Evaluation of the Indigenous Affairs Program

Assistant Deputy Minister (Data, Innovation and Analytics)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Human Resources - Civilian)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Infrastructure and Environment)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Information Management)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Materiel)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Review Services)
Aboriginal Law Advisory Services
Canadian Armed Forces
Canadian Defence Academy
Chief of the Defence Staff
Canadian Forces Recruiting Centre
Canadian Forces Recruiting Group
Chief of Military Personnel
Commander Military Personnel Generation
Defence Aboriginal Advisory Group
Defence Advisory Group
Defence Administrative Orders and Directives
Director General Indigenous Affairs
Director General Military Personnel and Research Analysis
Deputy Minister
Department of National Defence
Department of National Defence/Canadian Forces Legal Advisor
Departmental Results Framework
Employment Equity
Gender-Based Analysis Plus
Indigenous Affairs Secretariat
Level 1
Office of Collateral Interest
Office of Primary Interest
Program Inventory
Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business
Public Service Employee Survey
Royal Canadian Chaplain Service
United Nations

2.0 Findings and Recommendations

The relevance of Indigenous affairs within DND/CAF is addressed through the Program’s alignment with government priorities, federal roles and responsibilities and the 2017 defence policy: Strong, Secure, Engaged. To measure performance, the evaluation assesses the extent that two program outcomes are achieved: (1) Indigenous employees in DND/CAF benefit from a fair, inclusive and respectful organizational culture; and (2) Obligations and commitments to Indigenous peoples are integrated into DND/CAF at all levels.

2.1 Relevance

Key findings are based on a document review of federal government and departmental roles, responsibilities and priorities in the context of Indigenous affairs.

2.1.1 Alignment with Federal Roles and Responsibilities

To progress engagement activities and better serve the distinct priorities of First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples, the Government of Canada has taken steps towards reconciliation and renewal of the relationship with Indigenous peoples.Footnote 13  To advance reconciliation and renew the Indigenous relationship, the Government of Canada officially adopted the UN Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2016; released the Principles Respecting the Government of Canada’s Relationship with Indigenous PeoplesFootnote 14  in 2017; and also established a Working Group of Ministers to Review the Laws and Policies Related to Indigenous Peoples to ensure alignment with reconciliation principles.Footnote 15  More recently, in February 2018, the Prime Minister announced that the Government of Canada would develop a Recognition and Implementation of Rights FrameworkFootnote 16  in full partnership with First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples. The guiding principles to develop the Framework were subsequently published in September 2018.Footnote 17

The roles and responsibilities of DND/CAF to Indigenous peoples are reflected in the laws, treaties and self-government agreements and policies which must be respected when planning and undertaking activities.Footnote 18  To support the Government of Canada’s commitment to renew the nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous peoples, the establishment of the Indigenous Affairs Program and the creation of the Indigenous Affairs Division within the ADM(IE) group aims to ensure awareness and compliance with obligations to Indigenous peoples.Footnote 19  The corresponding areas of focus for the IAS include:

2.1.2 Alignment with Government Priorities

As stated by the Prime Minister in his 2015 mandate letter to the Minister of National Defence, “No relationship is more important to me and to Canada than the one with Indigenous Peoples. It is time for a renewed, nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous Peoples, based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership.”

Furthermore, the 2015 Speech from the Throne highlighted diversity as one of five main government priorities, emphasizing the positive socio-economic impacts of diversity and specific initiatives towards Indigenous peoples, veterans, official languages, immigration and women.Footnote 21  The 2015 mandate letter also highlighted the government’s commitment to diversity through “transparent, merit-based appointments to help ensure gender parity and that Indigenous Canadians and minority groups are better reflected in positions of leadership.”Footnote 22

The employment of Indigenous peoples within DND/CAF aligns with the Employment Equity Act, which promotes equity in the workplace and proactive employment for Indigenous peoples and the other three designated EE groups.Footnote 23  The employment of Indigenous peoples in DND is also aligned with the Public Service Employment Act, which requires departments to adapt hiring strategies to facilitate and improve the recruitment of equity-seeking groups.Footnote 24

The recruitment and employment of Indigenous peoples into the Defence Team workforce is a priority for DND/CAF. Canada’s defence policy: Strong, Secure, Engaged sets out objectives to promote an institution-wide culture that embraces diversity and inclusion. Among the multiple Indigenous-related policy objectives, a key initiative involves the recruiting and retaining under-represented populations within the CAF.

2.2 Performance—Achievement of Expected Outcomes (Effectiveness)

Effectiveness was measured by assessing the extent to which two immediate outcomes are achieved by the Indigenous Affairs Program: Indigenous employees in DND/CAF benefit from a fair, inclusive and respectful organizational culture; and obligations and commitments to Indigenous peoples are integrated into DND/CAF at all levels.

To evaluate the achievement of the two outcomes, the evaluation assessed key aspects of five broad issues, including:

It is important to note that some survey respondents provided their perceptions on aspects of DND/CAF Indigenous affairs that extended beyond their direct roles and responsibilities to include their perspectives and experiences. As DND/CAF moves forward with the development of an integrated Indigenous policy, the perceptions of Indigenous stakeholders and respondents may identify systemic risks for consideration when developing Indigenous Affairs Program initiatives and plans.

2.2.1 Governance

As the management of Indigenous affairs is decentralized across numerous L1 organizations, DND/CAF does not have a coordinated approach and could improve its comprehensive awareness of Indigenous issues to further support its Indigenous-related initiatives and activities. To improve coordination and ensure appropriate governance, the ongoing development of a comprehensive National Defence Integrated Indigenous Strategy may provide a way ahead to facilitate a renewed Defence Team approach to Indigenous affairs.

Departmental officials are engaged in interdepartmental consultations on Indigenous issues through various committees;Footnote 25  however, there is currently no senior oversight body, organizational structure, or governance to improve engagement of all the numerous aspects of Indigenous issues, and manage decisions on key concerns. At present, some associated committees that include Indigenous issues focus broadly on EE, human resources, diversity and inclusion, and other related initiatives..Footnote 26  Other opportunities for collaboration include the annual National Executive Meeting of the DAAG, as well as an information-sharing network “TechNet” for Indigenous-related issues.

Within the ADM(IE) group, the Director General Indigenous Affairs (DGIA) has the responsibility to provide DND/CAF with support and advice on Indigenous matters as well as develop situational awareness on Indigenous issues by providing strategic advice, staying informed on new federal policies and guidelines, organizing and developing training tools to raise the level of cultural awareness and build departmental capacity, as well as provide a forum for research and best practices on the implementation of Indigenous rights.Footnote 27  Some interviewees and survey respondents opined that the DGIA’s responsibility for the Indigenous Affairs Program may pose some difficulties in coordination of all L1 groups, due to the fact that ADM(IE) functional responsibilities comprise only a portion of the Defence Team’s relationship with Indigenous peoples. While numerous DND/CAF plans and directives are in place to support Indigenous DND/CAF personnel, several documents require updating, are under development, or could be better circulated, resulting in limited stakeholder awareness.

DAAG Support to the Defence Team

The role of DAAG support to DND/CAF Indigenous personnel, including leadership, is discussed through the themes of:

Defence Advisory Groups (DAG) were established in 1994 as an opportunity for DND employees and CAF members to raise EE issues and act as a joint consultative body for EE policies and programs. The DAGs were most recently endorsed by the Deputy Minister (DM) and Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) in 2016, promoting their role to provide insight on systemic barriers and issues that could affect designated EE groups and to provide advice to DND/CAF leadership on the development and implementation of programs and policies that could impact their respective EE group. The DAAG is the forum for EE issues that affect Indigenous DND/CAF personnel, located across Canada at the Base/Wing, regional and national levels.Footnote 28  DAAGs are expected to work closely with their respective Defence EE Champions, and encourage discussion and resolution of systemic barriers and issues related to EE at the lowest possible level with the chain of command.Footnote 29  The evaluation assessed the ability of the DAAG to support DND/CAF obligations to EE and provide insight on systematic barriers and issues impacting Indigenous personnel.

DAAG challenges identified by ADM(RS) survey respondents and interviewees included the following: improving the advisory relationship and support with the chain of command; improving the visibility and effectiveness of the DAAG function; meeting expectations as a secondary duty; increasing opportunities to share best practices; and providing greater clarity surrounding roles, responsibilities and expectations.

The effectiveness of DAAGs at the local Base/Wing level was described by interviewees as personality driven and location dependent, meaning that the level of support that a DAAG Co-Chair or Indigenous Champion can provide is dependent upon previous experience, contacts, capabilities and initiative, opportunities, and the extent that their primary employment facilitates the conduct of a key secondary duty.

DAAG Leadership Support and Communication

According to the 2016 DM/CDS Letter of Support to DAGs and Military Personnel Command DAAG intranet site, the effectiveness of the DAAGs is dependent on the support and expectations from leadership, and the relationship between the DAAG Co-Chairs and their chain of command. However, over one-third (39 percent) of local and regional DAAG Co-Chair respondents believe their DAAG roles and responsibilities are not well recognized nor fully understood by their immediate supervisor or by their chain of command.

Survey respondents and interviewees emphasized the importance of communication with their chain of command to provide awareness and insight on issues that could impact Indigenous personnel. Forty percent of survey respondents indicated they were not fully comfortable speaking to their supervisor or chain of command about Indigenous cultural or spiritual needs. Thirty-six percent of survey respondents also perceive that their chain of command is not fully aware of the duty to support the cultural and spiritual needs of Indigenous DND employees and CAF members. The need for greater leadership support and general awareness of policies pertaining to designated EE groups was also a common theme identified in the 2013 Canadian Armed Forces Employment Systems Review.Footnote 30

Survey respondents and interviewees underlined the importance of regular communication among DAAG Co-Chairs and Indigenous Champions to share best practices and lessons learned to improve DAAG effectiveness. The 2017 DAAG National Executive Meeting noted a need for better communication from national to regional to local levels.Footnote 31  In addition, the 2018 DAAG National Executive Meeting noted continued communication challenges as local DAAGs continued to feel “disconnected from the national level.” Forty percent of survey respondents also indicated they do not have sufficient opportunity or means to share Indigenous issues or concerns with other DAAG Co-Chairs or Indigenous Champions.

DAAG Roles and Responsibilities

Many survey respondents indicated the secondary and volunteer nature of the DAAG Co-Chair position was a challenge. Almost half (45 percent) of DAAG Co-Chair survey respondents stated that they did not have sufficient time to conduct all the responsibilities expected of them by their chain of command or to fulfill the expectations outlined in the terms of reference. In addition, some survey respondents stated their ability to fulfill responsibilities was hindered due to resource constraints and noted they often used their own personal funds to support DAAG activities.Footnote 32  DAAG Co-Chairs and Indigenous Champions indicated a prevailing need for better defined roles and responsibilities and an improved awareness and support of the DAAG’s role by local leadership in order to successfully support both Indigenous members and the DND/CAF chain of command.

A review of documentation specific to DAAG roles and responsibilities revealed that although there is general consistency of information between the documents, the DAAG Charter, in addition to other documents, requires updating to ensure alignment and relevance.

DAAG Indigenous Liaison

One stakeholder advised they became aware and engaged with Indigenous resources and communities through the local DAAG. A successful initiative contributing to relationship building was a sweat lodge at a CAF Wing, which raised Indigenous awareness for all members and further solidified the relationship with the local Indigenous community.

Interviewees advised that most CAF Bases and Wings no longer have assigned Indigenous Liaison Officer positions to support the coordination of interactions with local Indigenous communities. The perception that DAAG Co-Chairs are assuming a de facto Liaison Officer role is not commensurate to providing advice on systemic barriers and EE issues. This broadened mandate is referenced in both the draft 2010 DAAG Charter and the Military Personnel Command DAAG Intranet site.

Survey respondents and interviewees indicated that facilitating engagement and networking opportunities with local Indigenous communities represents a challenge. More than half (56 percent) of survey respondents felt that there was not an appropriate level of communication with Indigenous communities. Stakeholders advised that DAAG engagements with local Indigenous communities have primarily been to facilitate and support the spiritual and cultural needs of Indigenous DND/CAF personnel. Interviewees advised that in many cases, relationship building efforts have been effective and that there is a forward momentum to improving relations with Indigenous communities.

ADM(RS) Recommendation
  1. Implement a Defence Team approach for the governance and structures of the Indigenous Affairs Program, activities and initiatives, including clear roles and responsibilities for stakeholders across DND/CAF.

* This recommendation is similar to Recommendation 2 in the Diversity and Inclusion Evaluation. Therefore, some of the actions taken to address this recommendation will need to be developed in collaboration with CMP and ADM(HR-Civ).


2.2.2 Legal Considerations

To assess the extent that the Indigenous Affairs Program fulfills DND and CAF legal obligations,Footnote 33  priorities and initiatives to Indigenous peoples, the evaluation reviewed how legislative, regulatory and policy obligations are being managed as well as the extent of stakeholder and DND/CAF legal awareness. This assessment is divided by the themes of:

Key Finding 6: Strengthening the governance framework would allow DND/CAF to improve reporting and compliance with the ProcurementStrategy for Aboriginal Businesses.

Key Finding 7: Due to the number of DND/CAF and Government of Canada negotiations and agreements with Indigenous parties, there is opportunity to better communicate and inform the high-level strategic situational awareness of DND/CAF Indigenous stakeholders without impacting negotiation confidentiality, especially for Base and Wing commanders.

Provision of Legal Advice

The DND/CF LA provides legal services in all areas of the law, except those related to military law, military discipline and the military justice system. The provision of legal advice for Indigenous matters is provided primarily through the Aboriginal Law Advisory Services (ALAS) section of the DND/CF LA. The ALAS counsel provides advice in areas of Aboriginal law including: Aboriginal rights and title; treaties and treaty rights; the Crown’s legal duty to consult with Indigenous groups; comprehensive land claims; self-government negotiations; specific claims; and international matters.Footnote 34  Other DND/CF LA sections provide advice to clients on other matters involving Indigenous peoples, laws or policies, such as Claims and Civil Litigation, Commercial Law Advisory Service and Public Law Advisory Service.


DND/CF LA engagement with DND/CAF clients is currently reported as effective; however, capacity to continue to provide sufficient support is limited. During stakeholder interviews it was relayed that the ALAS provided approximately 55 percent of its legal advice to ADM(IE) Divisions, and provided the other 45 percent of Indigenous legal advisory services to other DND/CAF L1 organizations directly. It was recently indicated by stakeholders that the breakdown of services provided is now at 80 percent for ADM(IE) and 20 percent for Aboriginal legal advice to other areas within DND/CAF.

The role of ADM(IE) includes supporting the Government of Canada’s commitment to “renew nation-to-nation relationships with Indigenous Peoples.”Footnote 35  However, the 2017-18 Integrated Resource Plan identified the ability of DND/CAF to fulfill legal obligations such as the Duty to Consult as well as the duty to accommodate as a high risk due to limited knowledge and expertise within DND/CAF. ADM(IE)’s 2018-19 Integrated Resource Plan continued to note the risks to fulfill the duty to consult and its potential impact on operations, project implementation, as well as legal and reputational repercussions,Footnote 36  and Interviewees confirmed these ongoing challenges.

In late 2018, the ADM(IE) group was reorganized to increase capacity and Indigenous expertise,Footnote 37  with the intent to address identified risk areas and raise the profile of Indigenous affairs within DND/CAF. To further improve capacity, reduce litigation risk and progress towards reconciliation, interviewees suggested ADM(IE) should consider assessing the various types of engagements taking place with Indigenous groups in the coming years, taking into account more recent commitments and initiatives, and identifying and recruiting the necessary experience and skills (e.g., negotiation, dispute resolution).

Knowledge Level

To support DND/CAF leadership, DND/CF LA provides briefings to senior management on litigation involving Indigenous groups, as well as major initiatives of the federal government. Upon request, the ALAS also provides training on Indigenous law to DND/CAF clients.Footnote 38  The ADM(IE) 2017-18 Integrated Resource Plan identified the knowledge level within DND/CAF of legal obligations to Indigenous peoples as a risk. The level of knowledge was also queried in two ADM(RS) evaluation surveys,Footnote 39  and respondents involved with legal aspects of Indigenous affairs assessed the general knowledge level of Indigenous issues across DND/CAF could be improved. Complementary to this assessment, almost three quarters (72 percent) of the 2018 evaluation survey respondents perceive that DND/CAF leadership does not have sufficient awareness of Indigenous legal and treaty obligations and self-government agreements.

Situational Awareness

The need to improve situational awareness of Indigenous legal matters was a recurring theme raised by interviewees and survey respondents. The 2017 ADM(RS) survey for the Evaluation of Infrastructure ManagementFootnote 40  identified the need for consultation guidelines to support compliance with legal obligations to Indigenous peoples. Respondents also indicated a limited situational awareness of ongoing consultations between DND and Indigenous groups and that Base and Wing commanders require appropriate access to timely, accurate information to improve strategic decision-making capabilities. Interviewees noted that the IAS was developing working relationships with the wide range of DND/CAF stakeholders involved with Indigenous affairs, with the expectation that L1 organizations would use the IAS to help them comply with departmental obligations to Indigenous peoples, share relevant information on steps taken to improve relationships with Indigenous groups and share information to build situational awareness regarding Indigenous issues.

Indigenous Procurement

The Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business (PSAB) is a government policy governing the purchase of goods, services and construction. In addition to supporting Indigenous economic development through training, financing and infrastructure development, the PSAB also supports Indigenous business growth.Footnote 41  Results from a 2018 collaboration between Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada and the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business found that Indigenous businesses have sufficient capacity to supply more goods and services and achieve a higher procurement target of 5 percent within five years, through a 1 percent annual increase,Footnote 42  whereas current PSAB set asides represent 0.6 percent of annual federal procurement.Footnote 43  The study found that areas of need included enhanced performance reporting and review of the definition of Indigenous business.

Reported areas of work for the IAS include being the interdepartmental lead on Indigenous issues, including the PSAB.Footnote 44  However, stakeholder interviews identified DND/CAF’s ability to meet PSAB requirements as a potential challenge due to a small portion of this spending qualifying as spending in support of PSAB due to the specific PSAB criteria, and that only 4.7 percent of the total number of Aboriginal owned business in Canada confirmed as PSAB criteria compliant. As a result, the current PSAB methodology does not reflect DND/CAF’s extensive engagement with a wide range of Indigenous companies.

As noted in the 2017 ADM(RS) Evaluation of Infrastructure Management, the use of available data and information management systems for PSAB reporting and decision making remains a challenge, due to the division of responsibilities for collecting Indigenous-related data between L1 groups, and the Defence Resource Management Information System and the Contract Data Management System not being integrated.Footnote 45

2.2.3 Employment Equity, Recruiting and Retention

Employment Equity considerations and recruiting and retention initiatives are discussed within the five following themes:

Key Finding 8: In terms of the recruiting of Indigenous personnel, coordination between the Canadian Forces Recruiting Group (CFRG) and the Primary Reserve Force Generators is limited, which can result in a duplication of effort.

Key Finding 9: Compiling, analysing and reporting on the results of the Indigenous-related EE, recruitment and retention initiatives is not feasible given that an overall data strategy for collecting and reporting on this information does not exist.

Through the analysis of Indigenous-related EE, recruitment and retention initiatives for this evaluation, it was apparent that data related to the monitoring of these initiatives is available and collected by several organizations. However, compiling this information in order to report on the impact of the activities and initiatives proved problematic due to the various groups, organization and databases involved in the collection of this data. As such, it is not surprising that both interviewees and survey respondents suggested that there should be a DND/CAF-wide effort to leverage this data to support the monitoring and reporting of Indigenous-related issues, to facilitate improvement in areas such as staffing (including EE, recruitment and retention), labour relations, learning and development, performance and talent management, and initiatives, policies and programs. Through the early identification of gaps and vulnerabilities, there are opportunities to ensure agile data-driven decision making and performance-based program improvement.

Employment Equity

DND/CAF is committed to recruiting and retaining quality candidates that reflect the diverse population of Canada; ensuring that Indigenous representation meets the goals of the Employment Equity Act;Footnote 46 and retaining personnel by fostering a supportive work environment and positioning the organization as employers of choice for all segments of the Canadian labour market.Footnote 47

Within DND, current EE goals for Indigenous peoples are set at 2.6 percent. From FY 2015/16 to FY 2017/18, DND exceeded its EE goals for Indigenous representation by 0.4 percent to 0.5 percent annually. The EE targets for civilian Indigenous employees are currently being met in all occupational categories, with the exception of Management and Operations.Footnote 48  Similarly, Indigenous representation in the CAF has followed an upward trend with a 0.1 percent increase annually from FY 2015/16 to FY 2017/18. In FY 2017/2018, Indigenous representation within the CAF stood at 2.8 percent. The 2026 EE goal for CAF Indigenous representation is targeted at 3.5 percent, which may be achievable if trends in Indigenous representation continue to increase at the current rate.Footnote 49


Data showing representation levels of Indigenous peoples in DND/CAF is dependent on “self-identification” by members. CAF members have expressed mixed feelings about self-identifying as a Designated Group Member. Most focus group participants in the 2013 Canadian Forces Employment Systems Review did not see any benefits to self-identifying and were hesitant to do so out of fear of potential discrimination and uncertainty about how such information would be used. In the same review, CAF senior leadership felt that DGMs were reluctant to self-identify because of fear of potential discrimination and uncertainty, followed by the feeling that everyone should be equal and not receive differential treatment.

There is a continued need to promote EE self-identification to ensure a more accurate portrait of the DND workforce is available to inform policies, programs and procedures. Evaluation interviewees acknowledged that there can be the perception of stigma attributed to self-identifying. However, due to a dedicated effort across the CAF, the CAF Regular Force self-identification return rate increased by 10.4 percent, and the CAF Primary Reserve return rate improved by 12.9 percent from 2010 to 2017. To increase participation of self-identification, one interviewee suggested that DND use an expanded set of self-identification categories similar to the Canadian census, which could contribute to the incorporation of Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) factors in recruiting and retention.


A consideration in recruiting is the Canadian government’s renewed support to GBA+ in 2016, with the aim to strengthen its implementation across all federal departments through a new action plan. Canada’s defence policy: Strong, Secured, Engaged outlines six prioritized initiatives, including the integration of GBA+ and improving the recruitment and retention of under-represented populations, such as Indigenous peoples.

The evaluation reviewed various initiatives and programs to assess the extent that DND/CAF is meeting planned recruitment objectives. As stated in the defence policy, DND/CAF will engage in more targeted recruiting, including capitalizing on the unique talents and skill-sets of Canada’s diverse population.Footnote 50  Creating and fostering a more diverse CAF is an organizational priority to ensure that the CAF reflects the diverse nature of Canadian society.Footnote 51  DND is similarly committed to creating a workplace that is fair, respectful, inclusive and supportive of diversity, as well as a workforce reflective of Canada’s population.Footnote 52 Evaluation interviews and survey data identified several issues regarding recruiting Indigenous peoples to the CAF and DND, including the difficulty in recruiting from isolated Indigenous communities across Canada, and the higher success attributed to face-to-face as opposed to online recruiting for this demographic. Focus groups have indicated that Indigenous peoples show positive aspirations towards joining the CAF for reasons such as patriotism, job security, and to promote positive stereotypes. Reasons for not joining include the requirement to relocate family and the strict emphasis on discipline and structure.Footnote 53  The perceptions of family are of paramount importance for Indigenous persons in deciding to join the CAF, with many respondents mentioning that getting the support of their family and community would be essential before joining the CAF.Footnote 54  Having Indigenous members aid in the recruitment of Indigenous peoples, especially within Indigenous communities, is seen as an effective Indigenous recruitment tool.

Indigenous communities and individuals are engaged directly by the CFRG through outreach activities by local recruiting detachments, often through specialist recruiters with knowledge of the communities and demographic.Footnote 55  For Primary Reserve recruitment, Primary Reserve Force Generator organizations also engage directly with Indigenous communities.Footnote 56  Stakeholders emphasized the benefit of continued and consistent relationship building to leverage and strengthen connections, and that an understanding of the particular historical and cultural context further aids in building enduring relationships.

Indigenous recruiting activities conducted concurrently by both CFRG and Force Generator representatives have created some challenges. Interviewees indicated that limited, if any, coordination between CFRG and other recruiting organizations occurred, often leading to the same Indigenous communities being targeted for recruiting efforts separately, causing some confusion within the communities and reflecting poorly on the CAF. Consequently, the lack of CAF synchronization of Indigenous community engagement was identified as an impediment to building effective relations with Indigenous communities. As a first step to address this coordination issue, the Evaluation team was advised that CFRG staff had recently engaged key CAF stakeholders, including staff of the Primary Reserve Force Generators, to seek improvements to the coordination and efficiency of the Indigenous recruiting activities. On the other hand, the evaluation team was also advised that the Canadian Army has independently developed Division-level Indigenous Engagement Strategies to maximize Indigenous engagement effectiveness.Footnote 57

CAF Indigenous Recruitment Programs

The Indigenous Recruiting Programs are designed to demonstrate a welcoming environment and show that the CAF offers an equitable opportunity for a rewarding career. The CAF has initiated various Indigenous Programs to address Indigenous underrepresentation in the CAF.Footnote 58  Since 2008, the number and range of CAF Indigenous recruitment programs has increased to include a total of eight (refer to Table 2). As noted in Table 2, the eight Indigenous Programs are funded by two L1 organizations, applicant processing is conducted separately by three organizations and the Training Authority role is assumed by three distinct organizations.

Table 2. Indigenous Programs. This table outlines the various Indigenous programs, with Funding, Applicant Processing and Training Authorities.

Bold Eagle

Comd CA


Comd CA (3 CTC, Wainwright)

Grey Wolf

Comd CA

P Reserves

Comd CA (4 CDTC, Meaford)


Comd CA

P Reserves

Comd CA (2 CDTC, Valcartier)




Comd RCN (Naval Fleet School (P))

Black Bear



Cond CA (5 CDTC, Gage town)

CF Aboriginal Entry Program



CMP/CF Leadership and Recruit School; RCN/Naval Fleet School (A)

Aboriginal Leadership Opportunity Year



RMC, Kingston

Eagles Nest

Comd CA

Comd CA

Comd CA

Table 2 Details - Indigenous Programs

Stakeholders revealed an uneven interpretation of CAF Indigenous Recruiting Program objectives. Some cited “recruiting” as the primary objective, while others remarked that “service to Canada” and “citizenship” were the primary aims of the programs resulting in stakeholders defining program success differently. Interviewees indicated that course members who communicate positive program experiences may also encourage others to consider joining the CAF, as knowing members who had positive experiences with the CAF has shown to be an effective way to recruit this demographic. Between 2013 and 2018, 1,086 candidates started the Indigenous summer programs and 942 graduated, with an 88.2 percent graduation rate.

The CMP Instruction 01/07, “CF Military Training Programs for Aboriginal Peoples of Canada” and the complementary Recruiting Directive 17/08 were described by interviewees as incomplete and no longer relevant. As a result, stakeholders are independently developing alternative guidance documents. In the absence of an up-to-date Instruction or Directive and responding to need, CFRG staff indicated that they were developing a guidance document to direct the roles and responsibilities for each CAF Indigenous Recruitment Program stakeholder. However, the evaluation team was advised that Canadian Army staff was also developing an Operation Plan to provide structure to the existing CAF Indigenous Recruitment Programs.

Indigenous Retention

It has been documented that an inclusive environment is essential for the recruitment and retention of a diverse workforce.Footnote 59  Survey respondents mentioned more could be done to create a culture that supports inclusivity, and that this could help lower attrition rates among Indigenous members. Suggestions for improving retention included:

Among military members, Indigenous respondents to a 2014 survey reported low numbers considering release from the CAF due to work-environment factors such as EE issues, harassment or discrimination. However, the low numbers were still slightly higher than those for the remainder of the CAF,Footnote 60  suggesting that these factors exert a greater influence over the retention decisions of Indigenous members than over non-Indigenous members.

For both of the 2014 and 2017 Public Service Employee Survey (PSES) surveys, DND Indigenous respondents reported a higher positive outlook than the aggregate of the Public Service as to whether they were satisfied with their employer, if they would recommend their department as a great place to work, and if they would prefer to remain with their department even if a comparable job was available elsewhere in the Federal Public Service. Fewer Indigenous respondents from DND indicated that they planned to leave their current position within the following two years than the aggregate of Public Service employees. For all of the above questions, the gap between the public service responses and DND responses widened from 2014 to 2017, with the outlook continuing along an upward positive trend.Footnote 61

ADM(RS) Recommendation
  1. Leverage the available data on Indigenous-related initiatives in areas such as staffing (including EE, recruitment and retention), labour relations, learning and development, performance and talent management, and initiatives, policies and programs in order to support ongoing improvement and the reporting on results.


2.2.4 Cultural and Spiritual Support

The cultural and spiritual support to DND/CAF Indigenous personnel is discussed through the three themes of:

Key Finding 10: DND/CAF continues to develop and implement important initiatives and activities related to Indigenous cultural and spiritual support; however, continued progress to leverage these activities through further coordination and communication would be beneficial.

Cultural and Spiritual Support

Indigenous cultural and spiritual support and accommodations is a right for DND/CAF Indigenous members. The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007) contains several provisions that relate directly to the rights associated with practicing Indigenous Spirituality, including Articles 12(1), 25, and 34, and also notes that Indigenous peoples celebrate a wide variety of traditional spirituality practices. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Calls to Action underlines the responsibility of the Canadian federal government, health-care system, as well as church parties to recognize the intergenerational impact of residential schools and the value of Indigenous healing practices, as well as the need for greater awareness and training.

Ongoing Initiatives

Directives indicate that Indigenous traditional and spiritual support is provided through local chaplaincy teams, and traditional and spiritual practices are encouraged through the procurement of sacred Indigenous items, objects and medicines.Footnote 62  In order to assist and support all forms of Indigenous spirituality, CAF Chaplains are encouraged to participate in continuous professional development and are offering their services to Indigenous personnel. In 2016, the first Indigenous Advisor to the Chaplain General was appointed to improve the spiritual support to Indigenous CAF members. The Indigenous Advisor is mandated to offer awareness of Indigenous issues and has a responsibility to maintain internal and external networks of consultative groups, including the DAAG organization, local Indigenous groups and Indigenous communities. The Royal Canadian Chaplain Service (RCChS) is now established to provide spiritual assistance to Indigenous members of the CAF and their families wishing to practice and observe their ancestral cultures. The evaluation team was advised that the RCChS Indigenous Spirituality Support Policy is being finalized and will be included within the Chaplain’s Manual.Footnote 63

Perceptions and Challenges

According to PSES results, perceptions of support to Indigenous employees have remained positive and relatively consistent over time, (PSES 2014, 2017) and indicate that perceptions of the diversity climate among the DND civilian workforce are fairly consistent between Indigenous and non-Indigenous staff. Of note is the belief among Indigenous DND employees that DND supports a diverse workplace. PSES results (2014, 2017) also indicate that Indigenous employees at DND are less likely to request accommodation than Indigenous employees elsewhere in the public service. However, the majority of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents within DND indicated that measures were taken to accommodate their requests, and among those, a majority indicated that they were satisfied with the measures taken.Footnote 64

Notwithstanding the recognition of Indigenous rights and accommodation in DND/CAF, stakeholders noted that lack of Indigenous awareness is an ongoing challenge that can inhibit support to the cultural and spiritual needs of Indigenous DND/CAF personnel. Almost one-third (28 percent) of Indigenous Champion and DAAG Co-Chair survey respondents stated that they did not have ready access to sufficient information and resources to appropriately address specific cultural or spiritual concerns of Indigenous peoples within their organization.

2.2.5 Training for the Defence Team

The extent that Indigenous-related training is available to enable greater cultural awareness and knowledge within DND/CAF is discussed through the themes of:

Key Finding 11: DND/CAF has taken many steps with the intent of raising awareness of Indigenous culture, rights and obligations, including the development and implementation of Indigenous-related training; however, it appears that the coordination and communication of these training opportunities requires improvement.

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission Calls to Action requires federal institutions to “provide education to public servants on the history of Aboriginal peoples”Footnote 65  and calls for federal departments to provide skills-based training in intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights and anti-racism. The draft DAOD 4004-0, Indigenous Affairs, directs DND/CAF to “provide education and training to cultivate greater cultural awareness and competency within DND/CAF in the spirit of reconciliation and nation-to-nation relations.”

The number of current training options available related to Indigenous issues demonstrates a clear understanding by DND/CAF that training is an important enabler to raising awareness of Indigenous cultural perspectives. DND has committed to ensuring that leadership has the understanding and tools to support a diverse and inclusive organization, which includes training on Indigenous culture, history, contemporary issues and the Duty to Accommodate, as well as improving leadership and development prospects for Indigenous members.Footnote 66  Similarly, the CAF has committed to incorporate cultural competency training to “promote cultural interoperability both within the organization and while conducting operations at home and abroad,” which includes an awareness campaign to ensure that leadership prioritizes and promotes EE and Diversity within the CAF.Footnote 67

Training - Cultural Awareness

Literature and document reviews, in addition to interview responses, indicate that DND/CAF has taken many steps to raise awareness of Indigenous culture, rights and obligations. However, survey respondents and key stakeholders perceived there is a generalized, widespread lack of awareness and knowledge of Indigenous culture throughout DND/CAF. Over half of survey respondents (52 percent) assessed the general awareness and level of knowledge of Indigenous obligations and issues within DND/CAF needing improvement. Survey respondents and key stakeholders stated that increased engagement and communication from leadership, including from senior non-commissioned members, on issues concerning cultural understanding and awareness would promote diversity and would contribute to Indigenous members’ sense of inclusion within the Defence team.

Training - Operational Effectiveness

Canada’s defence policy states that the promotion of a diverse defence force improves the operational effectiveness of DND/CAF, and supplementary research has shown that the integration and promotion of cultural awareness has positive organizational effects.Footnote 68  Increasing cultural awareness promotes a diverse and inclusive culture, supports Indigenous members and improves relationships with Indigenous communities. Multiple interviewees and survey respondents mentioned that raising the level of Indigenous cultural awareness through training could help promote higher levels of Indigenous recruitment and retention and demonstrate the priority of ensuring a resilient and diverse defence team. Evidence shows that a greater cultural understanding of Indigenous communities can positively impact CAF activities in Canada’s different regions.Footnote 69

Training - Broad Perceptions

The CMP Indigenous Program Review Report (2017) indicated a need to develop Indigenous cultural awareness capacity on a broader scale throughout the CAF. Key stakeholders and survey respondents mentioned that developing a comprehensive and holistic approach to training, encompassing Indigenous history, cultural awareness and legal obligations would benefit Indigenous awareness and understanding across DND/CAF. Stakeholders and survey respondents also suggested that aspects of Indigenous training should be mandatory and include all ranks, to better institutionalize an understanding and knowledge base throughout DND/CAF of Indigenous culture, obligations and rights.

A consistent message from interviewees and survey respondents highlighted that Indigenous-related training courses could be more comprehensive and up-to-date. Almost half (45 percent) of survey respondents was not aware of all of the available cultural awareness training options. Almost three quarters (72 percent) of survey respondents stated that Indigenous cultural awareness training provided to DND/CAF personnel was not effective. The majority of survey respondents aware of available training were under the impression that training is only available to select participants, or that the available training was not relevant. This knowledge gap underscores the need for effective communication and coordination of the available training options.

Training - Capacity and Coordination
Interviewees advised that the availability and development of Indigenous training is limited due to capacity and resource issues, while demand has been increasing. According to available documentation, five separate organizations under the authority of three L1s, in addition to DND/CF LA, are responsible for aspects of DND/CAF Indigenous training, not including available courses from the Canadian School of Public Service and other government departments.Footnote 70  Documentation identified eight currently available DND/CAF Indigenous-related courses (see Annex E).

Numerous stakeholders and survey respondents noted that the DND/CAF organizations responsible for Indigenous training have been working independently with very limited cross-consultation or information sharing. In addition, there is no overarching directive to ensure that Indigenous training is sufficiently coordinated, effective and relevant for the requirements of DND/CAF personnel, or that available training options are communicated effectively. Survey respondents noted this as an efficiency risk due to limited coordination and potential duplication of effort, lack of knowledge sharing and training gaps.Footnote 71

ADM(RS) Recommendation
  1. Develop a Defence Team approach to ensure that Indigenous-related training is available and communicated to all DND/CAF personnel.


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Annex A—Management Action Plan

Program Governance

ADM(RS) Recommendation
  1. Implement a Defence Team approach for the governance and structures of the Indigenous Affairs Program, activities and initiatives, including clear roles and responsibilities for stakeholders across DND/CAF.

* This recommendation is similar to Recommendation 2 in the Diversity and Inclusion Evaluation. Therefore, some of the actions taken to address this recommendation will need to be developed in collaboration with CMP and ADM(HR-Civ).

Management Action

ADM(IE), in collaboration with CorpSec, and with the working group mandated to lead the development of the DND/CAF Indigenous Strategic Framework, will explore options to improve departmental Indigenous governance.

Action 1.1 - Develop options to adjust existing governance and secure necessary departmental approval for selected approach – January 2020

Action 1.2 - Implement changes to existing governance, as required – June 2020

Action 1.3 - Review applicable policy instruments to ensure alignment with the operationalization of the updated governance – December 2020

Action 1.4 - Propose changes to governance policy instruments, as required – March 2021

OCI: CorpSec, DAAGs, Commander of Army as Indigenous Champion, CMP, ADM(HR-Civ), DND/CAF Indigenous Affairs Strategic Framework Working Group
Target Date: Refer to proposed activities (January 2020 to March 2021)

Engagement Coordination

ADM(RS) Recommendation
  1. Leverage the available data on Indigenous-related initiatives in areas such as staffing (including EE, recruitment and retention), labour relations, learning and development, performance and talent management, procurement, and initiatives, policies and programs in order to support ongoing improvement and the reporting on results.

Management Action

Action 2.1 -Launch a survey to take stock of existing Indigenous data generated by DND/CAF. The survey will also look at existing barriers to Indigenous data accessibility/use.

Target Date:
December 2021

Action 2.2 - Submit a proposal to ADM(IM) by March 2021, to explore the creation of a stakeholder engagement coordination tool with data analytics capability, which will enable DND/CAF’s ability to effectively and efficiently conduct Indigenous consultations. The proposal will be subject to prioritization by ADM(IM).

Target Date:
March 2021

Training Coordination

ADM(RS) Recommendation
  1. Develop a Defence Team approach to ensure that Indigenous-related training is available and communicated to all DND/CAF personnel.

Management Action

Action 3.1 - Establish an inventory of all current training offerings related to Indigenous topics across DND/CAF - December 2019

Action 3.2 - Develop a training curriculum to bring about cultural awareness at the organizational level and to increase functional competency, aimed at specific audiences, in areas such as procurement, real property transactions and military operations using available current material – March 2020

Action 3.3 - Concurrently create new training material/opportunities where gaps exist – December 2020

Action 3.4 - Develop and implement a campaign to promote available Indigenous training opportunities to the Defence Team – April 2020

Target Date: Refer to proposed activities (December 2019 to April 2020)

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Annex B—Evaluation Methodology and Limitations

1.0 Methodology

The Evaluation of the Indigenous Affairs Program considered multiple lines of evidence to assess the relevance and effectiveness of the Indigenous Affairs Program. The methodology established a consistent approach to data collection and analysis, including the development of research instruments, which enabled data triangulation and contextualization to ensure the evaluation findings and recommendations were accurate and credible.

1.1 Overview of Data Collection Methods

The research methods used were selected based on an assessment of available data to accurately address the evaluation issues, questions and indicators, as outlined in the Evaluation Matrix. The three research methods of document and literature review, stakeholder survey and key stakeholder interviews were used to gather complimentary qualitative and quantitative data, which are discussed in greater detail in the following sections.

1.2 Details on Data Collection Methods

1.2.1 Document and Literature Review

A preliminary document and literature review was conducted as part of the scoping phase of the evaluation to gather foundational understanding and knowledge of the Indigenous Affairs Program components. This included the roles, responsibilities and accountabilities of the Functional Authorities and other stakeholders. The preliminary document and literature review provided insight in developing a program logic model and evaluation matrix.

A document and literature review was conducted as part of the planning and conduct phase of the evaluation, focusing on aspects of program relevance and effectiveness:

1.2.2 Key Stakeholder Interviews

Key stakeholder interviews were designed to gather in-depth information including the opinions, explanations, examples as well as factual information, regarding the Indigenous Affairs Program as well as performance (effectiveness) evaluation related questions and indicators. This research method was an important source of qualitative information and supported the understanding and interpretation of other qualitative and quantitative data stemming from the document and literature reviews and survey data analysis. The interviews provided the evaluation with a foundational understanding of current issues, needs and priorities of Indigenous affairs within DND/CAF.

During the planning and conduct phases, the evaluation engaged 25 stakeholders at the Director General, Director and Manager and staff levels through 21 interviews conducted in-person, by telephone or through email correspondence. The first scoping interviews were used as pre-tests to inform the subsequent interview guides regarding program relevance and clarity. Some interviews were conducted in-person and others were through phone or email correspondence.Footnote 72

The interviews were conducted with management and key stakeholders, including Indigenous Champions, Co-Chairs of the DAAGs, Employment Equity Officers and Indigenous Staff Officers, from the following organizations:

A bilingual invitation email with detailed information on the purpose and objectives of the evaluation, including appropriate confidentiality and privacy clauses, was sent to interview respondents. Before the beginning of each interview the confidentiality and privacy clauses were stated to the interviewees to encourage an open and candid climate.

Detailed notes were taken during the interviews and then transcribed electronically. The summarized notes were tailored to each of the evaluation issues, questions and indicators. When required, interviewees provided detailed written responses to the interview questions before or after the interview was completed. Once all interview summary were completed, a content analysis was performed on the qualitative data. These findings were then triangulated with the evidence from other research methods, and used to develop specific sections of the evaluation report and construct empirical key findings.

1.2.3 Stakeholder Survey

A bilingual (English and French) stakeholder survey was developed by ADM(RS) and distributed to 41 recipients from the Military and civilian Co-chairs of DAAGs and to Indigenous Champions across Canada. The evaluation team received submissions ranging from locations in Comox, British Columbia to Gander, St. Johns. Recipients were identified using information from a stakeholder list. Out of the 41 surveys sent out, the survey had a 78 percent survey response rate for Indigenous Champions and 50 percent for the DAAG Co-Chairs. The breakdown for the DAAG Co-Chair section of the survey was 12 (67 percent) military and 6 (33 percent) civilian respondents.

The questionnaire included questions on the subjects related to all areas of Indigenous affairs. Questions were organized to receive feedback on data and information specific to functional areas of the Indigenous Affairs Program as well as related subjects such as governance and legal considerations, procurement, recruiting and retention (including EE), cultural and spiritual support, and training.

2.0 Limitations

Table B-1 lists and describes the limitations and mitigation strategies employed for the Evaluation of the Indigenous Affairs Program.

Table B-1. Evaluation Limitations and Mitigation Strategies. This table displays the evaluation methodology limitations as well as the corresponding mitigation strategies.
Limitations Mitigation Strategies

Program Maturity

  • The Indigenous Affairs Program is now a DRF-defined Program within the DND/CAF PI. The Program continues to undergo development. Due to this, Program outcomes may not yet be fully realized.
  • A concurrent development of a comprehensive National Defence Integrated Indigenous Strategy encompassing all areas of Indigenous affairs was commenced independently by ADM(IE) and was continuing during the conduct of the evaluation.
  • The evidence was considered in context, as the capabilities of the Program are being developed and are evolving to support the achievement of outcomes.


  • The evaluation took a holistic approach to Indigenous affairs by including program elements and stakeholders of the DRF-defined Program, as well as other Indigenous obligations, initiatives and stakeholders defined within the Program.
  • As the Indigenous Affairs Program is new, there is currently limited performance data being leveraged to document program performance.
  • The evaluation used both quantitative and qualitative research methods to gather and analyze evidence in support of the evaluation questions and indicators. Efforts were made to maximize the internal validity of the research through the use of research methods and information to enable evidence-based findings, including a document and literature review, a stakeholder questionnaire and stakeholder interviews, and consultations with numerous key stakeholders spanning across multiple L1 organizations.
Table B-1 Details - Evaluation Limitations and Mitigation Strategies

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Annex C—Logic Model

Figure C-1.  Annex C – Logic Model for Indigenous Affairs in DND/CAF
Figure C-1. Logic Model for the Evaluation of the Indigenous Affairs Program. This shows the relationship between the program’s main activities, outputs and expected outcomes.
Figure C-1. Details - Logic Model for the Evaluation of the Indigenous Affairs Program.

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Annex D—Evaluation Matrix

Table D-1. Evaluation Matrix—Relevance. This table indicates the data collection methods used to assess the evaluation issues/questions for determining the Indigenous Affairs Program’s relevance.
Evaluation Questions Key Issues Indicators Document and Literature Interviews Survey

1.1 To what extent does the Indigenous Affairs program align with Federal Roles and Responsibilities and Government Priorities?

1.1 DND/CAF Indigenous Affairs Program alignment with Federal Government roles and responsibilities.

1.1.1 Evidence of alignment between:

  • Federal Government roles and responsibilities for Indigenous Affairs; and
  • the DND/CAF Indigenous Affairs Program.




1.2 DND/CAF Indigenous Affairs Program alignment with Federal Government priorities.

1.2.1 Evidence of alignment between:

  • Federal Government priorities for Indigenous Affairs; and
  • the DND/CAF Indigenous Affairs Program.




2.0 To what extent does the Indigenous Affairs program align with Canada’s defence policy: Strong, Secure, Engaged?

2.2. DND/CAF Indigenous Affairs Program alignment with Canada’s defence policy.

2.2.1 Evidence of alignment between:

  • defence policy priorities and initiatives for Indigenous Affairs; and
  • the DND/CAF Indigenous Affairs Program.




Table D-1 Details - Evaluation Matrix—Relevance.


Table D-2. Evaluation Matrix—Performance (Effectiveness). This table indicates the data collection methods used to assess the evaluation issues/questions for determining the Indigenous Affairs Program’s performance in terms of achievement of outcomes (effectiveness).
Evaluation Issues / Questions Key Issues Indicators Document and Literature Review Key Interviews Survey

3.0 To what extent does the Indigenous Affairs Programful fill DND and CAF legal obligations, priorities and initiatives to Indigenous peoples?

3.1 Extent that DND and CAF legal obligations (legislative, regulatory, policy) to Indigenous peoples are being met.

3.1.1 Evidence that legal advice is taken into consideration to support DND/CAF decision making, such as:

  • legal advice on real property matters
  • negotiated agreements reflect DND/CAF interests
  • litigation advice
  • legal advice on the development and implementation of DND and GC-wide Indigenous-related policies
  • legal advice on international matters pertaining to Indigenous peoples.




3.1.2 Evidence that awareness of legal obligations and Aboriginal Law is sufficient.




3.1.3 Evidence that the (DRF-defined) DND Indigenous Affairs Program is sufficiently supported by the Indigenous Affairs Secretariat (roles and responsibilities and capacity) for indigenous-related legal obligations.




4.0 To what extent does the Indigenous Affairs Program fulfill personnel-related obligations, priorities and initiatives to support Indigenous peoples?

Note: the Indigenous Affairs Program (as defined by the DRF) does not address these issues.

4.1 Extent that human resource-related strategies, initiatives and action plans for the recruiting and retention of Indigenous persons are effective.

4.1.1 Evidence that DND/CAF has appropriate strategies, initiatives and action plans to improve the recruiting, training and retention of Indigenous peoples in DND/CAF.




4.1.2 Evidence that DND/CAF recruiting, training and retention initiatives are effective.




4.2 Extent that DND/CAF has appropriate and sufficient human resource mechanisms to support Indigenous members.

4.2.1 Evidence that DND/CAF has appropriate strategies, initiatives and action plans to identify, address and support the cultural and spiritual needs of Indigenous members.




4.2.2 Evidence that DND and CAF members and leadership are aware of initiatives to address and support the cultural and spiritual needs of Indigenous members.




4.3 Extent of Indigenous awareness training in DND/CAF.

4.3.1 Evidence that DND/CAF provides Indigenous awareness training for:

  • all DND and CAF personnel; and
  • select DND management and/or CAF command appointments.




4.3.2 Effectiveness of DND/CAF Indigenous awareness training.




Table D-2 Details - Evaluation Matrix—Performance (Effectiveness).

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Annex E—Current Indigenous Training Courses

Table E-1. Indigenous-related Training. This table indicates the current Indigenous-related training options that are currently offered and are in development within DND/CAF.
DND/CAF Indigenous Training Options
L1/L2 Organization Training Course/Event Status/Frequency


Online DND Introduction to Aboriginal Consultations in DND/CAF
CIRNACATRIS online Webinar
CIRNAC201 Consultation and Accommodation (Duty to Consult)
CIRNAC Modern Treaty Implementation Training

Currently offered
Currently offered
In development
In development


Indigenous Cultural Awareness course for recruiters and career counsellors
Three day Aboriginal awareness course with online distance learning available
Two day Northern Aboriginal Awareness course

Contract: Calian
Currently offered
Currently offered


Yearly Senior Officers Indigenous Seminar
Indigenous Recruitment Tool

Currently offered
In development

Chaplain General

Indigenous awareness training provided to new recruits and all Chaplains
Indigenous awareness training during Chaplain exercises and training
Progression of the Indigenous Advisor’s course on Indigenous Cultural Awareness

Currently Offered
Currently Offered
In development


Basic training for new Staffing Advisors

In development


Legal training on land claim, treaty and historical issues including Aboriginal Law101
The Legal Duty to Consult with Aboriginal Groups
The Principles respecting the Government of Canada's relationship with Indigenous peoples

Currently offered - Available on demand

Table E-1 Details - Indigenous Related Training

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