

Helwig, Kate, Elizabeth Moffatt, Marie-Claude Corbeil and Dominique Duguay. “Early Twentieth-Century Artists' Paints in Toronto: Archival and Material Evidence.” Journal of the Canadian Association for Conservation 40 (2015), pp. 19–34.

Iraci, Joe. “The Soaking Resistance of Electronic Storage Media.” Restaurator 38,1 (March 2017), pp. 33–75.

Jian-Feng, Li, Jason R. Anema, Thomas Wandlowski and Zhong-Qun Tian. “Dielectric Shell Isolated and Graphene Shell Isolated Nanoparticle Enhanced Raman Spectroscopies and their Applications.” Chemical Society Reviews 44 (2015), pp. 8399–8409.

Michalski, Stefan. “Climate Guidelines for Heritage Collections: Where We Are in 2014 and How We Got Here.” In Sarah Stauderman and William G. Tompkins, eds., Proceedings of the Smithsonian Institution Summit on the Museum Preservation Environment. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2016, pp. 7–32.

Moffatt, Elizabeth, Amanda Salmon, Jennifer Poulin, Alastair Fox and James Hay. “Characterization of Varnishes on Nineteenth-Century Canadian Furniture.” Journal of the Canadian Association for Conservation 40 (2015), pp. 3–18.

Pedersoli, José. L., Catherine Antomarchi and Stefan Michalski. A Guide to Risk Management of Cultural Heritage. Rome, Italy, and Ottawa, ON: ICCROM and Canadian Conservation Institute, 2016.

Poulin, Jennifer and Dominique Duguay. “Dye and Mordant Analysis of Nineteenth-Century Mexican Sarapes.” In Chloë Sayer and Alexandra Palmer, eds., Mexico: Clothing and Culture. Toronto, Ontario: Royal Ontario Museum, 2015, pp. 141–145.

Poulin, Jennifer and Kate Helwig. “Inside Amber: New Insights into the Macromolecular Structure of Class Ib Resinite.” Organic Geochemistry 86 (2015), pp. 94–106.

Poulin, Jennifer and Kate Helwig. “The Characterisation of Amber from Deposit Sites in Western and Northern Canada.” Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 7 (2016), pp. 155–168.

Smith, Michael, Eric W.S. Hagan, Anne Maheux and Season Tse. “A Low-oxygen Capable Storage and Display Case for the Proclamation of the Constitution Act.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 35. Charlottesville, VA: The Book and Paper Group, 2016, pp. 81–88.

Stevenson, Ross K., Elizabeth Moffatt, Marie-Claude Corbeil and André Poirier. “Pb and Sr Isotopes and the Provenance of the Painting Materials of Cornelius Krieghoff in 19th-Century Canada.” Archaeometry 58,4 (August 2016), pp. 673–687.

Strang, Tom J.K. “The Use of Thermal Control Against Insect Pests of Cultural Property.” In Proceedings of the 11th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 24–28 November, 2014. Manhattan, KS: International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 2014, pp. 690–723.

Vuori, Jan, Renée Dancause and Stefan Michalski. “Renewing the Past: Pressure Mounting Two Large Fragmented Flags.” In American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works 41st Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, 29 May–1 June, 2013: AIC Textile Specialty Group Postprints, vol. 23. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Institute for Conservation, 2013, pp. 161–180.

Vuori, Jan, Renée Dancause and Stefan Michalski. “Renewing the Past: Pressure Mounting a Large and Severely Fragmented Silk Flag.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 56,1 (February 2017), pp. 59–74.

Awards and recognition

Simon Lambert, CCI Preservation Development Adviser, has received the Department of Canadian Heritage (PCH) Deputy Ministers’ Creativity/Innovation Award for his pioneering leadership in the RE-ORG training initiative. Simon was recognized for bringing an innovative blended learning approach to CCI; engaging partners from Europe, ICCROM, MAP and the museum community; and creating a core of informed and enthusiastic advocates to help address the critical need for improved museum storage. The PCH Deputy Ministers’ Creativity/Innovation Award was presented during National Public Service Week in June 2015.

Photograph of Simon Lambert receiving his award, alongside Jérôme Moisan and Graham Flack.

Figure 7. From left to right: Jérôme Moisan, PCH Champion of National Public Service Week; Simon Lambert, CCI Preservation Development Advisor; and Graham Flack, PCH Deputy Minister.

Financial statements for 2015–2016 and 2016–2017

Program budget 2015–2016 2016–2017
Operating budget
Program operations 6,678,917 6,678,917
Earned revenue (vote-netted revenue)Footnote 1 (700,000) (700,000)
Total – Operating budget 5,978,917 5,978,917
Program support and employee benefits
Program support 451,823 620,456
CCI property management 2,293,697 2,293,697
Employee benefit plans 922,329 965,263
Total – Program support and employee benefits 3,667,849 3,879,416
Total – Program budget 9,646,766 9,858,333
Program expenditures 2015–2016 2016–2017
Operating expenditures
Salaries 5,401,813 5,314,546
Non-salary expenditures
Program operationsFootnote 2 1,155,436 942,791
Earned revenuesFootnote 3 (834,268) (808,885)
Total – Non-salary expenditures 321,168 133,906
Total – Operating expenditures 5,722,981 5,448,452
Program support and employee benefits
Program support 400,219 410,777
CCI property management 1,018,648 1,976,791
Employee benefit plans 912,333 888,122
Total – Program support and employee benefits 2,331,200 3,275,690
Total – Program expenditures 8,054,181 8,724,142
Total balance (including CCI property management) 1,592,585 1,130,172
Total balance (excluding CCI property management) 573,937 846,619

Note: This is not an audited financial statement.

Published electronically by:

Canadian Conservation Institute
Canadian Heritage
1030 Innes Road
Ottawa, Ontario  K1B 4S7

CCI Biennial Review 2015–2016 and 2016–2017

Également publié en français.

ISSN 1927-3932
Catalogue No.: CH57-1E-PDF

© Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute, 2018

All images in this document belong to the Crown, unless otherwise specified.

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