Operation HONOUR

  • Eliminating sexual misconduct is our top institutional priority.
  • In 2015, the Canadian Armed Forces launched Operation HONOUR to address sexual misconduct within its ranks and work towards broader cultural change.
  • Support for victims has been, and will continue to be, the primary focus under Operation HONOUR.
  • To this end, we established the Sexual Misconduct Response Centre – independent from the chain of command – to provide 24/7 support to affected members.
  • The Centre recently assumed full responsibility for the development of a national victim support plan.
  • The Defence Team has also launched a comprehensive case management service to ensure victim support and advocacy.
  • We continue to improve our policies, procedures, and training to ensure that those affected by sexual misconduct are supported.
  • This includes ensuring that the Military Police receive specialized training to ensure professionalism and compassion in working with victims.
  • Beyond these efforts, in the last Parliament, the Government passed Bill C-77, which, once fully in force, will enshrine rights for victims of service offences within the military justice system.
  • Looking forward, National Defence is developing a culture change strategy, with a performance measurement framework, as we continue to work towards lasting institutional change.

Key Facts

  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Sexual Misconduct Response Centre’s services remain operational to the extent possible, although in-person accompaniment is on hold.
  • 6 Sexual Offence Response Teams operated by the Military Police have been established to support victims of sexual misconduct and ensure timely, professional investigations.
  • 114 members have been released from the CAF for sexual misconduct (between April 2016 and March 2020).
  • Heyder Beattie Final Settlement Agreement: Impacted individuals will be able to submit a claim, starting on May 25, 2020 and no later than November 24, 2021, for financial compensation and/or to seek to participate in the Restorative Engagement program.
  • Main Estimates 2020-21 request: $500,000 to fund ten Sexual Assault Centres near military bases across Canada.


  • In 2015, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) initiated Operation HONOUR to address sexual misconduct within its ranks.
  • Through Operation HONOUR, the CAF has implemented policies and procedures to increase awareness and understanding of sexual misconduct throughout the organization, and established essential support for affected individuals.
  • Support to those affected by sexual misconduct is the main effort of Operation HONOUR. A wide range of support and care is available for affected persons and those who support them, through services such as the Sexual Misconduct Response Centre, the Canadian Forces Health Services Group, the Canadian Armed Forces Member Assistance Program, and through legislation such as the new Declaration of Victims’ Rights (Bill C-77), when it comes into force.

Sexual Misconduct Response Centre (SMRC)

  • The SMRC was created in response to the recommendations made by the External Review Authority’s Report on Sexual Misconduct in the CAF.
  • The SMRC operates independently from the chain of command and is a key resource for anyone affected by sexual misconduct. The Centre provides 24/7 confidential counselling, response and support coordination, information and assistance to:
    • Members who have experience sexual misconduct;
    • Members who have been affected by sexual misconduct including a person trying to support another member; and,
    • Military leaders who need information on how to best respond to, and support, other members.

Version 4 – 2020-06-10 – Source: QP Note on Sexual Misconduct; Mains note on Sexual Assault Centre; VCDS, SMRC

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Hateful conduct in the Canadian Armed Forces

  • Racism and extremism are totally incompatible with the military ethos and Canadian values.
  • Such behaviour and actions diminish the reputation of the Canadian Armed Forces as a force for good at home and around the world.
  • When one of our members is found to be contravening our core values, as clearly set out in our policy, we act decisively – respecting the rule of law and due process.
  • The Chief of the Defence Staff has directed that immediate and meaningful action be taken to eliminate hateful conduct with the Canadian Armed Forces.
  • The Canadian Armed Forces is in the final stages of confirming a clear, concise, and understandable definition of Hateful Conduct.
  • This is an essential first step in ensuring that all Canadian Armed Forces members, at every rank level, fully understand the standard of conduct expected of them regardless of rank.
  • This definition will be supported by new Canadian Forces orders and directives.
  • These directives will clearly outline the responsibilities of individual members and leaders in recognizing and responding to hateful conduct, and providing training and tools to monitor, report, and intervene.
  • These changes will impact every stage of a CAF member’s military life, from initial screening for hateful beliefs during recruiting and selection to ongoing training and education throughout their career.

If pressed on screening for potential ideologically motivated violent extremists:

  • Trained recruiters screen new applicants for their suitability and past criminal history – while respecting Canadian privacy laws.
  • The Canadian Armed Forces provides training on appropriate conduct, and military ethos, starting at the beginning of one’s career and throughout their time in the Armed Forces.

If pressed on corrective measures:

  • Corrective measures are made on a case-by-case basis during, or following, an investigation.
  • These corrective measures range from counselling and administrative actions to disciplinary proceedings under the National Defence Act.
  • If a member’s conduct gives rise to a charge under the Code of Service Discipline, the matter may be dealt with through the Military Justice System.
  • Due process is followed for each and every case that could result in administrative or disciplinary proceedings.

If pressed on proposed on Frenette Class Action (Racial Discrimination)

  • We fully acknowledge the impact that racial harassment and discrimination has had on members of the Defence Team.
  • This is why we have entered into settlement negotiations to bring closure, healing, and acknowledgement to the victims and survivors of racially-based harassment and discrimination.
  • As negotiations are ongoing, however, I cannot speak to specifics details.

Key Facts

  • National Defence is currently in the process of reviewing and updating policy direction and instructions on hateful conduct.
  • National Defence has initiated a research program on Hateful Conduct, including funding a Mobilizing Insights in Defence and Security network and several external targeted engagement grants to evolve our understanding of these issues.
  • A 2018 internal report by the Military Police found that between 2013 and 2018, 51 Canadian Armed Forces members were identified as either being part of a hate group or undertaking racist or discriminatory actions.
  • As of December 5, 2019:
    • 21 members are no longer in the Canadian Armed Forces as a result of various considerations, including medical and voluntary release.
      • 3 have been released in direct relation to hateful conduct
      • 18 have voluntarily or medically released
    • Of the 30 remaining members identified:
      • 15 received remedial measures, such as initial counselling, recorded warning and counselling and probation, and other disciplinary actions.
      • 8 investigations have found no wrongdoing.
      • 7 investigations are ongoing.


  • In 2018, the Military Police Criminal Intelligence Section published an internal report on white supremacy, hate groups, and racism in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). The report found that, compared to the total number of CAF members, the number involved in hateful conduct was statistically insignificant.
  • Following the release of this report via an Access to Information request, civil society groups called for the CAF to recognize the severity of the issue.

Frenette proposed class action lawsuit

  • December 14, 2016: Three former Canadian Armed Forces members filed a class action lawsuit alleging that the Canadian Armed Forces failed to protect racial minorities and Aboriginal peoples from racism.
  • January 2019: The parties agreed to suspend the litigation process and are currently in settlement negotiations.

High-profile incidents of hateful conduct in the CAF

  • The Base: In January 2020, former Reserve member, Patrik Mathews, was arrested in the United States. He faces charges stemming from an alleged plot to incite violence, death and racial unrest. Mathews’ case is currently before the courts. Mathews was also involved in the militant neo-Nazi group, The Base. Mathews joined the Reserves in 2010 and was a combat engineer with 38 Canadian Brigade Group in Winnipeg. He released in August 2019.
  • Iron March: In November 2019, the media reported on leaked material from the defunct neo-Nazi website, Iron March. The Canadian Anti-Hate Network claims one of the website users is a CAF member that arranged an illegal weapons deal in Eastern Europe in 2017.
  • FireForce Ventures: In April 2018, the Canadian Army investigated four Primary Reserve soldiers linked to FireForce Ventures, an online business that sold Rhodesian military style apparel and memorabilia alleged to appeal to white nationalists. Based on the testimonials of the members and information available on the company, the investigation concluded that the CAF Code of Values and Ethics was not breached, and that members were operating a legal business in their civilian capacity. In October 2018, however, the Canadian Army was informed that the co-owner of FireForce Ventures, Henry Lung, a Private in the Army Reserve, allegedly participated in a podcast interview on a site that holds white supremacist views, during which he allegedly made remarks that are counter to the CAF Code of Values and Ethics. In February 2019, the Canadian Forces National Investigation Services determined that Henry Lung violated the CAF Code of Values and Ethics, and administrative measures were taken against him.
  • Three percenters: In February 2018, media reported an increase of right-wing groups in the Maritimes, specifically a group called the “Three percenters”, who bragged about their shooting capacity and training.
  • La Meute: In October 2017, an investigation by Radio-Canada found approximately 75 CAF personnel were members of La Meute, a Quebec far-right nationalist group. In response, the CAF held conferences with members on bases in Montréal, St-Jean-Richelieu and Valcartier on the role of the armed forces in preventing violent radicalization in the military.
  • Proud Boys: In July 2017, five members of the CAF, who identified as members of a “Western chauvinist” organization called the “Proud Boys,” disrupted a Mi’kmaw ceremony in Halifax, Nova Scotia. No charges were laid. One member has since left the military and probationary monitoring remedial measures were applied in the remaining four cases.

Version 6 – 2020-06-12 – Source: QP Note on Hateful Conduct.

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Military health care reimbursements

  • The health, safety, and well-being of Canadian Armed Forces members has always been a top priority.
  • In Spring 2019, the Canadian Armed Forces implemented new reimbursement rates for outsourced health care services.
  • Following concerns from provincial, and hospital partners, the Canadian Armed Forces reverted to the original reimbursement structure.
  • We are currently considering next steps to ensure that healthcare services continue to be provided to all members at the best value for tax payers.
  • Our intent is to achieve an equitable and enduring solution so that all military members can continue to have access to the highest quality care.

Key Facts

  • In October 2019, the Canadian Armed Forces reverted to the old reimbursement rates structure to allow for further discussion with provincial and territorial partners.


Federal responsibility for military health care

  • The federal government is constitutionally responsible for providing healthcare to Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members. As a result, under the Canada Health Act, members of the CAF are excluded in from the definition of “insured persons” which is reflected outlined in provincial health plans.
  • Traditionally, the CAF reimburses the cost of medical services provided by provincial/territorial medical institutions on a “pay-as-billed” basis with no established caps and a wide variation in billing rates between providers.

Adjustments to reimbursement rates structure

  • In 2014 and 2018, internal audit reports on National Defence health care expenses recommended that the CAF pursue ways to achieve consistencies in provincial health billing, to address the lack of price caps and the wide variation in billing rates.
  • Beginning Fall 2018, the Canadian Forces Health Services Group engaged with medical associations and federal and provincial/territorial health care representatives regarding new reimbursement rates for outsourced services.
  • In Spring 2019, the CAF implemented new reimbursement rates for outsourced health care services.
  • Following concerns from provincial, and hospital partners, the CAF reverted to the original reimbursement rate structure (“pay-as-billed” with no established caps). This interim measure was to allow for further discussions between the federal and provincial/territorial governments and medical and hospital associations on a permanent solution to reimbursement rates and a standardized fee schedule.
  • Effective October 2019, the CAF reverted to the old reimbursement rates to allow for further discussions with provincial and territorial partners.
  • Next steps will involve engagement with Health Canada. 

Version 1 – 2020-06-12 – Source: QP Note on Reimbursement Rates

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Mental health and suicide prevention

  • We recognize the toll that being on the front lines of the COVID-19 response can take on the mental health and well-being of the Canadian Armed Forces.
  • Our women and men in uniform have heeded the call to help and support Canadians throughout this crisis, but to take care of others, they also need to take care of themselves.
  • To support this effort, we are reinforcing our robust spectrum of available mental health support.
  • This includes providing services remotely – online and over the phone – to ensure that members can access our full breadth of mental health support without risking their physical health.
  • In addition, we are also providing a customised resilience and mental health awareness training for those working in Long Term Care Facilities as part of Operation LASER.
  • I echo the words of General Vance in his open letter to all Canadian Armed Forces members – that anyone who needs to reach out or access mental-health therapy should do so.

If pressed on Canadian Armed Forces suicide rate:

  • Every suicide is a tragedy – each loss is painful.
  • The Canadian Armed Forces recognizes the sacrifices military personnel make in the service of their country.
  • We continuously strive towards reducing barriers to care, including stigma, and enhancing our programs and services.
  • While there is no simple solution, we will continue to evolve and improve our Prevention Strategy as we expand our understanding of suicide and mental health.
  • We remain committed to working with our partners to ensure that our personnel receive quality care and support.

Key Facts

  • The Canadian Armed Forces runs 37 primary healthcare clinics, of which 31 offer specialized in-house mental health care.
  • Within these 31 clinics, there are approximately 465 dedicated clerical, clinical, and managerial positions, including for social workers, mental health nurses, psychologists, psychiatrists, addiction counsellors, and mental health chaplains.


COVID-19 response

  • As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Canadian Forces Health Services Group has had to adopt a posture of remote support for the mental health needs of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members. Some virtual care tools are currently being trialed, but most support is currently being given by phone while National Defence is developing a business continuation plan that will bring a growing number of clinicians and patients back to the workplace.
  • The involvement of CAF members in the long-term care facilities in Quebec and Ontario has been a challenging task that has triggered the customization of an existing resilience and mental health awareness program to meet their specific needs.
  • As acknowledged by the Chief of the Defence Staff in his open letter to CAF members on April 26, 2020, the number of members accessing mental health supports and care has decreased. Many of our Five-Eyes and NATO partners have noted a similar decrease.

Support services

  • CAF members and their families have access to a number of programs, including:
    • Psychoeducation and mental resiliency training;
    • A 24/7 referral service for access to confidential, external counselling;
    • A 24/7 family information line;
    • Peer support for those coping with an operational stress injury;
    • A free online mobile information app to provide individuals and their families easy access to information on wellness and mental health; 
    • Spiritual guidance, and support through military chaplains; and,
    • Family support through various military family services.
  • The Government is also investing $17.5 million, over four years, starting in 2018-19, to create a Centre of Excellence on PTSD and related mental health conditions. This effort is led by Veterans Affairs Canada.
  • The Centre will have a strong focus on the creation and dissemination of knowledge on prevention, assessment and treatment of PTSD for veterans and CAF members.
  • 4,000 civilian mental health care providers are registered to provide care to military members in their own practices.

Recent media interest in 2019 suicide rate

  • In April 2020, media reported that 20 CAF members took their lives last year, the largest number of military suicides since 2014.

2018 report on suicide mortality in the Canadian Armed Forces

  • The Canadian Armed Forces’ most recent analysis on suicide mortality in the CAF concluded that, there was no statistically significant increase in the overall suicide rate between 1995 and 2017.
  • The study conducted in 2018 indicates that the number of Regular Force males that died by suicide was not statistically higher than the rates in the general Canadian population. Out of all environments, the Canadian Army has had the highest suicide rates in the past few years.

Version 6 – 2020-06-12 – Source: QP, CoW Notes on Preventing Suicide, Addressing and Providing Mental Health

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Reserve Force

  • Canada’s Reserve Force, particularly the Primary Reserve, plays a critical role in serving our country overseas and assisting Canadians in cases of an emergency or natural disaster at home.
  • The Reserve Force has been an integral part of the Canadian Armed Forces’ ongoing response to the global pandemic.
  • As of April 20, 2020, over 6,500 Class C Reservists, which includes over 1,100 Canadian Rangers, have been hired.
  • This is an example of the value of the Total Force approach, integrating Reserve Force and Regular Force members.
  • Up 10,000 Reserve Force members have been standing at the ready to augment the Regular Force in supporting the Government’s response to COVID-19.
  • We continue to provide opportunities for Reserve Force members to train and operate with the Regular Force, as articulated in the “New Vision for the Reserve Force” in our Defence Policy.
  • These efforts improve the overall effectiveness of the Canadian Armed Forces, both at home and abroad.

Key Facts

  • On April 28, 2020, the Parliamentary Budget Officer reported that full-time employment of 10,000 reservists would cost $456M.
    • This estimate covers the incremental salary cost of employing Reservists on a full-time contract for the period beginning in April 2020 and ending on August 31, 2020.
    • This includes employee benefit costs, temporary duty allowances, deployment costs, and support.
  • Through Strong, Secure, Engaged, the goal is to increase the number of Primary Reserve Force personnel receiving pay checks each month to 30,000.
  • As of 31 December 2019:
    • Primary Reserve Force: 24,053 personnel receiving pay
    • checks each month (and a total strength of 31,192 Reserve Force members).


  • The Reserve Force is comprised of four sub-components:
    • The Primary Reserve consists of a mixture of part-time and full-time personnel working in Reserve units, headquarters, recruiting centres or with Regular Force units across Canada and overseas.
      • The size of the Primary Reserve is trending upwards in an effort to meet the assigned target of 30,000 Average paid Strength (APS). Growth of the Primary Reserve will enhance the capability of the CAF to rapidly respond to any contingency without the requirement to maintain a larger standing force.
      • The relative sizes of the Primary Reserve elements (expressed as a percentage of the total strength of 31,192) are:
        • Army Reserve (22,331 or approximately 72%)
        • Naval Reserve (4,032 or approximately 13%)
        • Air Reserve (1,986 or approximately 6%)
        • Others (2,843 or approximately 9%), which includes the Health Services Reserve, National Defence Headquarters, Canadian Special Operations Forces Command Reserve, the Legal Reserve and the Military Police Reserve.
    • The Supplementary Reserve augments the CAF (Regular or Reserve). Supplementary Reserve members, approximately 5,700 in strength, are not required to undertake military training or duty except in times of national emergency by Order-in-Council. Their period of service is five years or until compulsory retirement age, whichever comes first.
    • The Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service is comprised of approximately 7,200 members and consists of members whose primary responsibilities include the management and administration of the Cadet / Youth Program.
    • The Canadian Rangers provide a military presence in northern, coastal and isolated areas of Canada and are made up of approximately 5,300 members.

Version 3 – 2020-06-11 – Source: CoW Note on Reserves, 2019-12-05

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  • The use of anti-malarial medication is a critical part of ensuring the health and well-being of our military members deployed around the world.
  • Mefloquine is a Health Canada approved medication and is recommended to prevent malaria by the Public Health Agency of Canada.
  • Mefloquine is rarely prescribed to Canadian Armed Forces members.
  • The Canadian Armed Forces only prescribes Mefloquine when alternatives are unsuitable or at the specific request of a member.

If pressed on long-term adverse effects of Mefloquine:

  • A 2017 Canadian Armed Forces report found insufficient evidence of an association between the use of Mefloquine and long-term adverse effects.
  • A February 2020 American report came to similar conclusions.

If pressed on the proposal for an inquiry on the prescription of Mefloquine:

  • The Canadian Armed Forces continuously reviews relevant scientific literature to ensure members receive the best and safest care possible.

If pressed on the litigation against the Government:

Given that this matter is currently before the courts, it would be inappropriate to comment.

Key Facts

  • In 2019, 3 prescriptions of Mefloquine were issued to Canadian Armed Forces members.
  • Approximately 18,000 Canadian Armed Forces personnel were prescribed Mefloquine between 1992 and 2019.
    • Prescriptions of Mefloquine dropped significantly (to under 5 prescriptions per year) starting in 2017.


  • Mefloquine is a Health Canada approved medication and is recommended to prevent malaria by the Public Health Agency of Canada. Since the early 1990s, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) has prescribed Mefloquine as an oral anti-malarial medication. Between 1992 and 2019, National Defence prescribed Mefloquine to approximately 18,000 members before they were deployed to malaria-endemic regions.
  • Some CAF members claim they have suffered adverse side effects as a result of taking Mefloquine as prescribed to them by National Defence. The side effects of Mefloquine are usually mild and self-limiting (e.g., nausea, strange dreams, dizziness, mood changes, insomnia, headaches and diarrhea). Severe reactions, such as psychosis or convulsions, are reportedly rare (approximately 1 in 10,000 users).
  • The US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine undertook a project to assess the long term risk of anti-malarial medications, including Mefloquine, and released its report on February 25, 2020. The study found that there is insufficient or inadequate evidence of an association between the use of Mefloquine and neurologic, psychiatric, gastrointestinal and eye disorders. The findings of this study accord with those of the 2017 Surgeon General Task Force Report on Mefloquine.


  • 195 plaintiffs who are current or former CAF members have brought forward a total of 6 actions against Canada in Federal Court. More individuals may come forward to file similar motions. The claims allege that Mefloquine caused the plaintiffs to suffer serious neurological and psychiatric side-effects and permanent injuries. Somalia veterans claim they were required to take Mefloquine as part of an improperly conducted clinical trial. Each claimant is asking for more than $10 million dollars in damages.
  • In October 2019, Romeo Dallaire announced that he is joining an existing lawsuit against National Defence. Dallaire stated to the media that he was taking Mefloquine in Rwanda, that it affected his operational capability, and that he was threatened with court-martial if he discontinued use of the medication on the grounds that it would be a self-inflicted wound.
  • On May 27, 2020, Canada argued a motion to stay the actions in Federal Court. Canada wishes to file a third party claim against Hoffmann-La Roche, the manufacturer of Mefloquine, to share any potential liability arising from its use. Canada’s position is that the Federal Court does not have jurisdiction over the claim against the manufacturer. The Federal Court reserved its decision.

Version 1 – 2020-06-09 – Source: Mains Note on Mefloquine; CoW Note on Mefloquine; QP Note on Mefloquine; CFLA; CMP

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Recruitment and retention in the Canadian Armed Forces

  • Recruitment and retention are central to sustaining a healthy, skilled, and dedicated military force.
  • While COVID-19 poses challenges, the Canadian Armed Forces is finding ways to continue its recruitment efforts, while ensuring all activities meet recommended health practices.
  • We are respecting all local and regional restrictions to ensure the safety of our Canadian Armed Forces Members, staff and candidates.
  • Recruiting has continued throughout the restricted period, with specific focus on Regular Officer Training Plan and concluding enrollment of those who were well advanced in their process.  
  • We have enrolled several hundred candidates since restrictions were put in place.
  • Virtual Recruiting and online applications continue to be received and processed. 
  • Recruiting centres across the nation are available for selective recruiting by invite only with those already in the system and for some new candidates. 
  • All but two centres will be open for limited intake by 22 June and training at our recruit school is expected to start end-June. 
  • All training will respect local and regional restrictions and no candidates will be permitted off Bases during the re-start to training.
  • Individuals who are still interested in participating in these events, and could not do so this year, will be added to the selection list for the 2021 programs.
  • The Canadian Armed Forces is also currently developing a comprehensive retention strategy, to be completed by 2021.
  • While it is still too early to assess the full impacts of COVID-19 on recruitment and retention, through these ongoing efforts, we look to maintain an agile, effective, and diverse military force.

Key Facts

  • As of May 25, 2020, the Canadian Armed Forces Recruitment Group conducted 230 virtual enrolments.
  • Recruitment (2018-2019): 10,118 individuals joined the Canadian Armed Forces
  • Retention (2018-2019): Canadian Armed Forces attrition rate over the past 10 years has averaged at 7- 8% for Regular Force.


Media interest in recruitment and retention of pilots and sailors

  • Within the context of recruitment and retention efforts, media and Parliamentarians alike have raised concerns about the recruitment and retention of pilots and sailors specifically. The recruitment and retention of pilots has been the subject of significant scrutiny from both media and Parliament, prompted largely by a Fall 2018 audit by the Auditor General, which found that National Defence only had 64% of the trained pilots that it needed. With respect to the Navy, articles that circulated in the media earlier this year similarly noted challenges with recruiting new sailors, with the Navy reportedly having a shortfall of approximately 850 sailors.


  • In all recruitment and training, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) aspires to meet employment equity goals and ensure that its composition reflects Canadian society. These goals remain set at 25% for women, 3.5% for Indigenous Peoples and 11.8% for visible minorities. Currently, our representation of women is 15.9%, Indigenous Peoples 2.9% and visible minorities 9.3%.
  • The CAF strives to remain agile and competitive with the labor market and reduce enrollment times. To address this, in early 2019, the CAF modernized and digitized several recruiting platforms and processes, including:
    • A new recruiting website that resulted in a 12% increase in visits compared to the old site;
    • A new recruiting app, which allows users to swipe images to select (or reject) activities of interest to them, helping them to refine their career selections; and
    • New digital recruiting technologies (including virtual reality) have been deployed into recruiting centres and with recruiting teams to allow users to gain a feeling of the CAF environment.


  • Over the past ten years, the attrition rate of the CAF has remained stable at 7-8% (regular and reserve force.) This rate is one of the lowest among our Five Eyes allies.

Version 7 – 2020-06-15 – Source: Recruitment and Retention QP note; CMP

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