Ready Forces


Field combat-ready forces able to succeed in an unpredictable and complex security environment in the conduct of concurrent operations associated with all mandated missions.

Planning highlights

The Joint Managed Readiness Program ensures different elements of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) are ready to conduct complex operations in contested, degraded and operationally limited environments through participation in, and execution of, Canadian and international exercises and training events.

FY 2022-23 will see the start of a significant change to how force generation and training are conducted in the CAF. Individual training and leadership production will get more focus as capacity is increased.

To test responses, systems and equipment, North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) regularly conducts exercises and readiness inspections that cover a range of scenarios to ensure the CAF is ready to respond to a full spectrum of threats. In FY 2022-23, the CAF will participate in a series of Operation NOBLE DEFENDER and AMALGAM DART events that demonstrate agile and dynamic force employment along the northern approaches to North America in addition to Exercise VIGILANT SHIELD, an annual homeland defence exercise demonstrating readiness and ability to defend Canada and the United States.

NORAD Conducts Air Defence Operations Over Arctic Region

A B-52 Stratofortress, from the 5th Bomb Wing, Minot, North Dakota, United States, an F-16 Fighting Falcon from the 140th Wing, Colorado Air National Guard, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado, United States, and two Royal Canadian Air Force CF-18 fighter aircraft, join together on an air intercept mission during Operation NOBLE DEFENDER, a NORAD Arctic Air Defense operation, at 5 Wing, Goose Bay, Newfoundland & Labrador on 20 September 2020.

(Photo Credit: Senior Master Sergeant John Rohrer, US Air National Guard)

As we continue to improve Command, Control, Communications, Computers Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) readiness, areas of focus for the CAF will include:

  • Command and Control (C2) and cooperation with Arctic nations, including the United States through United States Northern Command, in the conduct of Arctic missions or operations;
  • Enhancing the preparedness of the CAF by assessing technology trends, threats and opportunities and by exploiting emerging technologies to include virtual Air, Maritime, Space, Cyber and Information warfare environments for the CAF, NORAD and coalition combat training, testing and experimentation towards Multi-Domain C2/Operations; and
  • Participating in several CAF and other Government of Canada departments’ cyber training activities to support Canadian and Continental Defence and to protect international interests from cyber threats, such as NORAD’s Exercise VIGILANT SHIELD, United Kingdom Ministry of Defence-led Exercise CYBER WARRIOR, and NATO’s Exercise CYBER COALITION.

Supporting command and control intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance force developers with engineering support and project management as follows:

  • Continuous improvements to Allied interoperability of Unified Communications as guided by NORAD’s Combined Defence Information Management Panel and the Combined Communications Electronics Board.

Gender-based analysis plus (GBA Plus)

The department will continue to work with partners to ensure that Gender Advisors and Gender Focal Points receive the training they need in order to perform their roles while deployed. The department is developing doctrine for gender in military operation which will lead to the development of Gender Advisors and Gender Focal Points training and the integration of GBA Plus into all CAF training. Additionally, GBA Plus lessons learned from CAF operations will be integrated into the current courseware to continue the integration of gender perspectives on operations. Providing enhanced training in addition to the Women and Gender Equality online GBA Plus course will enhance the department’s collective understanding of GBA Plus and the Women Peace and Security objectives, encourage all members to apply GBA Plus findings in their daily work and are better prepared to meet the demand of today’s security challenges. DND/CAF will also review employment and training requirements and strive to adopt a more targeted approach during the nomination process for all deployed positions to enable the deployment and employment of a more diverse force, with a view to meet the Government of Canada National Action Plan for Women Peace and Security objectives.

More information on GBA Plus can be found in the “GBA Plus Supplementary Information Table” in the Supplementary information tables section of this report.

United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) will continue to respond to The Defence Energy and Environment Strategy, specifically Targets 7 and 11 by:

  • Target 7 – Developing a strategy for aviation fuels that supports the Government of Canada’s goal of achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050; and
  • Target 11 – Assessing the impacts of climate change on RCAF activities by 2023. Additionally, the RCAF will align with the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy and the Greening Government Strategy targets/goals, as well as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 7, 12 and 13.


In FY 2022-23, DND/CAF will continue experimentation in the development of Joint Ready Forces through four key initiatives: Joint Arctic Experiment 22, BOLD QUEST 22, Responsive Limited eXperiment and Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Data Fusion Experimentation. The Joint Arctic Experiment 22 will continue equipment trials and capability development initiatives, leveraging joint experience in support of overcoming operational challenges in the Arctic environment. BOLD QUEST 22 is a Coalition Capability Demonstration and Assessment series, in which nations, services and programs pool their resources, facilitating the interoperability of joint capabilities in their final stages of development. The Responsive Limited eXperiment initiative is designed to address short-term problems and is intended to work across all domains, with current experimentation in Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (JISR) and Command and Control (C2). The Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Data Fusion Experimentation differs from the Responsive Limited eXperiment in investigation of longer timeframe problems specifically to learn, adapt and exploit new capabilities for data fusion in support to the National Defence Operation Intelligence Centre and various CAF Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance projects. Combined, the four initiatives will assist with meeting the responsibility for the development of concepts, organizational designs and doctrine for assigned joint challenges.

Additional defence-related experimentation activities are outlined in this report under Core Responsibility 4 – Future Force Design.

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Key Corporate Risk(s)

There are many risks associated with the Ready Forces Core Responsibility. One of the Key Corporate Risks is articulated below:

Materiel Maintenance – There is a risk that DND/CAF may have difficulty maintaining its materiel capabilities at the right level to support operations.

The risk above can affect the department’s ability to achieve the Departmental Results of the Ready Forces Core Responsibility.

As the Defence Departmental Results Framework reflects a chain of delivery from conceiving of the required armed forces, to developing them and then executing operations, the activities to mitigate the risks to the Ready Forces Core Responsibility can also be found in other Core Responsibilities which deliver building blocks that enable the results of Ready Forces.

Departmental Result 2.1 – Canadian Armed Forces are ready to conduct concurrent operations

The CAF must balance the requirement to generate ready soldiers with the need to apply public health measures. During FY 2022-23, the CAF will continue to implement best practices at training events to ensure that CAF members follow all public health measures in the vicinity of our training areas. CAF medical specialists will continue to advise exercise planners on how to best conduct training in a pandemic environment. In all cases the measures are based on local health conditions and adjusted in consultation with local authorities. This will continue as long as the COVID-19 pandemic conditions persist.

The CAF will conduct and participate in training scenarios in domestic, continental and international contexts with other government departments and agencies, allies and partner nations to enhance integration, interoperability and joint readiness. Plans include the following exercises in FY 2022-23:

  • Exercise ARCTIC EDGE: A biennial Arctic warfare exercise led and executed by the CAF, NORAD and by United States Alaska Command, to practise and refine Arctic Warfare tactics and facilitate joint force and combined readiness, increase familiarization with extreme cold weather operations, exercise integrated air and missile defence, conduct arctic experimentation, foster interoperability and C4ISR among Arctic allies;
  • BOLD QUEST: A collaborative joint and multinational exercise in which nations, services and programs pool resources, facilitating the interoperability of joint capabilities in their final stages of development, with an overarching objective to improve interoperability and information-sharing across a range of coalition war-fighting capabilities;
  • Exercise JOINTEX: Capability development and professional military education activities to learn how the CAF, and the broader Canadian National Security Team, can adapt to more effectively meet the Government of Canada’s security demands and defend Canadian national interests in the pan-domain environment. A key component will be the Joint Operations Symposium;
  • Exercise VIGILANT SHIELD: An annual exercise between NORAD, United States Northern Command and the CAF, focused on the defence and security of North America;
  • Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC): A biennial combined and joint field training exercise which has significant CAF maritime, land and air participation. It is a major CAF engagement activity in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region and provides an opportunity to work directly with the United States and regional defence partners in coalition operations;
  • Exercise AUSTERE CHALLENGE: A United States European Command exercise focused on coalition planning with NATO Allies and partners, particularly on global competition and conflict with Russia. Crisis planning and a command post exercise will provide an opportunity to test the Joint Operations Centre capability;
  • ENTERPRISE STORM: ENTERPRISE STORM is the premier Defense Intelligence Enterprise demonstration series to promote joint interoperability and integration between the Military Services, Defence Intelligence Agencies, Five Eyes allies and select coalition partners. ENTERPRISE STORM is sponsored by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defence for Intelligence and Security and it is managed by the United States National Geospatial Agency and the National Security Agency. ENTERPRISE STORM consists of an iterative approach to demonstrating and assessing intelligence capabilities that have the best potential to transition to real world operations in the near term. ENTERPRISE STORM is a series of demonstration and assessment events specifically tailored to help achieve the following two objectives:
    • Build a modern and resilient intelligence infrastructure and architecture; and
    • Leverage international partnerships as a combined and interdependent community.
  • BICES BLACKJACK: Battlefield Information, Collection, and Exploitation System (BICES) BLACKJACK is an operational test initiative aimed at facilitating the execution of the JISR task, collect, process, exploit and disseminate cycle among the BICES ISR nations. It is organized and executed by the BICES ISR CELL to test BICES and nations’ ISR infrastructure and interconnections as well as the various Coalition Shared Database and tools’ functionality and compliance with NATO Standardization Agreement 4559; and
  • Ensure that the Information Technology infrastructure enables efficient and effective JISR integration, testing and evaluation of capabilities as well as training of JISR professionals with Five Eyes and NATO partners through already established mechanisms.

Exercise RIMPAC

Multinational navy ships steam in formation during a group sail off the coast of Hawaii, United States during Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) on 21 August, 2020.

(Photo Credit: Master Sailor Dan Bard, Canadian Forces Combat Camera)

Operation NANOOK - is a strategic demonstration of ability and resolve, while tactically, it is a training opportunity for all involved. The focus will be deployment of forces to the High Arctic to rehearse and enhance CAF capability to deploy and operate in austere and remote environments, while allowing for the integration of relevant science and technology. This operation will foster participation through focused international and partner cooperation and explore avenues to exercise all-domain awareness.

  • Operation NANOOK-NUNAKPUT 22: Integration of regional, other government departments and agencies in a series of presence activities in Joint Task Force North’s Area of Operations, supported by the Canadian Army (CA), RCAF and, where applicable, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), designed to develop domain awareness, foster greater interoperability and increase overall readiness;
  • Operation NANOOK-NUNALIVUT 22: Activities will be executed in the Northwest Territories. The focus will be deployment of a joint multinational force to the High Arctic to rehearse and enhance CAF capability to deploy and operate in austere and remote environments. This operation shall foster participation through international and partner cooperation and explore avenues to exercise all domain awareness;
  • Operation NANOOK-TATIGIIT 22: An exercise planned in collaboration with other government partners that is part of an inter-agency response to a major event/incident where the primary focus will be interoperability and readiness of the CAF, other government departments and agencies and the Arctic Search and Rescue (SAR) community to respond effectively; and
  • Operation NANOOK-TUUGAALIK 22: Multinational maritime cooperative LIVEX safety and security activities. Participants may include other governments’ vessels and allied nations.

Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE 22: this exercise will validate named and contingency readiness elements using live simulation in a force-on-force exercise. During the exercise, approximately 2 500 Canadian Army soldiers will test their abilities to integrate with joint capabilities from other CAF commands as well as multi-national forces. The exercise will provide CA leaders, soldiers, other CAF personnel and allies with a unique opportunity to validate their combat readiness within a NATO construct. The requirement for flexible responses across a spectrum of situations will challenge commanders at all levels.

  • Exercise UNIFIED RESOLVE 23: The largest computer-assisted simulation exercise, will validate numerous levels of headquarters within a Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in all aspects of command and control, and planning in a joint and combined environment scenario. Through the use of simulation, a challenging computer-assisted exercise will test planning and decision-making at multiple levels of the Canadian Army and other CAF elements to work in a whole-of-government context. An enduring exercise, Exercise UNIFIED RESOLVE is a precursor to the CA’s Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE. Exercise UNIFIED RESOLVE is internationally recognized and seen by allies and partners as an opportunity to practise interoperability. The exercise will provide participants an opportunity to enhance collective competence across a spectrum of scenarios. For this reason, the exercise also serves as a key training event for the Canadian Joint Operation Command’s high-readiness deployable 1 Canadian Division Headquarters;
  • Joint Readiness Training Centre: This venue is a collective training field exercise for Battle Group and Brigade Groups. It is a force-on-force training event that includes full-time Opposing Forces, Observer Controller Trainers, and Exercise Control Groups to ensure a realistic training environment. It is the culminating validation exercise in support of the CA’s requirement to provide a Light Infantry Battalion Group as part of Ready Land Forces necessary to meet Government of Canada requirements to be ready to conduct Domestic Support Operations and Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations. Further, it enhances interoperability by allowing a Canadian Battalion Group to operate under a United States hosted Brigade;
  • Exercise TRADEWINDS: an annual United States Southern Command exercise aimed at promoting regional security cooperation in the Caribbean region by involving security forces and disaster response agencies to focus on countering threats and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief;
  • Exercise ARDENT DEFENDER: an international and inter-agency exercise planned and executed by the CA’s Joint Counter Explosive Threat Task Force that enables capability development, science and technology engagement, and exchange of best practices;
  • Exercise PRECISE RESPONSE: a live agent and interoperability training exercise conducted by the Canadian Army’s Joint Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defence capability on behalf of NATO with the Defence Research and Development Centre at Canadian Forces Base Suffield, Alberta;
  • BULLSEYE 22: The RCAF has rejuvenated Exercise BULLSEYE as a means of renewing capacity and strategic engagement. This exercise will provide the RCAF and Commonwealth Air Forces with opportunities for relevant multinational Tactical Air Mobility training, improve interoperability, and renew strategic engagement with the United States, Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom;
  • COALITION SPACE FLAG 23-1: An annual Five Eyes exercise led by the United States Air Force (USAF). It is designed to provide training in synthetic, theatre-level, joint combat operations in contested and degraded combat environments. This exercise also provides an opportunity to interact with land, maritime, air, special operations, cyber and space elements from multiple nations;
  • COALITION SPACE FLAG 22/23: A United States Space Force exercise designed to provide space crews with advanced training in a simulated contested, degraded, operationally limited environment. The exercise provides tactical space operators and operational C2 units the opportunity to plan, brief, execute, and debrief together through a challenging, realistic, and space-focused scenario;
  • “DYNAMIC” SERIES (DYNAMIC MANTA, DYNAMIC MONGOOSE): DYNAMIC MANTA facilitates joint and combined training with NATO partners to further CAF capabilities. It is the second-largest joint/combined Anti-Submarine Warfare exercise (with RIMPAC as the largest) reflecting real world Anti-Submarine Warfare operations. DYNAMIC MONGOOSE is similar, with a focus on key NATO partners involved in real world Anti-Submarine Warfare operations;
  • GLOBAL ENGAGEMENT 22: The USAF biennial, joint/combined wargame series that focuses on improving competitive advantage and warfighting concepts in specific theatres of operations. This iteration will focus on Homeland Defence and Arctic operations. It also aims to shape conceptual thinking on complex warfighting issues spanning the next 30 years;
  • GLOBAL LIGHTNING 23: An annual United States Strategic Command-led command post and battle staff exercise incorporating elements of strategic deterrence, space operations, cyberspace operations, joint electronic warfare, global strike, missile defence, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and analysis and targeting. GLOBAL LIGHTNING incorporates a variety of strategic threats to the United States and its allies as well as incorporating strategic deterrence, space operations, cyberspace operations, joint electronic warfare, global strike, missile defence, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and analysis and targeting;
  • GLOBAL SENTINEL 22: A future-based Space Situational Awareness exercise in a simulated operational space environment using online shared operational and analytical tools. It is a multi‑nation exercise run by the United States Space Command to determine tactics, techniques and procedures, to share analytics and data products, and to refine contingencies for future operations;
  • GREEN FLAG 23: GREEN FLAG LITTLE ROCK trains 5000 Soldiers deployed to an austere environment in the United States of America. USAF and coalition air forces provide airlift and airdrop capabilities, aeromedical evacuation and bare-base set-up and operations. GREEN FLAG is an advanced, realistic, and relevant Air-to-Surface training exercise, preparing joint and coalition warfighters to meet combatant commander requirements across Air, Space, and Cyberspace;
  • JOINT WARRIOR 22-2: A biannual, United Kingdom-led tri-service and multination exercise intended to improve joint and combined interoperability between allied and partner navies and prepare participants for a role in a joint and combined maritime environment. Individual exercise plans are flexible and tailored to meet the participants’ individual and collective training requirements;
  • NORTHERN VIKING 21: A European Command directed, United States Air Forces Europe led, joint and coalition exercise, focused on the defence of Iceland and sea lines of communication in the Greenland-Iceland-United Kingdom gap;
  • SCHRIEVER WARGAME 23: A combined exercise set 5 to 30 years in the future that is designed to support concept development and inform decisions about future space mission responsibilities and operational architectures. The RCAF has participated in this exercise for over a decade and it has led to fundamental changes in the way Five Eyes and other partners conduct space operations; and
  • THOR’S HAMMER WARGAME: A biannual, space-centric, strategic-level exercise focused on the use of cyber and space activities. It explores the range of military operations, which will extend into space.


Canadian Armed Forces Light Armoured Vehicles drive through the training area at the start of Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE 21, at 3rd Canadian Division Support Base Detachment Wainwright, Alberta on 1 May 2021.

(Photo Credit: Corporal Djalma Vuong-De Ramos)

In addition to the noted readiness exercises, Defence will deliver on a number of efforts that will best ensure readiness of the CAF, including the following items.

  • The CA is a soldier-centric, professional and inclusive force made up of our Regular Force personnel, Primary Reserves, Canadian Rangers and public servants. Ready Land Forces will continue to posture to be able to defend Canada and meet the requirements of the Government of Canada to be the force of last resort to respond to crises, through integrated command and control, deployable sustainment, and the provision of ready forces in the form of Immediate Reaction Units, Territorial Battle Groups, Domestic Response Companies or Arctic Response Company Groups, as well as Canadian Rangers. Several modernization efforts are currently underway to ensure that future requirements will be met while still meeting personnel generation needs of the near-term:
    • Through the CA Modernization Strategy, the CA continues to evolve in preparation for present and future threats and challenges, in alignment with Canada’s defence policy. A year after the publication of the strategy in early 2021, efforts are underway to ensure that the modernization initiative continues to be aligned with current CAF and CA priorities, as well as identify efforts that are underway, those that are moving but require more attention, and those that are currently on hold either awaiting resources or for matters of sequencing. Looking towards FY 2022-23, the various lines of effort and initiatives will continue to be measured, tracked, and reviewed by senior leadership on a biannual basis to reprioritize as necessary and ensure the full potential of the CA Modernization Strategy is realized.
    • Force 2025 is the CA’s initiative to review all components of the Command and seek to optimize and modernize its structures to meet current and projected operational requirements as well as support to the Government of Canada Defence Policy initiatives. One of the objectives of Force 2025 is to continue the integration of the Army Reserve, Canadian Rangers, public servants and the Regular Force into a single, inclusive team. Increased inclusivity enhances command and control relationships and training opportunities, and clarifies assigned tasks and integration points, ensuring that the CA is prepared to carry out assigned tasks and support concurrent operations. This will be achieved, in part, through efforts to refine attraction, recruiting, and retention initiatives in accordance with the CAF Reconstitution Plan, implement policies that enable the operational capability of Reserve personnel, while ensuring that administration is streamlined, and continue developing and integrating Reserve Mission Tasks to build capacity and depth. During FY 2022-23, Force 2025 will conduct detailed analysis to: better define the required readiness levels of each unit; assess the required staffing realignment necessary to bolster its institutional and field support, and; modernize the CA structure to better manage its resources and to integrate new capabilities.
    • In order to meet the requirements of Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy, the Canadian Ranger Enhancement is an initiative with the goal to improve the effectiveness of Canadian Rangers. Efforts in FY 2022-23, which follow on from a foundation laid during the FY 2021-22, will include a focus on the update of policies, processes and mechanisms which govern the personnel, and provision of equipment necessary for the Canadian Rangers to execute their mission now and into the future. The end state of this initiative will be achieved when the Canadian Rangers are trained, equipped, structured, staffed and supported by policies, directives, regulations and orders that better enable the fulfillment of their Role, Mission and Tasks.
  • To further support readiness and defence policy objectives, in FY 2022-23, the CA will continue to refine its ability to force generate land power by engaging international partners and allies to promote cooperation, share best practices, and improve interoperability. The CA will also continue to promote the CAF as a credible and reliable military partner, and promote broader Canadian values and outreach by engaging in a variety of international forums.


A Canadian Army Infantry Officer walks back to a defensive position after a simulated fire fight during Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE 21 in Wainwright, Alberta on 7 May 2021.

(Photo Credit: Master Sailor Dan Bard, Canadian Forces Combat Camera)

  • The RCAF Future Aircrew Training (FAcT) is a generational opportunity for the RCAF to modernize and renew its Aircrew Training system. It will revamp training for all RCAF Pilots, Air Combat Systems Officers and Airborne Electronic Sensor Operators through the delivery of a single performance based contracted training program. It is anticipated that the contract will be awarded in FY 2022-23.
  • The Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) remains at a very high readiness level to respond and disrupt to emerging crisis situations or threats to Canadians and Canadian interests. Further, CANSOFCOM will contribute to the CAF’s ability to anticipate threats through the generation of forces designed to illuminate and understand nefarious activity, while helping to shield against threats through recognizing and removing or mitigating vulnerability points.
  • Optimize Operational Support Hub Network: The CAF will continually assess and optimize the Operational Support Hub Network to support international operations and major exercises as required. Inherent flexibility in location, size and degrees of responsiveness will enhance operational support while minimizing resource expenditures. Operational support may be provided through agreements with allies, partners and contractors, as opposed to, or in conjunction with, the physical presence of CAF assets and personnel where feasible and efficient. 
  • As a joint capability, space integrates CAF members and their civilian Defence Team counterparts, working together to deliver capabilities that provide strategic advantage. Integrated through the Canadian Space Operations Centre, the CAF team will again continue to participate in Space operations activities with allied partners under the Combined Space Operations agreement in order to meet the space-related goals of Strong, Secure, Engaged.
  •  As we continue to improve C4ISR readiness, areas of focus for the CAF will include:
    • Integrating CAF C4ISR within the NATO and Five Eyes environment to enhance communication and information exchange capabilities while directly supporting the warfighter  and senior decision makers;
    • Sustained C2 and cooperation with Arctic nations, including the United States through United States Northern Command, in the conduct of Arctic missions, operations and exercises; and
    • UNIFIED VISION: UNIFIED VISION is the premier NATO event for JISR activities, to improve JISR interoperability among NATO and its member states. JISR activities conducted during UNIFIED VISION trials encompass the full spectrum of NATO doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership, personnel, facilities, and interoperability.
      • The relevance and significance of UNIFIED VISION for NATO and its member states derive from today’s dynamic security environment and the information demands at all levels of command. This enables the alliance to evaluate and inform NATO bodies and nations of change recommendations to support further improvements towards the achievement of an enduring NATO JISR capability; and
      • UNIFIED VISION is held internationally across numerous venues in Europe with national JISR support enabled through the BICES ISR Network located in the National Capital Region within the CAF Joint Operations Fusion Laboratory.


Members of 3rd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment conduct an airmobile, force-on-force exercise with support from 450 Tactical Helicopter Squadron at Killaloe/Bonnechere Airport, Killaloe, Hagarty and Richards, Ontario, Canada, during Exercise ROYAL CAULDRON on 7 June 2021.

(Photo Credit: Corporal Dean Lynam, CAF Photo)

Planned results

Departmental Results Departmental Result Indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018–19 Actual results 2019–20 Actual results 2020–21 Actual results
2.1 Canadian Armed Forces are ready to conduct concurrent operations  % of operations that are capable of being conducted concurrently 100% 31 March 2025 100%

100% 100%
% of force elements that are ready for operations in accordance with established targets 100%
31 March 2025 79%



* There is a perceived decline of readiness compared to last fiscal year caused by COVID-19 pandemic. This is due to expiring competencies arising from school closures and cancelled training due to COVID-19 health measures. The target of 100%, which should be reached by 2025, represents the full implementation of Strong, Secure, Engaged initiatives that support the readiness of force elements.

Financial, human resources and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBase.

Departmental Result 2.2 – Military equipment is ready for training and operations

Equipment is made available to support CAF training and operational requirements through the Equipment Support Program, which is primarily funded through the National Procurement corporate accounts. National Procurement is the term given to DND Corporate accounts aligned to the in-service sustainment (maintenance, engineering support, engineering changes and inventory replenishment) and disposal of aerospace, land, maritime, as well as ammunition and common use materiel such as uniforms, test equipment, and special operations forces equipment. The key fleets identified in support of the NATO Readiness Initiative have been prioritized to ensure that preparations continue in FY 2022‑23. The department’s materiel group is responsible for the execution of the National Procurement program (see Core Responsibility 5 – Procurement of Capabilities in this report) which is expected to expend over $3 billion in FY 2022‑23.

In FY 2022-23 the RCAF will leverage the flexibility and agility of the Canadian Armed Forces’ Minor Project program to address operational deficiencies identified by the operational and training communities. An example of one such deficiency relates to providing an Extended Range Fuelling System and Forward Area Refuelling Equipment to extend the operational range of the CH-147F Chinook and enable it to perform as a Forward Area Refuelling Point for the CH-146 Griffon and allied aircraft and vehicles. This project will enhance the RCAF’s ability to conduct operations in the Arctic and other remote regions where the expansive distances between airfields and lack of suitable alternates limit access to refuelling options.


Military members, primarily from the 3e Battalion, Royal 22e Régiment, perform a parachute jump from CH-146 Griffon helicopters from 430 Tactical Helicopter Squadron as part of Exercise PEGASE MOUILLÉ at Lake St. Joseph in Fossambault-sur-le-Lac, Quebec, Canada, on 14 June 2021.

(Photo Credit: Corporal Genevieve Beaulieu, CAF)

The introduction of the Arctic and Offshore Patrol Vessels enhances the RCN’s ability to assert Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic, integrate with a range of government and international partners, and support international operations. The Harry DeWolf-class can operate year-round in up to one metre of first-year ice, extending the RCN’s reach in the Arctic region. When not in the Arctic, the ships can be deployed offshore, supporting coastal surveillance, search and rescue, drug interdiction, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations as required.

In FY 2022-23, the RCN will continue operationalizing Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) Harry DeWolf, the first Arctic and Offshore Patrol Vessel, while completing the at-sea trial program of the second ship of the class – HMCS Margaret Brooke. Both ships will conduct operational deployments to the Arctic for Operation NANOOK, operating in consort, as well as deploying independently to warmer waters for Operation CARIBBE, a United States-led counter-narcotics operation. The operationalization of the ships of the class will include activities aimed at further integrating the ships with the CH-148 Cyclone. The commissioning ceremony for HMCS Margaret Brooke is planned for fall 2022.

The joint Arctic deployment of HMCS Harry DeWolf and HMCS Margaret Brooke will contribute to the surveillance activities of the Northern maritime approaches of Canada – a NORAD mission, while providing opportunities to further nurture the growing relationship between the Inuit people of the Arctic regions affiliated with each ship of the class.

The RCN is also expecting to take delivery of the class’s third ship, the future HMCS Max Bernays. The ship delivery is anticipated for summer 2022. The operationalization of this ship is expected to mirror the introduction to the fleet activities of the first two ships of this class, commencing with a post-delivery work period followed by Basic Single Ship Readiness Training prior to commencing the at-sea Test and Trials program. The coastal transfer of HMCS Max Bernays to its assigned home port of Esquimalt, British Columbia, is expected to occur in summer 2023.

The CA updated its Equipment Readiness Plan in July 2021. This update revised the serviceability goals from a blanket 80 percent across all vehicle fleets to reflect the necessary serviceability targets for key individual vehicle fleets to meet all CA Force Posture and Readiness commitments. In FY 2022-23, this change will enable the CA to focus maintenance efforts to meet priority commitments. The CA will continue to use the Serviceability and Sustainment Dashboard to monitor the readiness of this equipment and continue to encourage higher direct labour rates among CAF technicians in order to meet respective serviceability targets.

Exercise AGILE RAM

Canadian Armed Forces members from 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group conduct a level 5 range during Exercise AGILE RAM, at 3rd Canadian Division Support Base Detachment Wainwright, Alberta, training area on 29 May 2021.

(Photo Credit: Corporal Djalma Vuong-De Ramos, CAF Photo)

Planned results

Departmental Results Departmental Result Indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018–19 Actual results 2019–20 Actual results 2020–21 Actual results
2.2 Military equipment is ready for training and operations % of maritime key fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements in support of concurrent operations At least 90%* 31 March 2023 91.4% 98.2% 94.1%
% of key land fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements in support of concurrent operations  At least 80%* 31 March 2023 72%

65.4% 62.7%**
% of aerospace key fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements in support of concurrent operations At least 85%* 31 March 2023 79.1% 60.8% 55%***


* A portion of the fleet will normally be subject to repairs due to the use of fleets and thus not be serviceable. As such, a target of 100% would not reflect a realistic goal. A healthy fleet should, however, reflect a low proportion of the fleet that is unserviceable in order to ensure that the appropriate level of training and readiness can be provided. Note that the concept of “serviceable” differs significantly between military environments due to the inherent differences across types of equipment.

The RCN does not include vessels that are unavailable due to a scheduled maintenance period (such as Short Work Periods and Docking Work Periods) when calculating the percentage of vessels that are ready for training and operations. The indicator is calculated with the following formula: Total number of vessels in a key fleet x 365 days (minus all days spent in a scheduled maintenance period) divided by the actual number of days that those vessels were serviceable.

In the Maritime context, the indicator refers to the aggregate number of serviceable vessels that comprise the key fleets. These fleets are the Halifax, Victoria, Kingston and Harry DeWolf classes.

In the army context, the indicator refers to the aggregate number of equipment that comprise the land fleets.

In the air force context, the indicator refers to the aggregate number of equipment that comprise the aerospace fleets.

** During FY 2020-21 the serviceability level of land operational equipment met the current CA operational remits and force generation activity requirements. The CA Equipment Readiness Plan serviceability rate of the fleet for the FY was 62.7%*. The target was not achieved due to persistent COVID-19 impacts on limited maintenance resources, increased maintenance requirements caused by advancing fleet age and fleet specific issues, which all contributed to lower serviceability levels. *Note - The Light Armoured Vehicle III and Medium Logistics Vehicle Wheeled fleets underwent divestment activities in FY 2020-21, and were excluded from this figure.

*** FY 2020-21 saw an overall drop in serviceability of 5.8%, driven mainly by the lower serviceability of the CT-144 Tutor and CF-18 Hornet fleets. The CT-144 went through an Operational Pause following the crash in May 2020, during which time the serviceability was reported as zero. This resulted in an annual serviceability drop of 17.6% for the CT-114. Additionally, the CF-18 serviceability dropped by 11.8% from the previous year. This can mainly be attributed to the impact of COVID-19 work restrictions, which particularly affected 3 Wing Bagotville.

Financial, human resources and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBase.

Planned budgetary spending for Ready Forces

2022-23 budgetary spending (as indicated in Main Estimates) 2022-23
planned spending
planned spending
planned spending
10,453,990,709 10,453,990,709 10,458,121,831 10,637,852,995

Financial, human resources and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBase.

Planned human resources for Ready Forces

planned full-time equivalents
planned full-time equivalents
planned full-time equivalents
45,920 45,957 46,052

Financial, human resources and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBase.

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