The Path to Dignity and Respect: The Canadian Armed Forces Strategy to Address Sexual Misconduct

The Path to Dignity and Respect is a culture change strategy designed to prevent and address sexual misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). It provides an in-depth analysis of CAF culture, and identifies what aspects the CAF must eliminate, change or strengthen to address sexual misconduct. It also establishes a prevention-based implementation plan and a performance measurement framework to ensure continuous evaluation and improvement. This strategy establishes the long-term approach for Operation HONOUR.

If you would like a brief summary of the strategy and what it is designed to achieve, visit the frequently asked questions page About The Path to Dignity and Respect.

The CAF welcomes feedback on The Path. If you would like to contribute to the continual improvement of The Path, please use the Operation HONOUR feedback form to share your views and ideas.

Message from the Chief of the Defence Staff

As the Chief of the Defence Staff, my focus remains on protecting the long-term health and welfare of those who proudly and selflessly serve our nation. The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) is a team of teams, and its operational effectiveness relies upon the trust and support between its members. Our professional ethos demands that we treat one another with dignity and respect.

Sexual misconduct harms the men and women of the CAF, undermines our operational effectiveness and threatens our credibility. Operation HONOUR was launched in August 2015 to address this corrosive threat within our ranks. Our initial efforts focused on increasing awareness and understanding, improving policies and procedures, and providing essential support for those affected. However, we recognized that this was only the first step in changing behaviours and attitudes. We knew then, as we know now, that we need a holistic approach that is focused on creating a more inclusive culture in order to ensure an enduring effect.

The Path to Dignity and Respect is the culmination of our work to date and marks the next phase of Operation HONOUR, in which we move beyond our immediate response to an effective, fully coordinated, and sustained institutional approach. The Path recognizes the positive cultural dynamics of the CAF and how they can be leveraged to provide a comprehensive approach to address sexual misconduct. It incorporates and builds on efforts already undertaken through Operation HONOUR and other complementary CAF initiatives, and establishes a strategic direction for the future. Furthermore, it introduces a prevention-based approach to help us target and implement our interventions.

Ultimately, our goal is to foster a culture in which everyone is treated with dignity and respect. To achieve our goal, we must cultivate a command climate across the institution where sexual misconduct is never minimized, ignored or excused. This is how we build a safer work environment and ensure trust in each other and in the chain of command.

We have well-defined values and ethical principles that are the foundation of our culture. Like any professional organization, we must constantly and deliberately shape our culture to ensure it aligns with and supports what we aspire to be. When we identify undesirable attitudes and behaviours, such as sexual misconduct, we must undertake efforts to eliminate, change, or strengthen aspects of CAF culture to respond effectively. These culture change efforts are essential for both the immediate welfare of our people and the long-term health of our armed forces.

There are no quick fixes for achieving culture change. It requires sustained effort and continual assessment to ensure we remain on track. It also requires unwavering commitment from all CAF members, particularly our leaders, to model and promote exemplary behaviour at all times. The Path provides us with the vision, framework and direction to engage all CAF members in this effort. With this strategy to guide us, we will work together to create a workplace where all members can proudly deliver operational excellence in an environment that fosters mutual trust, respect, honour and dignity.

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Introduction

An Enduring Challenge

The presence of sexual misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) is not a new problem. Over the past two and a half decades it has been raised by personnel and exposed publicly by the media, and the CAF has undertaken various efforts to address it.

First Response

The problem was first highlighted publicly in 1998 in a series of news articles citing allegations of sexual harassment, rape and racism in CAF ranks. At that time, the CAF responded by establishing the Standards for Harassment and Racism Program (SHARP), a sensitization and skills development program intended to change attitudes and behaviours. In addition to the program, the CAF established a hotline to encourage personnel to report incidents. Unfortunately, the program did not have the enduring impact expected. Subsequent analyses of the effort indicated that the institution did not assign sufficient military personnel to this initiative, and the lack of a dedicated expert cadre may have resulted in focusing on the symptoms of the problem, rather than the underlying causes.[1]

Operation HONOUR

In 2014, the media published another set of articles focused on sexual misconduct in the CAF, citing new incidents and denouncing the same issues. This time the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) commissioned an external review to independently investigate the depth and scope of the problem. The External Review Authority (ERA), the Honourable Marie Deschamps, retired judge of the Supreme Court of Canada, found that sexual misconduct in the CAF was endemic, widespread and that it affected both women and men.[2] Released in April 2015, the ERA report highlighted the presence of a permissive sexualized culture that tolerated acts of sexual misconduct and was conducive to more severe incidents, including sexual harassment and sexual assault. The ERA’s findings were later corroborated by the results of a 2016 Statistics Canada Survey of Sexual Misconduct in the CAF.[3] It was clear that the CAF’s previous attempts to address sexual misconduct had not achieved the desired effect, and a more comprehensive and sustained approach to addressing sexual misconduct was required.

The CDS publicly accepted the ERA’s recommendations and committed the CAF to addressing sexual misconduct as a top priority. In August of 2015, the CDS launched Operation HONOUR, which was based on a resilient military approach to planning and executing operations, to respond to the crisis. Operation HONOUR was established as the CAF’s highest institutional priority and commenced with four lines of effort:

In 2017, the Department of National Defence reinforced the CAF’s commitment to addressing sexual misconduct in Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy. The policy placed taking better care of affected persons as the first priority,[4] and committed to working towards “solutions that result in positive and enduring culture change” and “promoting the respect of all members as equal contributors to the Canadian Armed Forces community.”

Shifting the Approach

In early 2018, the Auditor General of Canada examined the progress of Operation HONOUR to ensure that the organization was on track to achieve the Operation’s objectives and identify areas for improvement. The Auditor General’s report concluded that despite implementing a number of new directives and institutional-level initiatives, “the CAF had not yet fully accomplished what it intended through its actions to respond to and support victims and to understand and prevent inappropriate sexual behaviour.”[5]

The Auditor General’s findings were consistent with the results of an internal CAF review of Operation HONOUR conducted in the spring of 2018, and further confirmed in the Statistics Canada results of the 2018 Survey of Sexual Misconduct in the CAF released in May 2019. Both reports indicated that while there were some areas of improvement, there remained much left to be done.[6]

In light of these assessments, and the results of its own internal review, the CAF acknowledged the requirement to shift its initial approach. The 2015 Operation HONOUR Action Plan had, out of necessity, focused on stopping harmful behaviours and improving support to victims but it was clear that Operation HONOUR had to evolve into a more comprehensive and sustained institutional approach focused on changing those aspects of CAF culture that were contributing to a permissive environment that allowed incidents of sexual misconduct to occur.

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Building on Research and Experience

To better understand culture and the role it plays in sexual misconduct, the CAF established an extensive research program under Operation HONOUR. The goal was to leverage external research and generate internal research specific to the Canadian military environment. The research generated through this program has identified risks and barriers to a healthy and inclusive CAF culture. It has also identified cultural factors that contribute to, or protect against, a permissive environment that allows incidents of sexual misconduct to occur. This research, along with CAF experience, has highlighted some key ideas that must be considered in developing an effective strategy to address sexual misconduct.

Sexual misconduct: A “wicked problem”

Research clearly shows that addressing the multiple factors that contribute to incidents of sexual misconduct is a highly complex and persistent challenge within society as a whole. In fact, a number of authors and critics have referred to addressing sexual misconduct in the CAF as a “wicked problem.”[7] [8] [9] This term was originally coined in a 1973 article in Policy Sciences magazine by University of California professors Horst W.J. Rittel and Melvin M. Webber. Wicked problems are highly complex since understanding the problem and required solutions is extremely challenging. There is rarely an obvious end point where the presenting problem is solved, and there are no quick tests for solutions or their outcomes, due mainly to the fact that every wicked problem is unique and a symptom of another.[10]

The issue of sexual misconduct in the CAF is, without a doubt, a wicked problem. As such, the degree of complexity of the multiple, interconnected social and cultural aspects of our effort necessitates addressing the problem in a nonlinear and holistic fashion, as opposed to a traditional linear step-by-step process.[11]

Key cultural factors

While there is extensive academic literature relating to sexual misconduct, there is no existing roadmap for addressing it in an organization as large and complex as the CAF. Nevertheless, research conducted by the Department of National Defence[12] has demonstrated that there are key factors that must be considered in any effort to address sexual misconduct in the CAF. These factors can increase and/or mitigate the likelihood of incidents of sexual misconduct occurring:

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Aligning Culture to Achieve Change

Organizational culture is never easy to adapt or change as existing cultural dynamics provide stability, continuity and predictability. Culture is deeply embedded and layered in an organization’s psyche and any attempt at influencing change will be a complex process that must engage multiple levels of the organization. Furthermore, research suggests that “within a military environment, where attitudes and beliefs are supported by large amounts of stored knowledge and experience, and individuals tend to associate with those who share similar attitudes and beliefs, thus reinforcing socio-cultural norms, change can be very difficult to achieve.”[13] [14]

Given the complexity of changing organizational culture, it is important to establish a vision to focus efforts. Once the vision is clear, the existing culture can be evaluated to see how it is contributing to, or detracting from, that vision, and the extent of change that is needed. “Even where the magnitude of change deemed necessary is considerable, it is very unlikely the current culture will need to be replaced entirely. In fact, trying to do so may prove unproductive and even destructive.”[15]

The military ethos of the CAF is founded on respect for dignity of all persons, a principle that is embodied in CAF culture. Most members of the CAF do not engage in sexual misconduct in the workplace. While the majority of men and women in the CAF perform their duty with honour, the prevalence of sexual misconduct in the CAF clearly indicates that there is a disconnection between the desired CAF culture, and the reality experienced by many members in their day-to-day work.

Therefore, to effectively address sexual misconduct, the CAF must undertake a cultural alignment effort that changes or eliminates the intersecting and unacceptable cultural attributes that contribute to the perpetration of sexual misconduct. At the same time, it must also identify the desired cultural attributes that can be strengthened and leveraged to eliminate organizational tolerance for any form of sexual misconduct in the CAF. This systematic approach will align behaviours with the ethical principles and core values that are the foundation of the profession of arms in Canada, while driving enduring change in individual and organizational attitudes and beliefs.

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Overview of the Strategy

The Path to Dignity and Respect: Sexual Misconduct Response Strategy (The Path) is a bespoke culture change strategy created by the CAF to align behaviours and attitudes of CAF members with the ethical principles and core values expected of all persons who practice the profession of arms in Canada. These foundational values and beliefs are set out in the Statement of Defence Ethics and Duty with Honour: The Profession of Arms in Canada.

The vision of The Path is a Canadian Armed Forces free of sexual misconduct where all are treated with dignity and respect. 

The Path approaches the issue of sexual misconduct in the CAF as a wicked problem. As such, the strategy is premised on the fact that there is no existing model or template that identifies a defined set of problems onto which proven solutions can be applied. It also recognizes that solutions to some aspects of the problem will have second- and third-order consequences that must be assessed and considered throughout the process. For these reasons, The Path incorporates measurement and evaluation processes over the long term to ensure the CAF continues to adapt, learn and improve.

The Path is informed by research and evidence, has been internally and externally consulted, and uses adaptations of models applied to other problems with similar challenges. It has also been developed to align with other current and emergent CAF and DND strategies that are complementary to the efforts to address sexual misconduct, such as the CAF Diversity Strategy, Operation GENERATION, and the Total Health and Wellness Strategy, among others. Each of these strategies will establish their own products and policies while remaining informed by The Path.

The Path has four parts: Together, these four parts provide a comprehensive roadmap for addressing sexual misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces.

Figure 1. Overview of The Path to Dignity and Respect – The CAF Sexual Misconduct Response Strategy
Figure 1
Description of figure

The Vision is: A CAF free of sexual misconduct where all members are treated with dignity and respect.

The strategy has four parts.
Part One: Strategic Approach to Cultural Alignment which contains three sections: understanding CAF culture, change implementation pathway, and prevention model.
Part Two: Strategic Framework to Address Sexual Misconduct in the CAF which contains four sections: CAF culture and sexual misconduct, guiding principles, lines of effort, and strategic objectives.
Part Three: Operation HONOUR Strategic Campaign Plan 2025 which contains four sections: Mission, framework, objectives, and operational design.
Part Four: Operation HONOUR Performance Measurement Framework which contains two sections: logic model, and performance indicators.

The strategy concludes in a steady state: A CAF where all members proudly deliver operational excellence in an environment where everyone has the full support of an institution that fosters mutual trust, respect, honour and dignity.

The Path is supported by key complimentary strategies and initiatives: Working Together for a Better Future: Support Strategy for CAF Members Affected by Sexual Misconduct, GBA+, Op GENERATION, Total Health & Wellness Strategy, Canadian Armed Forces/Veterans Affairs Canada Joint Suicide Prevention Strategy, Integrated Conflict and Complaint Management, CAF Diversity Strategy, Mental Health Strategy, Surgeon General’s Integrated Health Strategy, Canada’s Strategy to Prevent and Address Gender-Based Violence, and Canada’s National Action Plan for Women, Peace and Security.

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[1] Nancy Perron, “Policy and Prevention: Developing Institutional Frameworks to Sustain Change” (Paper prepared for presentation at the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society Conference, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, ON, 21-23 October 2016), 10.

[2] Marie Deschamps, Report on the External Review into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces (Ottawa, ON: Commissioned by the Chief of the Defence Staff, National Defence Headquarters, 2015).

[3] Adam Cotter, “Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces, 2016,” The Daily by Statistics Canada, 28 November 2016.

[4] Department of National Defence, Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy (Ottawa, ON: Minister of National Defence, 2017), 27.

[5] The Auditor General of Canada, Report 5 – Inappropriate Sexual Behavior – Canadian Armed Forces (Ottawa, ON: Office of the Auditor General, 2018).

[6] Adam Cotter, “Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces, 2018” The Daily by Statistics Canada, 22 May 2019.

[7] Perron, “Policy and Prevention,” 10.

[8] Allan English, “Addressing the Problem of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in the Canadian Armed Forces: Systemic Obstacles to Comprehensive Culture Change” (Presentation to the Canadian Armed Forces Strategic Response Team on Sexual Misconduct, November 2015).

[9] Alan Okros, “Civil-Military Relations: The Broader Context,” in The Defence Team: Military and Civilian Partnership in the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence, eds. Irina Goldenberg et al., (Kingston, ON: Canadian Defence Academy Press, 2015), 58.

[10] Allan McConnell, “Reappraising Wicked Problems: Wicked Policy vs. Simple Politics” (Paper presented at Political Studies Association 66th Annual International Conference, 21-23 March 2016, Brighton U.K.).

[11] English, “Addressing the Problem.”

[12] Karen Davis and Erinn C. Squires, Culture Shift and Sexual Misconduct: Measurement and Monitoring Strategy (Ottawa, ON: Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis, 2019).

[13] Ira Levin and Jonathan Z. Gottlieb, “Realigning Organizational Culture for Optimal Performance: Six principles & eight practices,” Organization Development Journal 27, no. 4, (Winter 2009): 31-46.

[14] Davis and Squires, Culture Shift and Sexual Misconduct.

[15] Levin and Gottlieb, “Realigning Organizational Culture.”

[16] Davis, “Culture Shift and Sexual Misconduct.”

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Part One – A Strategic Approach to Cultural Alignment

“Societies and organizations are complex adaptive systems in which knowledge of all individual components of the system does not equate to understanding the system as a whole.”[17]

Understanding CAF Culture

While the foundation of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) culture is articulated through the Statement of Defence Ethics[18] and Duty with Honour: The Profession of Arms in Canada,[19] cultural alignment is a complex undertaking that will not succeed if the current culture is not well understood. The approach that follows provides the means to define the CAF culture and understand the complex adaptive systems that shape it.

“Culture” versus “Climate”

Culture determines how an organization functions, how things are done, and how its members interact with each other and with those external to the organization. It is “rooted in history, collectively held, and sufficiently complex to resist many attempts at direct manipulation.”[20] It is the unique blend of structures, behaviours, norms, values, attitudes and assumptions that the organization has developed over time and implemented as an effective means of maintaining internal order, social and psychological stability, and adaptation to the environment. Basically, culture establishes the ways to perceive, think and act. Culture is often deeply embedded and changes slowly over time.

An organization’s climate, on the other hand, can be described as “temporal, subjective, and often subject to direct manipulation by people with power and influence,”[21] and encompasses many of the less visible aspects of a culture, such as the socialization and reinforcement of behavioural and attitudinal norms and values. While the dividing line between culture and climate is difficult to define, climate essentially refers to how individuals and subgroups within the CAF feel about, and experience, the day to day functioning of their part of the organization.[22] In the CAF, climate can vary and is influenced by factors such as environmental affiliation, rank and experience. An organization’s climate, though deeply embedded, is more susceptible to the positive or negative influences of these subcultures. Therefore, a strategy for lasting cultural change must encompass a multi-level approach that addresses both the organizational culture and climate.

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Dimensions of Culture

Organizations are comprised of a range of categories that influence how people behave, including regulative (formal policies and direction), normative (values and norms), and cultural cognitive elements (shared understanding, common beliefs, shared logic of actions spread through mimicry).[23] These categories fall into the two dimensions that make up culture: the visible and the invisible.

The visible dimension is what civilians see, hear and feel when encountering military members or what military members see, hear and feel when they interact with each other. It includes, for example, the physical environment, language, clothing, emotional displays, and media and written stories about the organization.[24] The visible dimension also encompasses the CAF’s published lists of values, observable traditions and ceremonies, and structure.[25] The visible dimensions of culture are generally easier to change as they are tangible and can be more easily analysed and targeted.

The invisible dimension of CAF culture is the underlying assumptions, beliefs, biases and expectations held by individuals and groups and are implicitly or explicitly endorsed by the organization. They lead to rules that are generally unwritten, and therefore invisible, but communicated and enforced consistently at an interpersonal and social level. The underlying biases and assumptions can be so ingrained and strongly held by members that some will find behaviour based on any other premise or approach to be inconceivable and may invite resistance and hostility.[26] These assumptions and biases are particularly difficult to change as some may perceive the necessary change as a deviation from the military ethos they have learned to identify with.[27] The unwritten rules and norms can be much more powerful determinants of culture than the written ones.

As a result, and as previous well-meaning attempts at addressing sexual misconduct in the CAF have demonstrated, cultural change interventions targeted at only the visible dimension of culture have limited behavioural impacts that will fade over time, and the deeper underlying assumptions and biases of the organization will remain.[28]

Whether visible or invisible, members are introduced to the CAF culture at the earliest stages of recruitment, and throughout a member's career. In fact, it extends beyond their service in the CAF, as veterans are involved in morale and welfare programs, training and education of members still serving, and parades and ceremonies. In short, imparting culture is a continuous process, and as such can be subjected to change. However, influencing change necessitates categorizing the multitude of factors that contribute to culture, both in general and in the CAF in particular.

Domains and Determinants of Organizational Culture

There is substantial research and analysis focused on organizational culture change in the business sector and how change management affects organizational behaviours. In addition, there is a growing body of research that identifies why change is complex in military environments and what has contributed to limited success in the past. Nevertheless, there are no models that identify the individual factors that constitute and influence the culture of a military organization. As such, the CAF has undertaken this work as a basis for its efforts to comprehensively identify and evaluate the cultural factors that must be targeted for elimination or strengthening to achieve the desired cultural alignment.

There are many factors that influence the cultural health of any organization. These factors are referred to as determinants.[29] Determinants are interdependent and frequently synergistic. Inter-related determinants can be grouped into categories, known as domains. These domains represent a broad category of knowledge, activity, or function.  

Domains and Determinants of CAF Culture

CAF culture can be considered healthy when all CAF members deliver operational excellence in an environment where people are treated with dignity and respect. Within the CAF, cultural health is influenced by complex interactions amongst governmental, institutional and professional systems and demands, the physical environment, and individual behaviours. These interactions are often interdependent and shape the domains and determinants of the culture.

The Strategic Approach to Cultural Alignment identifies the domains and determinants of CAF culture; how they are interconnected; and how they influence and, ultimately, reflect CAF cultural health. With this evaluation of CAF culture comes the ability to conduct a comprehensive cultural mission analysis. This analysis will allow alignment efforts to be focused on those determinants that have the greatest influence on achieving and maintaining cultural health.

Recognizing the CAF is a distinct and self-contained community, The Path has adapted a community health model to categorize the domains and determinants that need to be aligned for the CAF to achieve cultural health. Domains that revolve around the core of our military ethos: operational excellence and dignity and respect for all persons. The domains and determinants of CAF culture are illustrated in Figure 2.

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Figure 2. Domains and determinants of CAF Culture
Figure 2

Description of figure

Three concentric circles with the core of CAF ethos: operational excellence and dignity and respect. The domains are listed in the middle circle and the determinants in the outer circle. Table 1 offers a detailed description of each domain and their respective determinants, stating the desired outcomes.

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Descriptions of the Domains and Determinants of CAF Culture

Following a detailed analysis of the relevant literature, seven domains and 54 determinates of CAF culture were identified. A description of each domain and supporting determinants can be found in Table 1.

Table 1. Descriptions of domains and determinants of CAF culture

Professional Conduct (Ethics)

This domain encompasses determinants based on the principle of respecting the dignity of all persons, which is the ethical principle that underpins professional conduct. Maintaining a high standard of professional conduct fosters a sense of mutual trust and shared commitment that directly contributes to cohesive and empowered teams and an operationally effective CAF. The essential value of each individual and their contribution to CAF culture are recognized. Despite differing backgrounds and lived experiences, all members are able to achieve their full potential within the CAF and can contribute meaningfully to the institution.[30]

Determinant Desired Outcome

All persons treated with dignity and respect

All persons feel respected and are allowed to develop their full potential.

Cohesion and the empowering level of teamwork

Team unity is prevalent. Morale is positive. There is respectful behaviour between peers, with few harassment complaints observed.

Mutual trust

Members express trust and confidence in the institutional mission. Leaders model the ethos and are viewed positively by others. Leaders are trusted to take care of members.

Shared commitment

Individuals are fully committed to the CAF and feel the CAF is fully committed to them.

Inherent value of all roles and responsibilities

Everyone’s contribution is valued. All personnel are treated with dignity and respect.

Inclusivity – the worth of all persons is recognised

Personnel are diverse, and the institution/unit is welcoming and supportive of various backgrounds

Conduct reflects institutional values

Behaviour is aligned with CAF values and there is a high level of awareness of behavioural expectations. Incidents of misconduct are not tolerated.

Institutional Competency

Numerous regulatory systems and subsystems operate within an environment with defined boundaries of governance, authority, responsibility and accountability. To remain operationally effective, the CAF must be able to adapt to complex and unstable domestic and global environments.

Determinant Desired Outcome

CAF identity – strong and proud

The CAF is viewed positively by its members and Canadians. CAF’s positive identity is reflected in doctrine, symbols, traditions, ceremonies, and the institution.

Innovation

The institution anticipates and adapts quickly to changing environments and technology.

Purpose and intent

The CAF has a clear and well-understood purpose and intent.

Governance and control

Governance is effective, enforceable, well understood internally and within government. There are clear operational command and control systems, organizational design, structures, policies, procedures and practices.

Adaptability

The CAF adapts quickly to changing environments, security expectations and policy direction from government.

Regulatory system

Clear and effective standards, rules and regulations and policies for individual and group conduct are established.

System of appropriate compensation and benefits

Members are fairly compensated for their service and able to maintain a lifestyle that reflects reasonable expectations.

System of honours and recognition

Mission accomplishment efforts by the CAF are respected and recognised in Canada and by allied partners. When service exceeds expectations, it is rewarded.

Accountable leadership at all levels

Leaders influence, shape and align the culture with the ethos. Leaders balance the most complex challenges in achieving competing institutional objectives: mission success with member well-being. Core capacities for managing collective professional identity are set.

Mission focused

Unity of purpose is established and missions are clear.

Professional Competency (Military Professionalism)

Every leader within the institution has a continuing responsibility to maintain a high level of professional military knowledge, skills and expertise through training, professional development and experience. The set of core values and beliefs found in the military ethos guides leaders in the performance of their duty.[31] Equity, diversity and inclusivity contribute to enhanced professional competency, reflect Canadian values and support national interests.

Determinant Desired Outcome

Value-based leadership

Leadership is based on core CAF values.

Ethical leadership

Ethical principles are demonstrated. Ethical behaviour is rewarded. Action is taken to correct the unethical conduct of others.

Quality and accountability of leadership

Leaders are held accountable, and display cognitive skill, practical and theoretical knowledge.

Stewardship of the profession of arms

All members understand and embody professional ethos and standards that adapt and evolve to reflect Canadian values. Self-regulation of the profession is effective.

Robust professional development system

Members and leaders are professionally developed, succession planned and promoted. They pursue professional development and evolve the profession.

Professional knowledge

Effective education and training systems, and experiential career pathways are established. Leaders are evaluated and develop skills and experience.

Equity , diversity, inclusivity to ensure full spectrum of talents, perspectives and approaches

A diverse force is developed through recruiting and retention of under-represented groups, with increased representation of these groups in senior leadership roles. All members have the opportunity to contribute to planning and decision-making.

Values, beliefs, and military ethos

Values, beliefs and military ethos are central to all activities, well-understood and familiar to all members. Leaders lead by example.

Member Health and Well-Being

People are the heart and soul of everything we do.[32] How an organization promotes a culture of healthy behaviour, supports health and resilience and supports military families has an impact on operational effectiveness, members’ productivity and overall organizational culture.

Determinant Desired Outcome

Member access to care and support systems

Care and support are accessible and consistently of high quality.

Member operational preparedness

CAF members are physically and psychologically ready and able to perform their operational mission.

Physical, psychosocial and spiritual health

Members are physically and psychologically fit. High-quality care is available and accessible. CAF members maintain a high standard of operational readiness and lifelong wellness.

Financial condition

Compensation is reasonable, and support and advice are available when necessary. Members are financially resilient.

Family resilience and support

All members can access a broad range of family support services. Support is continuous during all phases of their career.

Psychosocial environment

The CAF is a safe, supportive work environment.

Physical work environment

A supportive physical environment where all feel safe and protected from undue harm and injury to the greatest extent possible is maintained.

Work-life balance

Balance is promoted by leadership, and examples are provided.

Legitimacy and Public Credibility

To thrive, institutions must possess credibility and social acceptability. Legitimacy is the cornerstone of how and why an institution creates and maintains social order. As the sole practitioner of sanctioned violence in a modern and democratic state, the CAF must be perceived as a worthy custodian of this privilege. Therefore, any social order created by the CAF must be perceived as legitimate both by CAF members and Canadian society.[33]

Determinant Desired Outcome

Institutional image

The CAF is perceived as a legitimate custodian of military power by the Canadian public. Overall conduct of personnel reflects both public and CAF personnel expectations.

Operational reputation through full spectrum of operations

The CAF is perceived by internal and external stakeholders to be a reliable, operationally effective military force, domestically and internationally.

Resource stewardship

The CAF is seen to be professional, effective and a trustworthy steward of Canadian resources.

Support (respect) for veterans

Adequate compensation and support are provided for the veteran population, and transition experiences are positive for all, including the injured.

Support of ill and injured

Support programs and services meet members’ needs. Members trust and have confidence in the system.

The Military Experience

Individuals that join the CAF derive unity and military identity from their functions, their rank, environmental affiliations, and the compelling concepts of voluntary military service, unlimited liability and service before self.[34] In return for their commitment, they expect to be treated with fairness and respect, to be employed and developed in ways that optimize their potential, and to contribute without experiencing unnecessary harm from those within the organization.

Determinant Desired Outcome

Military identity – strong and proud

Members take pride in their service. Society continues to support and respect the profession.

Inclusivity

All individuals feel they are recognized within the institution.

Retention of qualified personnel

Members are willing to serve, families are satisfied with military life, retention rates are positive, and qualified personnel remain in the CAF.

Occupational and role socialization

Members are indoctrinated in the expected norms of behaviour, attitudes and beliefs specific to the CAF and individual trade, branches and environment. Individuals are properly socialized in roles.

Demographics/geography

The variability of demographics and geographic locations is studied and compiled to inform career progression, personnel policy, training and support programs.

Organizational response to behaviours

Personnel are held accountable, responses are fair and appropriate.

Psychological safety

A positive command climate is maintained and enforced by all leaders along the chain of command.

Post-service military identity

Retired members maintain a positive relationship with the CAF, if desired. The institution remains accessible to former members.

Challenging and rewarding career path

Members are involved in and influence decisions about their career. Flexible options for service are available.

Language

Language is a pervasive factor that permeates all domains of culture in both intent and use. Congruence between what is written or said and what is done is a key determinant of culture, and is therefore considered a domain on its own. Specific words or phrases, and how they are used, can create a constructive, positive influence. Similarly, if used inappropriately, language may have a detrimental effect on individuals, unit cohesion and legitimacy of the institution in the eyes of both CAF members and society.[35]

Determinant Desired Outcome

Clarity and concision

Language used in work and social environments is clear, precise and well understood.

Sensitivity and acceptance

Language chosen takes into consideration individual differences and shows appreciation for diversity.

Gender respect

Gendered terminology and references are used appropriately and in a respectful manner.

Socially acceptable

Language in work and social environments meets an acceptable norm and does not offend normal sensibilities.

Aware and respectful

Language, gestures, expression, tone and posture are appropriate for the situation.

Empathetic

Language and terminology show understanding and empathy for others.

Inclusive

Language and terminology do not exclude any individuals, groups or beliefs, all can identify with terms used and feel respected.

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Spheres of Influence Impacting CAF Culture

The previous sections identified the dimensions, domains and determinants that define and shape CAF culture. Just as it is important to understand what comprises CAF culture, it is equally important to understand how the behaviours and attitudes of CAF members are influenced. Recognising that the CAF is a unique institution that impacts on nearly every aspect of a CAF member’s personal and professional life, it is important to fully understand how members interact with, and how they are influenced by, their environment.

Consistent with the development of the domains and determinants of CAF culture, the CAF spheres of influence are adapted from the social-ecological theory that is used to address population health,[36] and is also reflected in other CAF strategies.[37] The ecological systems theory describes how living organisms interact with their environment. It identifies that the multiple personal and environmental spheres people encounter throughout their lifespan influence their behaviour to differing degrees.[38]

The Path is constrained to take action in the spheres of influence where the CAF has direct influence on the determinants that shape the assumptions, behaviour and attitudes of CAF members, starting from their point of enrollment into the CAF. However, it is acknowledged that all spheres of influence are impacted by Canadian society in general. As with the domains and determinants of CAF culture, spheres of influence may overlap and factors within one sphere will be influenced directly or indirectly by those found in another.

This model places the individual CAF member at the centre of the distinct but overlapping spheres of influence that exist at the interpersonal (or unit and family), formation and institutional spheres, all contained within Canadian society (Figure 3).

Figure 3. CAF spheres of influence
Figure 3

Description of figure

Five overlapping spheres of influence.

At the centre is the Individual sphere: personality, knowledge, beliefs, gender, attitude, skills, health, and fitness influence how the CAF member behaves and interacts with their surroundings.

The second sphere is the Unit and Family. The CAF member’s behaviour and attitudes are directly influenced and shaped by their interpersonal relationships with family, friends, co-workers, team, peers, chain of command, social networks, and support providers.

The third sphere is the Formation. The CAF member’s individual behaviours and attitudes are directed and influenced by single service/branch culture, traditions and standards, local policies, operations, and professional development.

The fourth sphere is the Institution. The institution creates and enforces expected standards of conduct and performance for the entire CAF. This sphere includes DND/CAF policies, rules, ethos, values, beliefs, military law, CAF culture, health care system, and CAF identity.

The biggest sphere is Society, which establishes societal expectations about the conduct of CAF members. This sphere includes federal, provincial and municipal laws, policies, social media, and health care system.

Individual Sphere: This sphere of influence is at the core of the model and represents the environment in which the individual CAF member is shaped by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that directly influence how they behave and interact with their surroundings. Factors such as age, gender, personality traits, lived experiences, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, skills, fitness and health, amongst others, have an impact here. It is the sphere of influence in which cultural alignment both begins and is sustained.

Unit and Family Sphere: Within this sphere of influence the CAF member’s behaviour and attitudes are directly influenced and shaped by their interpersonal relationships with their peers, section, unit, chain of command, family, and social and work-related networks. This is the environment in which social and cultural norms have the most relevance and it affects how a CAF member interacts with their surroundings and the people within it. Actions introduced through this sphere of influence are intended to understand and facilitate individual behavioural change by affecting social and cultural norms and overcoming individual barriers.

Formation Sphere: This sphere of influence includes the systems and processes that shape the environment in which the CAF member lives and works at the operational and tactical level. Within this sphere of influence, individual behaviours and attitudes are directed and influenced by formation-level general and specific organizational systems, such as service-specific policies, rules, application of regulations and military justice, service-specific values, norms and leadership models, traditions, operational experiences, professional development requirements, support services, general military and individual service/branch culture, and informal structures that constrain or promote healthy and appropriate behaviours.

Institutional Sphere: This sphere of influence establishes the strategic leadership, systems, process and regulative structures that serve to create and enforce expected standards of conduct and performance for the entire CAF. Institutional level elements, such as the National Defence Act, Defence Ethics, the military ethos of the profession of arms, institutional norms, organizational-level DND/CAF policies, morale and welfare structures, amongst others, set the conditions for the overall operations within the CAF. Elements found in this sphere of influence establish the military ethos and cultural framework in which the CAF must operate.

Societal Sphere: Elements that establish societal expectations about the conduct of CAF members are found in this sphere of influence. While they are external to the institution, these influences shape behaviours, attitudes and values of new and existing members within the CAF. These factors are neither controlled nor influenced by the CAF, yet an understanding of them is essential to establish effective interventions to address societal issues that are reflected in the CAF. Individual and Canadian system factors, such as Canadian federal policies and laws, influences of Canadian popular culture, provincial and regional educational differences, formal or informal social norms, and cultural backgrounds and religious beliefs, start at childhood and influence behaviours and attitudes of CAF members to varying degrees.

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Applying the Strategic Approach to Cultural Alignment

Having established the domains and determinants of CAF culture and the spheres of influence that impact them, The Path has established an approach to analyse and evaluate the relative health of our culture. Using the indicators associated with the determinants, it is possible to assess whether our behaviours, as reflected in the media, audits, surveys, public opinion, and internal/external reviews and performance measurement, are aligned with the CAF ethos and the profession of arms. When there are sufficient indicators to suggest that our behaviours are deviating from expectations, as is the case with sexual misconduct, it is necessary to take immediate steps to develop and implement enduring plans that take a holistic approach to realigning our culture.

Implementing Cultural Alignment

Many models and processes have been developed to implement organizational change; however, the “8-Step Process for Leading Change,” developed by John P. Kotter, is widely accepted as an effective and clear methodology for leading change. Using the Kotter model as a basis, we have developed a Cultural Alignment Process (illustrated in Figure 4) to lead and manage cultural alignment outlined in The Path.

Figure 4. Cultural Alignment Process (Adapted from Kotter’s 8-Step Process for Leading Change)
Figure 4

Description of figure

A continuous sequence of eight steps. At the core of the process is the vision of the strategy: A CAF free of sexual misconduct where all are treated with dignity and respect.

Three key phases are identified in the process of managing culture change, associated with their respective steps:

  1. Create the climate (cultural alignment strategy):
    1. Step 1: Exploit the sense of urgency,
    2. Step 2: create the guiding coalition,
    3. Step 3: develop vision and strategy;
  2. Engage and enable (campaign plan):
    1. Step 4: communicate and get the buy in,
    2. Step 5: remove obstacles and empower actions;
  3. Implement and sustain (Performance Measurement Framework):
    1. Step 6: identify and celebrate successes,
    2. Step 7: assess and adjust, and
    3. Step 8: institutionalize the change.

The Cultural Alignment Process identifies three key phases in the process of managing culture change:

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Targeting and Implementing Interventions: Using a Prevention-Based Approach

The Path has adopted a prevention-based approach to cultural alignment, using a public health prevention approach. The public health prevention-based approach includes a wide range of activities and interventions, also known as prevention measures, which are aimed at preventing problems from happening in the first place and reducing risks or threats to people, their health and their well-being.[39] The prevention measures adopted in this approach address three levels of intervention: primary, secondary and tertiary (Illustrated in Figure 5).

Figure 5. The prevention levels
Figure 5

Description of figure

Three levels of intervention: primary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary prevention aims to prevent a problem from occurring in the first place and will affect most members of an organization.

Secondary prevention involves the early detection, response and focused intervention for incidents of misconduct and these types of measures will commonly be required knowledge of all members of an organization, but directly impact smaller groups.

Tertiary prevention focuses on long-term sustained intervention. Measures at this level focus on the affected persons.

Primary prevention. The aim is to prevent a problem from occurring in the first place by proactively implementing measures to establish and reinforce expected cultural norms and expected social behaviours. These measures will affect most members of an organization. Examples include strengthening policies and developing specific training to inform and confirm acceptable behaviour.

Secondary prevention. This involves the early detection, response and focused intervention for incidents of misconduct and is designed to reduce the harmful impact on the person affected or the system. These types of measures will commonly be required knowledge of all members of an organization, but directly impact smaller groups. Examples include bystander intervention and policies detailing consequences for misconduct.

Tertiary prevention. Measures are implemented after an event has occurred and focus on long-term sustained intervention that prevents further harm to individuals and systems, and seeks to remedy the impacts of the harm caused. The affected person is provided with a wide range of support to prevent further harm or re-victimization and to help them re-establish their optimum health and well-being. Changes may also be required to policies, process and structures in order to mitigate the chances of incidents recurring.

Much like the spheres of influence, there are no discrete dividing lines between prevention levels, and at times, multiple levels of prevention will be required concurrently in order to achieve the change outcome being sought. As an example, there is growing evidence in civil society that the integration of responses to crime (secondary prevention) and support to victims (tertiary prevention) contribute to improved safety within a community. This approach also generates a range of other positive outcomes, such as improved individual and public health, increased confidence in the justice system, and cost savings related to reducing life-long negative effects for victims.[40] Moreover, the further “upstream” the prevention measure is from a potential risk, threat or negative outcome event, the more probable it is that intervention will prevent the event from happening in the first place. Consequently, if an incident does occur, this approach will be more effective in softening the negative impacts.[41]

Summary of Part One

While the foundation of CAF culture is articulated in the Statement of Defence Ethics[42] and Duty with Honour: The Profession of Arms in Canada,[43] cultural alignment is a complex undertaking that will not succeed if the current culture is poorly understood.

Part One outlines a strategic approach to sexual misconduct as a wicked problem. The approach will be used to analyse and evaluate overall CAF cultural health and will assist in determining where cultural alignment efforts need to focus. In addition, the approach identifies those influences on culture that are within and outside the CAF’s span of control and presents a holistic approach for developing and targeting interventions to achieve the cultural alignment being sought.

In Part Two a Strategic Framework has been developed that applies the Strategic Approach to Cultural Alignment to the complex problem of sexual misconduct in the CAF.

Figure 6. Overview of Strategic Approach to Cultural Alignment
Figure 6

Description of figure

Sequential representation of the steps identified in Part One of The Path. It includes the domains and determinants and spheres of influence; the cultural alignment process; and the prevention levels. It illustrates how following these steps leads to culture alignment.

Step 1:
-Identify the individual factors that constitute and influence the culture of a military organization
-As seen in figure 2 (Domains and Determinants) and figure 3 (Spheres of influence)

Step 2:
-Implement a change management process
-As seen in figure 4 (Cultural alignment process)

Step 3:
-Initiatives to align culture are developed according to the level of intervention required
-As seen in figure 5 (The Prevention Level)

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[17] John H. Miller and Scott E Page, Complex Adaptive Systems: An Introduction to Computational Models of Social Life (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007).

[18] Department of National Defence, Department of National Defence and Canadian Armed Forces Code of Ethics and Values (Ottawa, ON: National Defence Headquarters, 2012).

[19] Department of National Defence, Duty with Honour: The Profession of Arms in Canada (Ottawa, ON: National Defence Headquarters, 2009), 21-22.

[20] Daniel R. Denison, “What is the Difference Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate? A Native’s Point of View on a Decade of Paradigm Wars,” The Academy of Management Review 21, no. 3 (1 July 1996): 619-654.

[21] Denison, “What is the Difference.”

[22] Lin Iris, Dan van der Werf, and Andrea Butler, “Measuring and Monitoring Culture Change: Claiming Success” (Ottawa, ON: Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis, 2018), 17.

[23] Miller and Page, Complex Adaptive Systems.

[24] Levin and Gottlieb, “Realigning Organizational Culture.”

[25] Department of National Defence, Leadership in the Canadian Forces: Conceptual Foundations (Ottawa, ON: National Defence Headquarters, 2005).

[26] Department of National Defence, Leadership in the Canadian Forces, 31.

[27] Department of National Defence, Duty with Honour, 21-22.

[28] Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 4th ed., (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2010).

[29] Determinant: a factor which decisively affects the nature or outcome of something (in a positive or negative direction).

[30] Necole Belanger, “[Inclusive Leadership] If we build it will they come?” Canadian Military Journal 19, no. 1, (Winter 2018): 32-38.

[31] Department of National Defence, Duty with Honour, 10.

[32] Department of National Defence, Strong, Secure, Engaged, 25.

[33] Devin Conley and Eric Ouellet “The Canadian Forces Military Transformation – An Elusive Quest for Efficiency” Canadian Army Journal 14, no.1 (Spring 2012): 71.

[34] Department of National Defence, Duty with Honour, 20.

[35] Lin Iris, Andrea Butler, and Glen Budgell, Literature Review – Sexual Misconduct: How Language Effects Culture. (Ottawa, ON: Human Resources Systems Group, Inc. for Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis, 2017).

[36] “The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Prevention,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accessed February 17, 2019, https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/publichealthissue/social-ecologicalmodel.html.

[37] This model can also be found in Balance: The Canadian Armed Forces Physical Performance Strategy and the draft Defence Team Total Health and Wellness Strategic Framework.

[38] Urie Bronfenbrenner, The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979). The model was originally formulated to explain how the inherent qualities of a child and the multiple layers of their environment interact to influence how they will grow and develop.

[39] “Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Prevention,” Institute of Work and Health, accessed February 7, 2019, https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention.

[40] Sarah Johnston-Way and Sue O’Sullivan, “Recognizing the role of victim supports in building and maintaining health and safe communities,” Journal of Community Safety & Well-Being 1, no. 2 (August 2016): 12.

[41] Institute of Work and Health, “Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Prevention.”

[42] Department of National Defence, Code of Ethics and Values.

[43] Department of National Defence, Duty with Honour, 21-22.

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Part Two – The Strategic Framework to Address Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces

CAF Culture and Sexual Misconduct

Operation HONOUR remains the Canadian Armed Forces’ (CAF) highest institutional priority and is focused on implementing and monitoring a long-term response to address sexual misconduct. Sexual misconduct harms women and men and impacts team cohesion, unit discipline and the operational effectiveness of the CAF. Failure to comprehensively address sexual misconduct will negatively impact the trust CAF members have in their leaders.

To effectively address sexual misconduct, the CAF must undertake a cultural alignment effort that targets the intersecting and unacceptable cultural attributes for change or elimination that have been determined to contribute to the perpetration of sexual misconduct. It must also identify the desired cultural attributes that can be strengthened and leveraged to eliminate organizational tolerance for any form of sexual misconduct in the CAF.

Strengthening and aligning the cultural attributes that will contribute to preventing incidents of sexual misconduct in the CAF is extremely complex and will take time to achieve. While efforts made to stop individuals from committing sexual misconduct in the short term are important to align behaviours, the resultant change is usually effective only for the duration that leadership vigilance is maintained. True institutional culture change requires a long-term and generational leadership commitment and occurs when individual beliefs and attitudes align with the values of the desired organizational culture. In sum, achieving enduring change to behaviours, attitudes and beliefs takes time.

The impact of cultural alignment efforts to achieve enduring change is illustrated in Figure 7.

Figure 7. Influencing behaviours and the institutional culture
Figure 7

Description of figure

Time required to influence a behaviour, from very short to very long, and the longevity of these behaviour changes, from transient to permanent, include:

- Behaviour: Where behaviours are aligned, persistent but malleable

- Individual beliefs: Where attitudes change, semi-permanent

- Institutional culture: Where values change/cultural change is achieved, permanent

The Path is a coordinated, expertly informed, leadership-driven, transparent, and measurable culture change strategy that requires the full engagement of all stakeholders over the long term to be effective. It has been developed to align with other current and emergent CAF and DND strategies complementary to the CAF’s efforts to address sexual misconduct and effect long-term cultural change.

Part Two – The Strategic Framework to Address Sexual Misconduct in the CAF reflects a detailed analysis of domains and determinants of CAF culture, focusing on those that are assessed to have a direct or indirect impact on the perpetration of sexual misconduct. It outlines how the CAF will approach the problem of sexual misconduct through the establishment of the guiding principles, lines of effort, and strategic objectives that will serve as the long-term guide for cultural alignment efforts.

The Strategic Framework leverages the CAF’s recognized strengths of teamwork, discipline and operational effectiveness to instill an environment of mutual trust, dignity and respect for all.

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Domains and Determinants of CAF Culture Implicated in Sexual Misconduct

As described in Part One, CAF culture has visible and invisible dimensions, both of which are subject to several spheres of influence. CAF culture has been categorized into seven domains, representing broad categories of knowledge, behaviours, activities or functions. Each domain is further broken down into groups of evidence-informed determinants, which identify specific characteristics, structures, concepts, functions or processes that influence CAF culture.[44]

The CAF domains and determinants identified in Part One were analysed to inform the development of the strategic objectives and goals found within the Strategic Framework. Following this analysis, it was determined that 43 of the 54 CAF determinants and all seven domains were either directly or indirectly implicated. Table 2 summarizes the domains and determinants of CAF Culture implicated in addressing sexual misconduct.

Table 2. Descriptions of domains and determinants of CAF culture

Domain

Determinant

Desired Outcome

Professional Conduct (Ethics)

All persons treated with dignity and respect

All persons feel respected and are allowed to develop their full potential.

Cohesion and the empowering level of teamwork

Team unity is prevalent. Morale is positive. There is respectful behaviour between peers, with few harassment complaints observed.

Mutual trust

Members express trust and confidence in the institutional mission. Leaders model the ethos and are viewed positively by others. Leaders are trusted to take care of members.

Shared commitment

Individuals are fully committed to the CAF and feel the CAF is fully committed to them.

Inherent value of all roles and responsibilities

Everyone’s contribution is valued. All personnel are treated with dignity and respect.

Inclusivity – the worth of all persons is recognised

Personnel are diverse, and the institution/unit is welcoming and supportive of various backgrounds.

Conduct reflects institutional values

Behaviour is aligned with CAF values and there is a high level of awareness of behavioural expectations. Incidents of misconduct are not tolerated.

Institutional Competency

CAF identity – strong and proud

The CAF is viewed positively by members and Canadians. CAF’s positive identity is reflected in doctrine, symbols, traditions, ceremonies, and the institution.

Purpose and intent

The CAF has a clear and well-understood purpose and intent.

System of honours and recognition

Mission accomplishment efforts by the CAF are respected and recognised in Canada and by allied partners. When service exceeds expectations, it is rewarded.

Governance and control

Governance is effective, enforceable, well understood internally and within government. There are clear operational command and control systems, organizational design, structures, policies, procedures and practices.

Adaptability

The CAF adapts quickly to changing environments, security expectations and policy direction from government.

Regulatory system

Clear and effective standards, rules and regulations and policies for individual and group conduct are established.

Accountable leadership at all levels

Leaders influence, shape and align the culture with the ethos. Leaders balance the most complex challenges in achieving competing institutional objectives: mission success with member well-being. Core capacities for managing collective professional identity are set.

Mission focused

Unity of purpose is established and missions are clear.

Professional Competency

Value-based leadership

Leadership is based on core CAF values.

Ethical leadership

Ethical principles are demonstrated. Ethical behaviour is rewarded. Action is taken to correct the unethical conduct of others.

Quality and accountability of leadership

Leaders are held accountable, and display cognitive skill, practical and theoretical knowledge.

Robust professional development system

Members and leaders are professionally developed, succession planned and promoted. They pursue professional development and evolve the profession.

Professional knowledge

Effective education and training systems, and experiential career pathways are established. Leaders are evaluated and develop skills and experience.

Equity, diversity, inclusivity to ensure full spectrum of talents, perspectives and approaches

A diverse force is developed through recruiting and retention of under-represented groups, with increased representation of these groups in senior leadership roles. All members have the opportunity to contribute to planning and decision making.

Values, beliefs, and military ethos

Values, beliefs and military ethos are central to all activities, well understood and familiar to all members. Leaders lead by example.

Member Health and Well-being

Member access to care and support systems

Care and support are accessible and consistently of high quality.

Psychosocial environment

The CAF is a safe, supportive work environment.

Physical work environment

A supportive physical environment where all feel safe and protected from undue harm and injury to the greatest extent possible is maintained.

Legitimacy and Public Credibility

Institutional image

The CAF is perceived as a legitimate custodian of military power by the Canadian public. Overall conduct of personnel reflects both public and CAF personnel expectations.

Support of ill and injured

Support programs and services meet members’ needs. Members trust and have confidence in the system.

Operational reputation through full spectrum of operations

The CAF is perceived by internal and external stakeholders to be a reliable, operationally effective military force, domestically and internationally.

Resource stewardship                         

The CAF is seen to be professional, effective and a trustworthy steward of Canadian resources.

The Military Experience

Military identity – strong and proud

Members take pride in their service. Society continues to support and respect the profession.

Inclusivity

All individuals feel they are recognized within the institution.

Retention of qualified personnel

Members are willing to serve, families are satisfied with military life, retention rates are positive, and qualified personnel remain in the CAF.

Organizational response to behaviours

Personnel are held accountable, responses are fair and appropriate.

Demographics/geography

The variability of demographics and geographic locations is studied and compiled to inform career progression, personnel policy, training and support programs.

Occupational and role socialization

Members are indoctrinated in the expected norms of behaviour, attitudes and beliefs specific to the CAF and individual trade, branches and environment. Individuals are properly socialized in roles.

Psychological safety

A positive command climate is maintained and enforced by all leaders along the chain of command.

Language

Clarity and concision

Language used in work and social environments is clear, precise and well understood.

Sensitivity and acceptance

Language chosen takes into consideration individual differences and shows appreciation for diversity.

Gender respect

Gendered terminology and references are used appropriately and in a respectful manner.

Socially acceptable

Language in work and social environments meets an acceptable norm and does not offend normal sensibilities.

Aware and respectful

Language, gestures, expression, tone and posture are appropriate for the situation.

Empathetic

Language and terminology show understanding and empathy for others.

Inclusive

Language and terminology do not exclude any individuals, groups or beliefs, all can identify with terms used and feel respected.

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Guiding Principles

The six guiding principles that follow are the set of established criteria to be used to guide all cultural alignment efforts. The guiding principles are drawn from the CAF Leadership Doctrine, the Department of National Defence (DND) and Canadian Forces (CF) Code of Values and Ethics, Duty with Honour: The Profession of Arms in Canada, and the UN Women publication What Will It Take? Promoting Cultural Change to End Sexual Harassment.

  1. Zero tolerance
  2. Zero tolerance of sexual misconduct, manifested in policy and practice, must be woven into the culture of the CAF. Zero tolerance requires that all allegations be taken seriously and acted upon, and that no incident of sexual misconduct ever be ignored, minimized or excused. Leadership will support a positive command climate in which it is safe for those who witness or are affected by sexual misconduct to report incidents.

  3. Leader commitment at all levels
  4. Those in leadership roles at all levels shall be fully committed to, and held accountable for, the success of Operation HONOUR. Leaders, whether formal or informal, are the primary architects and sponsors of the cultural alignment efforts.[45] They must embody and actively foster ethical behaviours and never actively or passively condone any form of sexual misconduct.

  5. CAF personnel will understand and embody the CAF military ethos
  6. Every member of the CAF is expected to understand and embody the values and obligations that form the foundation of the profession of arms. The Defence Ethics principles, which drive the expression of CAF values, will be reflected by each member in their everyday behaviours and attitudes. This standard is expected of each individual CAF member in order for them to become and remain an accepted member of the profession of arms. CAF members are educated and socialized into the profession of arms from their point of entry into the CAF and will be held to the highest standards throughout their careers.

  7. Persons affected by sexual misconduct will be treated fairly, compassionately, and be empowered as supported partners
  8. Leadership shall treat affected persons fairly and compassionately at all times and shall remain accountable and responsible for the overall welfare and support of affected persons. They shall foster a safe and supportive environment, ensuring affected persons are not subjected to ostracism, retaliation nor reputational harm. Priority will be given to the well-being of those affected, including reintegration back into the workplace if appropriate, while ensuring the maintenance or re-establishment of team cohesion. Affected persons who disclose or report incidents will be offered expert response and support coordination services to assist them in accessing programs and services, advocacy support and information so that they are able to make informed decisions about their situation. Affected persons have the right to access the information they require about their cases throughout the process and, to the greatest extent possible, maintain control over the processes that involve them.

  9. Respondents will be treated fairly, proportionally and be assured due process
  10. Leadership shall treat respondents fairly and impartially during the resolution process, remain accountable and responsible for the overall welfare of the respondent, and ensure respondents do not suffer any undue reputational harm. CAF personnel found to have committed an act of sexual misconduct will be administered and/or disciplined in accordance with regulations and policy, taking into account the severity of the offence. Appropriate interventions will focus on preventing repetition of the behaviour and reintegrating the perpetrator back into the workplace, when appropriate.

  11. The CAF learns from experience, maintains transparency and remains aware and vigilant
  12. The CAF will systematically and continuously evaluate progress over time and course correct when required. To ensure a continuous cycle of learning and improvement, the CAF will regularly engage with internal and external stakeholders, sustain a progressive research program and maintain a robust performance measurement system. The CAF will report periodically on progress to ensure transparency and maintenance of trust within the institution. It will also share best practices with other organizations to contribute to national and international efforts to address sexual harassment and violence in the workplace.

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Lines of Effort and Strategic Objectives

The Lines of Effort (LoEs) articulated below, represent the areas of priority activity required to achieve the Operation HONOUR mission. They reflect the Guiding Principles and are crucial to effectively impact both the visible and invisible dimensions of CAF culture. Analysis of the applicable determinants of CAF culture resulted in the strategic objectives that accompany the respective LoEs. As such, this Strategic Framework is informed by the Strategic Approach to Cultural Alignment (Part One) and guides the development and implementation of the Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan.

LoE 1 – Awareness and Understanding

The CAF remains vigilant, maintains situational awareness and course corrects as necessary.

To mitigate the risk of of future sexual misconduct, the CAF will implement and maintain a robust capability to monitor and evaluate the environment, analyze trends, and enhance programs.

Strategic Objective 1.1: Enhance education and awareness programs throughout a career span.

Relevant and effective education, training and awareness programs, designed to inculcate and entrench desired behaviours and attitudes, will be delivered from the point of entry into the CAF and will continue throughout the members’ careers. The goals of this strategic objective are to:

Strategic Objective 1.2: Expand knowledge, engage with external partners and stakeholders.

Engaging external experts, internal and external stakeholders, international partners, affected persons, advocacy groups and persons who commit sexual misconduct will provide a comprehensive understanding and awareness of entrenched social behaviours, beliefs and values that impact CAF members. An understanding of the organizational climate within the CAF, along with ongoing research initiatives, will help shape and guide future improvements. The goals of this strategic objective are to:

Strategic Objective 1.3: Implement a robust performance measurement program.

The CAF will track and measure the performance of its programs and the overall effectiveness of Operation HONOUR. Over time, what is measured will evolve and the Performance Measurement Framework (PMF) will guide CAF efforts as we strive for long term, sustainable cultural alignment spanning the short to long term. An effective and coordinated PMF will:

LoE 2 – Affected Persons Support

Persons affected by sexual misconduct receive high quality support through a partnered approach.

The CAF will provide empathetic support through an approach based on person-centered, trauma-informed and evidence-informed principles.

Strategic Objective 2.1: Improve support for affected persons (main effort).

The CAF is committed to enhance the support of affected persons, with consideration given to their immediate and long-term needs. The CAF has prioritized support of those affected. The goals of this strategic objective are to:

Strategic Objective 2.2: Optimize the accessibility and integration of support services.

There are many DND/CAF organizations and programs available to affected persons, which may be overwhelming and difficult to navigate after suffering a traumatic incident. An integrated and supportive approach will help increase awareness and choice in accessing services while enhancing the quality of support provided. The goals of this strategic objective are to:

LoE 3 – Response

The CAF leadership will never ignore, minimize or excuse incidents of sexual misconduct and always take appropriate action.

The chain of command will ensure that all persons involved in an incident are treated fairly and supported. A consistent, fair and transparent approach to incidents builds the trust of CAF members in the institution and will lead to a safe environment where persons are protected from undue harm.

Strategic Objective 3.1: Improve leadership response to incidents of sexual misconduct (affected persons).

The manner in which military authorities respond to, administer and support affected persons, if done effectively, has the potential to re-establish the trust that the affected person has in the system and has the potential to increase reporting in others who see a system that supports those affected. Overall, the response must be empathetic, sensitive, timely, transparent, professional, fair and respectful in order to minimize adverse impacts on the affected person. The goals of this strategic objective are to:

Strategic Objective 3.2: Improve remedial response to incidents of alleged sexual misconduct (respondents).

The manner in which military authorities respond to, discipline, administer and support persons who may have committed sexual misconduct must be timely, transparent, professional, fair and respectful. The goals of this strategic objective are to:

Strategic Objective 3.3: Renew institutional policies and guidelines.

The institutional policies and guidelines governing sexual misconduct are premised on the principle of zero tolerance. Clear definitions, well-crafted policies and processes will ensure that all incidents of sexual misconduct are addressed appropriately and have taken into consideration the perspective of the affected person. CAF policies and guidelines must promote clear and consistent understanding, responses, monitoring and reporting and have undergone a Gender Based Analysis+ assessment to ensure any bias or barriers are identified and removed prior to implementation.
The goals of this strategic objective are to:

Strategic Objective 3.4: Increase the inclusiveness of the CAF through recruiting and retention.

Any measures undertaken to align the culture must take a hard look at identifying and addressing cultural barriers that exist to meaningful gender integration[46]and inclusion of women and other diversity groups, such as Indigenous persons and visible minorities so that the CAF is able to optimize the skills and talents of all personnel. Thus, focused effort towards achieving diversity targets through recruiting and retention initiatives is imperative. The goals to align recruiting and retention are outlined in:

LoE 4 – Institutional Leadership

Senior leaders in the CAF will set the conditions for enduring cultural change.

Persons selected to lead the CAF must be personally committed to the cultural alignment being sought and must be viewed as embodying the ethical behaviours they are advocating. Leading the institution with rigour and discipline includes establishing clear governance and accountability structures to oversee, monitor, communicate and champion progress on the alignment initiatives.

Strategic Objective 4.1: Establish a governance model for Operation HONOUR.

Operation HONOUR must be institutionalized to ensure long-term, enduring success in addressing sexual misconduct. In order to achieve this, a governance structure is required to foster the long-term engagement of CAF leadership and ensure that cultural alignment efforts are integrated into the day to day operations and management of the CAF. The goals of this strategic objective are to:

Strategic Objective 4.2: Enhance leadership development, evaluation and succession planning.

The power based, hierarchal nature of the CAF allows more junior members to quickly determine what behaviours get rewarded or punished. Given that CAF members at all levels take their cues from leaders when determining what behaviours and attitudes are important and desirable in the treatment of others, leaders must model the desired behaviours and attitudes, teach others how to enact such behaviours and ensure consistent application of practices and processes to ensure that those desired behaviours are embedded into the daily work life of the CAF.[47] In order to ensure that the CAF is able to achieve sustainable change, leadership development, performance evaluation, and succession planning processes should evolve to reward not only technical proficiency but should assign value to character- based attributes of leadership. The goals of this strategic objective are to:

Table 3 illustrates the CAF domains and determinants used to inform the development of the strategic objectives and goals found within the Strategic Framework.

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Table 3. Domains and Determinants of CAF culture linked to Strategic Objectives

Note: Table 3 is a large table. Use the scroll bar at the bottom of the table to view all columns. The PDF version ( PDF, 10.73MB ) of this document also offers a full page view of the table.

Domain
(Part One)

Determinant
(Part One)

Strategic objective (Part Two)

1.1: Enhance education and awareness programs throughout a career span

1.2: Expand knowledge, engage with external partners and stakeholders

1.3: Implement a robust performance measurement program

2.1: Improve support for affected persons (main effort)

2.2: Optimize the accessibility and integration of support services

3.1: Improve response to incidents of sexual misconduct (affected persons)

3.2: Improve remedial response to incidents of alleged sexual misconduct (respondents)

3.3: Renew institutional policies and guidelines

3.4: Increase the inclusiveness of the CAF through recruiting and retention

4.1: Establish a governance model for Operation HONOUR

4.2: Enhance leadership development, evaluation and succession planning

Professional Conduct (Ethos)

Dignity & respect

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

Cohesion & teamwork

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Mutual trust

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Shared commitment

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Value of all roles

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Inclusivity

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Code of conduct

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Institutional Competency

CAF identity

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Purpose & intent

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Governance & control

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Adaptability

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Regulatory system

 

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

Honours & recognition

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Accountable leadership

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Mission focused

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Professional Competency - Military Professionalism

Value-based leadership

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

Ethical leadership

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Quality & accountability of leadership

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

Robust professional development system

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Professional knowledge

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Diversity, inclusivity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Values, beliefs, & military ethos

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Member Health & Well-being

Care & support systems

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

Psychosocial environment

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

Physical work environment

Yes

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

Legitimacy & Public Credibility

Institutional image

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Operational reputation

 

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

Yes

Resource stewardship

 

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

Support of ill and injured

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

The Military EYesperience

Military identity

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Inclusivity

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Retention of qualified personnel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Occupational & role socialization

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Demographics/ geography

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

Yes

Organizational response to behaviours

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

Yes

Psychological safety

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Language

Clarity & concision

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Sensitivity & acceptance

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Gender respect

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Socially acceptable

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Aware & respectful

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Empathetic

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

Inclusive

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

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Summary of Part Two

Aligning the cultural aspects that contribute to preventing incidents of sexual misconduct in any setting is extremely complex and takes time to achieve. True institutional culture change requires a long-term and generational commitment and only occurs when individual beliefs and attitudes align with the values of the desired organizational culture. The Strategic Framework outlines how the CAF will approach the problem of sexual misconduct in the CAF and establishes the Guiding Principles, Lines of Effort, and Strategic Objectives and goals that will serve as the long-term guide for the CAF’s cultural alignment efforts under Operation HONOUR.

The execution of the Strategic Framework is detailed in Part Three of The Path: The Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan. The Campaign Plan spans a five-year period, as continuous monitoring and periodic adjustment will be required to address unintended second and third order effects of adopting multiple alignment efforts across the CAF. The five-year horizon and annual Campaign Plan review requirement were selected to acknowledge the requirement to establish a continuous learning and improvement cycle, as Operation HONOUR will have no end date and will remain as an enduring mission for the CAF.

Figure 8. Strategic Framework Summary
Figure 8

Description of figure

Summarizes the Strategic Framework by outlining the Guiding Principles, Lines of Effort, and Strategic Objectives.

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[44]For more information on the Domains and Determinants of CAF Culture, see Part One – Strategic Approach to Cultural Alignment.

[45]Levin and Gottlieb, “Realigning Organizational Culture,” 34.

[46]Lin Iris, Andrea Butler, and Glen Budgell, Literature Review – Sexual Misconduct: Understanding Impacts of Culture (Ottawa, ON: Human Resources Systems Group, Inc. for Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis, 2016).

[47]Levin and Gottlieb, “Realigning Organizational Culture,” 37.

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Part Three – Operation HONOUR Strategic Campaign Plan 2025

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Context

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) is committed to providing a workplace free from sexual assault, harassment and discrimination. Anything less is unacceptable.

The CAF initiated Operation HONOUR in 2015 to address the corrosive threat of sexual misconduct within its ranks, and to align behaviours and attitudes with the military ethos of dignity and respect for all. It remains the CAF’s highest institutional priority.

Through Operation HONOUR, the CAF has taken positive steps to address all forms of sexual misconduct within its ranks. We have:

We are making steady progress in addressing sexual misconduct, and our work to date has established a solid foundation for success. However, as with any operation, we must constantly evaluate the situation and refocus as needed to ensure we are on the right path and achieving the right outcomes. In 2018, three years after the launch of Operation HONOUR, strategic direction (Reference C) was given to review the existing operational design. The purpose of the review was to ensure the operational design reflected a long-term strategic plan that would reinvigorate Operation HONOUR and institute enduring conditions for cultural change. The review resulted in the development of a new Campaign Plan, which defines Operation HONOUR objectives and its corresponding initiatives.

Following the publication of the 2018 Report of the Auditor General, Report 5 - Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour - Canadian Armed Forces, the guidelines for the development of a strategic Campaign Plan were further emphasised in the Chief of the Defence Staff’s (CDS) Intent for Operation HONOUR, issued in December 2018. The CDS’s Intent highlighted the importance of concentrating our efforts on support for affected persons, prevention of incidents, and integration of expert advice from external subject matter experts. It included specific areas for the Campaign Plan, such as:

During the initial implementation of the Campaign Plan, the CAF Strategic Response Team on Sexual Misconduct (CSRT-SM) shifted from being an immediate response team to a permanent institutionalized planning and support organization, reporting to the CDS through the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff (VCDS). The CSRT-SM was renamed Directorate Professional Military Conduct (Operation HONOUR) (DPMC-OpH) to reflect this change.

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1.2 Policy

Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy affirms our commitment to address sexual misconduct in the CAF and “to work towards solutions that result in positive and enduring culture change” (Reference A). It states clear initiatives specifically related to sexual misconduct to ensure a work environment free from harassment and discrimination. The Defence team will:

Additionally, Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) was used in the development of the Campaign Plan ensuring that all our activities are reflective of the CAF’s diversity.

1.3 Strategic Campaign Plan Framework

The Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan was developed from the Strategic framework found in Part Two. The Campaign Plan will be executed using the prevention-based approach articulated in Part One. The prevention interventions, or decisive points (DP), are designed to address the determinants of cultural health implicated in addressing sexual misconduct and aligning the desired behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of CAF personnel to ensure long-term sustainable cultural change is achieved.

Concurrently, other CAF and Defence Team strategies, such as the CAF Diversity Strategy, Operation GENERATION, and the Total Health and Wellness Strategy, will contribute to the desired steady state.  

1.4 Planning Process

The Campaign Plan was expertly informed by key internal and external CAF stakeholders, the SMRC, and the CAF leadership. The first step involved analysing the current issues and challenges identified within Operation HONOUR and identifying gaps for each Line of Effort in the previous 2015 CAF Action Plan. This was followed by a validation exercise, during which it became evident that Operation HONOUR would be most effectively addressed using three versus four Lines of Operation (LOOs): Prevent, Respond and Support. All activities previously associated with the Understand Line of Effort from the 2015 CAF Action Plan were incorporated in the Prevent LOO. The final step was to determine what tasks needed to be accomplished in order to address the gaps and to identify new requirements and tasks drawn from the Strategic Framework. These new requirements were then integrated into the appropriate LOO within Campaign Plan.

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2.0 The Framework

2.1 Campaign Plan Framework

The framework used to represent the Campaign Plan (Figure 9) is structured around the prevention-based approach to cultural alignment. The goal of each LOO is stated at the beginning of the arrow and each arrow includes an overview of the initiatives involved in the respective LOO. Recognizing the enduring nature of Operation HONOUR, the Campaign Plan terminates in a steady state rather than an end state “where all members proudly deliver operational excellence in an environment where everyone has the full support of an institution that fosters mutual trust, respect, honour and dignity.”

Figure 9. Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan Framework
Figure 9

Description of figure

The three lines of operations are superimposed upon the prevention levels pyramid. Text description for this figure is covered in Part Three.

The pyramid symbolises the prevention-based approach for targeting and implementing interventions. It consists of the three levels of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary, with each level scaled to the proportion of personnel impacted by the interventions.

There are no discrete dividing lines between prevention levels, and at times, multiple levels of prevention interventions will be required concurrently in order to achieve the alignment goals articulated. Therefore, the initiatives, programs, policies or support services may contain intervention measures from the three prevention levels regardless of the LOO in which they reside. Collectively, the tasks found in the Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan will drive the cultural alignment the CAF seeks.
The communication and understanding arrows represent the importance of these processes in enabling the successful execution of the Campaign Plan. Lastly, strong and sustained leadership engagement will be required to enable the success of cultural alignment efforts.

2.2 Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan Objectives

Linked to the strategic objectives that aim at aligning the culture to address sexual misconduct, the Campaign Plan defines specific short, medium, and long-term objectives for Operation HONOUR since 2019. These objectives will be reached through their corresponding campaign initiatives.
Short-term objectives (1 year)

Medium-term objectives (2-4 years)

Long-term objectives (5+ years)

2.3 Mission

The mission is to ensure sexual misconduct is never minimized, ignored or excused so that the CAF cultivates the inclusive and respectful work environment that embodies the ethical principles and core values of the profession of arms.

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3.0 The Operational Design

3.1 The Operational Design

The Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan Operational Design (Figure 10) further defines the LOOs. Each LOO includes multiple DPs to be reached throughout the next five years. The LOOs are divided into sub-LOOs with some tasks applicable to a single sub-LOO, while others are intended for multiple sub-LOOs. The first letter of the DP number represents its LOO (i.e. P1 is DP 1 for the LOO Prevent, R8 is DP 8 for the LOO Respond, and S4 is DP 4 for LOO Support). A listing of these DPs along with details, OPIs, OCIs and end dates can be found in Annex A.

Leadership engagement, communication and understanding are key elements of Operation HONOUR. They are represented in the Operational Design by continuous arrows and are constant throughout the Campaign Plan. Leadership Engagement refers not only to visibly demonstrating ethical conduct but also refers to the manner in which we respond to incidents of sexual misconduct, through the application of policies and directives, and a compassionate and empathetic response. Leaders will ensure that their actions, directives and orders are aligned with Operation HONOUR within their respective elements.

Understanding sexual misconduct has impacts on the three LOOs and throughout the Campaign Plan. Increasing our knowledge and awareness of sexual misconduct issues will improve our prevention initiatives, our response to incidents and our support to affected persons. This important aspect of the Campaign is also represented as its own sub-LOO under the Prevent LOO.

Internal communication between L1s and their elements is essential. Initiatives in the Campaign Plan will help leaders engage with their members or specific audiences, discuss expected behaviours, and promote Operation HONOUR. External communication approaches will convey and promote all Operation HONOUR initiatives to stakeholders and the Canadian public.

The sections below contain a brief description of the major initiatives in each LOO broken into sub-LOOs. A complete list of all the initiatives can be found in Annex A.

3.1.1 LOO 1 – Support

The goal of the Support LOO is to optimize care and support to affected persons.[48] This is the main effort of the Campaign Plan.

3.1.2 LOO 2 – Respond

The goal of the Respond LOO is to improve the CAF’s response to sexual misconduct incidents and ensure consistency and fairness throughout the process. The Respond LOO includes initiatives related to the development of policies and the revision of existing directives related to sexual misconduct. Policy and resource development will promote early intervention based on the needs of the affected persons.

3.1.3 LOO 3 – Prevent

The goal of the Prevent LOO is to prevent incidents of sexual misconduct from happening in the first place. LOO 3 includes activities of prevention, awareness and understanding including research and data analysis on the data collected. Many of the decisive points in this LOO are recurring at a pre-determined period of time (e.g. Statistics Canada Surveys).

Figure 10. Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan operational design
Figure 10

Description of figure
Decisive Points Year
Line of Operation Support
S1 (Affected Persons) 2019 Completed
S2 (Affected Persons & Respondent) 2019 Completed
S3 (Affected Persons) 2019 Completed
S4 (Affected Persons & Family) 2019 Completed
S5 (Family) 2019 Completed
S6 (Affected Persons) 2020
S7 (Affected Persons) 2020
S8 (Affected Persons) 2020
S9 (Affected Persons & Respondent) 2020
S10 (Affected Persons) 2021
S11 (Affected Persons) 2021
S12 (Respondent) 2022
S13 (Affected Persons) 2023
Line of Operation Respond
R1 (Policy) 2020 Completed
R2 (Policy & Tools & Res.) 2020 Completed
R3 (Tools & Res.) 2020 Recurring yearly
R4 (Policy) 2020
R5 (Policy) 2020
R6 (Policy) 2020
R7 (Policy & Tools & Res.) 2021
Line of Operation Prevent
P1 (Governance) 2019 Completed
P2 (Understand) 2019 Recurring yearly
P3 (Governance) 2019 Completed
P4 (Trg & Ed.) 2019 Recurring yearly
P5 (Understand) 2019 Completed
P6 (Understand) 2019 Recurring yearly
P7 (Understand) 2019 Completed
P8 (Governance) 2020 Completed
P9 (Understand) 2020
P10 (Trg & Ed.) 2020
P11 (Governance) 2020
P12 (Governance) 2020
P13 (Understand) 2020 Recurring yearly
P14 (Understand) 2020 Recurring every two years
P15 (Trg & Ed.) 2021
P16 (Trg & Ed.) 2021
P17 (Understand) 2022
P18 (Governance) 2022
P19 (Understand) 2023
P20 (Communications) 2019 Completed
P21 (Communications) 2019 Completed
P22 (Communications) 2020
P23 (Communications) 2019 Recurring yearly
P24 (Communications) 2020 Recurring yearly

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Table 4. Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan - Relationship between Decisive Points, Strategic Objectives and Prevention Levels

Note: Table 4 is a large table. Use the scroll bar at the bottom of the table to view all columns. The PDF version ( PDF, 10.73MB ) of this document also offers a full page view of the table.

LOO / DP (Part Three)

Strategic Objective (Part Two)

Prevention Level

1.1: Enhance education and awareness programs throughout a career span

1.2: Expand knowledge, engage with external partners and stakeholders

1.3: Implement a robust performance measurement program

2.1: Improve support for affected persons (main effort)

2.2: Optimize the accessibility and integration of support services

3.1: Improve response to incidents of sexual misconduct (affected persons)

3.2: Improve remedial response to incidents of alleged sexual misconduct(respondents)

3.3: Renew institutional policies and guidelines

4.1: Establish a governance model for Operation HONOUR

4.2: Enhance leadership development, evaluation and succession planning

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

P

S

T

SUPPORT

 

S1. Harassment Investigation Capability enhanced.

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

S

T

S2. Workplace Restoration Services implemented.

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

T

S3. Access to civilian sexual assault centres for support funded.

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

T

S4. Military family support services related to sexual misconduct available and accessible.

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

P

S

T

S5. Online micro learning for families implemented.

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

P

S

T

S6. Integrated approach to affected person support implemented.

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

T

S7. Trauma-Informed training implemented.

Yes

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

P

S

T

S8. Independent legal advice from civilian lawyer expert to victims available.

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

T

S9. Restorative Engagement Program implemented.

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

T

S10. Best clinical practice for treating CAF members affected by sexual misconduct validated.

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

P

S

T

S11. Sentinel Program in all training establishments implemented.

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

P

S

T

S12. Respondent support services established.

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

S

T

S13. Response and Support Coordination (RSC) program implemented.

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

 

S

T

RESPOND

 

R1. Duty to Report and Duty to Investigate clarified.

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

P

S

 

R2. Clear and comprehensive policy on sexual misconduct developed and implemented.

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

P

S

T

R3. Operation HONOUR Manual and Decision Tree reviewed.

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

P

S

T

R4. Impacts of Bill C-65 on Operation HONOUR initiatives analyzed.

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

P

 

T

R5. Impacts of Bill C-77 on Operation HONOUR initiatives analyzed.

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

 

S

T

R6. Options for Enhanced Reporting protocols investigated.

 

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

 

S

 

R7. Policy related to sexual misconduct reviewed and updated.

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

Yes

 

 

P

 

T

PREVENT

 

P1. Operation HONOUR governance model established.

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

P

 

T

P2. OPHTAS data analysis and reporting conducted.

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

S

T

P3. Institutionalisation of DPMC-OpH.

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

P

 

 

P4. Respect in the CAF program reviewed, validated and updated.

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

P

S

T

P5. Operation HONOUR Performance Measurement Framework (PMF) developed and implemented.

 

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

T

P6. Administration of the Your-Say Survey.

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

T

P7. Reporting platform to link departmental sexual misconduct data owned by DPMC-OpH and other CAF organizations developed.

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

S

T

P8. Cultural alignment strategy published.

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

P

S

T

P9. Framework for measuring and monitoring cultural alignment developed.

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

P10. Prevention Program in a specialized setting (RMC Prevention Pilot) implemented.

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

S

T

P11. Personnel evaluation system and succession planning reviewed and updated.

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

P

 

 

P12. Operation HONOUR governance structure for CAF established.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

P

 

 

P13. Operation HONOUR Performance Measurement Framework (PMF) Annual report published.

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

P14. Administration of the Statistics Canada survey on sexual misconduct in the CAF.

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

S

 

P15. Training and education programs related to sexual misconduct updated.

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

P16. Training and education framework within training establishments developed.

Yes

 

 

 

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

P17. Initial research plan on sexual misconduct completed.

 

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

P18. Future structure and responsibilities of DPMC defined.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Yes

 

P

 

 

P19. Knowledge management process in place.

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

P20. Operation HONOUR website reviewed and restructured.

Yes

 

 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

P

 

 

P21. Operation HONOUR Strategic Narrative updated.

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

P22. Operation HONOUR promotional material updated.

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

S

 

P23. Operation HONOUR Strategic Communications Framework established.

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

P24. Operation HONOUR Communications Plan updated.

Yes

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

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4.0 Campaign Coordination

4.1 Plan Review

The Campaign Plan will be reviewed annually. The DPs, tasks and initiatives will be updated or added to the Operational Design as required. The updates to the Campaign Plan will be informed by the Performance Measurement Framework (PMF), the results of analysis, recommendations from stakeholders, and expert advice to DPMC-OpH.

4.2 Reporting

An annual report will be produced by DPMC-OpH to the VCDS to track the progression of all initiatives outlined in the Campaign Plan. The annual reports will include completed tasks, the status of each task, as well as the identification of any gaps in the Campaign Plan. All research, surveys, and analysis that require reporting will be produced and published independently.

4.3 Resourcing

Requirements that contribute to the Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan will be incorporated into L1 Business Planning for each fiscal year.

4.4 Performance Measurement Framework (PMF)

The CAF has developed a PMF designed to measure the performance (activities and outputs) as well as effectiveness (outcomes) of Operation HONOUR. Under the technical guidance of the DGMPRA, a Logic Model for Operation HONOUR was developed using content from the Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan and the Strategic Framework to Address Sexual Misconduct in the CAF. The Logic Model contains outputs and outcomes that will be measured over time by the Key Performance Indicators (KPI).

4.5 Public Affairs

The Department of National Defence Public Affairs (PA) Strategy sets the overarching objectives and outcomes for CAF/DND communications efforts and is aligned with the government and defence priorities and policies. It is the foundation for cooperation, collaboration and coordination by the public affairs community across Defence in supporting the implementation of the Defence Policy. In particular, CAF/DND PA efforts related to Operation HONOUR will seek to meet the desired objectives of improving Canadians’ perception of joining the CAF and to increase feelings of support among CAF members/DND employees.

When communicating with CAF members, DND employees, the media and the public, public affairs teams will be guided by the Operation HONOUR Communications Plan and the Strategic Communication Framework, which sets out objectives and themes to be supported and promoted. Public affairs teams should make use of approved Operation HONOUR messaging whenever appropriate.

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5.0 Looking Forward

5.1 Summary

Part Three: The Operation HONOUR Strategic Campaign Plan 2025 provides an enduring roadmap to achieve the CAF steady state “where all members proudly deliver operational excellence in an environment where everyone has the full support of an institution that fosters mutual trust, respect, honour and dignity.” Leadership engagement, continuously understanding the impact of the interventions, and maintaining open and transparent communication with both members of the CAF and external stakeholders will be essential to the successful execution of this plan.

The three Lines of Operation (Prevent, Respond, Support) found within Part Three replace the previous four Lines of Effort found within the 2015 Operation HONOUR Action Plan. This Campaign Plan represents the institutionalization of Operation HONOUR and identifies the relevant goals, objectives and initiatives that are to be completed by 2025.

In the final part of The Path, Part Four: Operation HONOUR Performance Measurement Framework (PMF), the CAF will continue to assess, monitor and evaluate the progress made towards enduring cultural change. The PMF will provide a systematic approach to reinforce successes, mitigate the impacts of unintended second and third order consequences and allow for the adjustment or modification of programs if required so that alignment efforts stay on the right course.

Campaign Plan Annexes

Campaign Plan Annex A – Decisive Points and Tasks

Parts One and Two of The Path illustrate the components of CAF culture and outline a framework for addressing the complex issue of sexual misconduct in the CAF. These elements of The Path are not subject to frequent change, however, the implementation plan presented in Part Three must remain flexible and adaptive if it is to be successful. For this reason, Annex A, which provides detailed assignment of tasks to OPIs and OCIs, as well as associated timelines, will be available to Defence Wide Area Network (DWAN) users via a link on the Operation HONOUR intranet page. Those who do not have access to DWAN can contact Directorate Professional Military Conduct - Operation HONOUR at DPMC-OpH-DCMP-OpH@forces.gc.ca to request a current copy of Annex A, to ensure they have access to the most recent version.

Campaign Plan Annex B – References

A. Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy, 7 Jun 2017
B. CDS Intent – Operation HONOUR, 21 Dec 2018
C. Frag O 004 to CDS Op Order - Operation HONOUR, 15 Mar 2018
D. Frag O 003 to CDS Op Order - Operation HONOUR, 30 Dec 2016 (Replaced by CANFORGEN 049/19 Clarification on the Definition of Sexual Misconduct and Appropriate Administrative Actions)
E. Frag O 002 to CDS Op Order - Operation HONOUR, 9 Dec 2016
F. Frag O 001 to CDS Op Order - Operation HONOUR, 18 Mar 2016
G. CDS Operation Order – Operation HONOUR, 14 Aug 2015
H. External Review into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces, 27 March 2015
I. 2018 Fall Reports of the Auditor General of Canada to the Parliament of Canada - Report 5 - Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour - Canadian Armed Forces, Nov 2018
J. CAF Action Plan on Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour, 30 Apr 2015

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[48]It is recognized and acknowledged that individuals may define their own context and/or experience differently. Some individuals do not identify with the term victim, and prefer to use other descriptors to define their experience, for example: ‘affected person’. Additionally, those impacted by an incident of sexual misconduct in different ways (e.g. peers, members of the CoC, bystanders, etc.) may also need support. Therefore, the term ‘affected persons’ refers to all persons impacted by sexual misconduct including victims and will be used instead of the term ‘victim’ when not being used in a legal or police context.

[49]Enhanced reporting (also known as third-party reporting) refers to a means of preserving memory and physical evidence of a victim of sexual misconduct for the disclosure of the offence after an indeterminate period of time, when the victim is ready to do so.

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Part Four – The Operation HONOUR Performance Measurement Framework

Measuring Progress

As Operation HONOUR progresses, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) will continue to assess and evaluate progress relative to our strategic objectives and desired outcomes. The Operation HONOUR PMF draws input from a significant number of sources, both internal and external to the CAF. It also leverages resources that provide immediate information, such as OPHTAS, as well as those that provide a multi-year perspective on progress, such as the Statistics Canada Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the CAF. Combining long- and short-term resources into the PMF will provide the CAF the means to both react quickly to immediate indicators that an adjustment to the response is required, as well as assess the overall progress of the strategy implementation. The annual Campaign Plan review will be directly informed by the PMF, ensuring that any adjustments made are evidence-based and expertly informed.

The performance measurement process includes the generation and publication of reports, ensuring the CAF remains open and transparent in its response to sexual misconduct. While some reports, such as the Sexual Misconduct Incident Tracking Report will be produced annually, others will be produced to fulfil specific requirements as they arise.

The complete scientific letter detailing the full complexities of the PMF will be issued separately by the Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis. However, at the core of the PMF are the Logic Model and Supporting Indicators.

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Logic Model

Logic models are typically used as visual depictions of the ways in which a program achieves its intended outcomes. In the Operation HONOUR logic model, the activities and outputs are aligned with the lines of operation in the Operation HONOUR Campaign Plan, while the outcomes in the logic model result from multiple lines of operation. The six main components of a logic are model inputs, activities, outputs, immediate outcomes, intermediate outcomes, and ultimate outcomes.

Figure 11. Operation HONOUR Performance Measurement Framework logic model.
Figure 11

Description of figure

Representation of inputs, activities, outputs and outcomes in sequential order. As described in Part Three, the steady state, the mission, and the lines of operation with their respective objectives are shown in this figure.

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Measures and Indicators

In the Operation HONOUR Performance Measurement Framework, performance measures are used to count outputs and performance indicators are used to suggest the level of performance related to outcome (i.e., measures measure something, and indicators indicate something). The full list of measures and indicators that were developed for the ongoing activities of Operation HONOUR over the short, medium and long term are in Table 5. Selected measures and indicators from this list, for which data is expected to be available up to the end of the 2019-2020 fiscal year, will be used to produce the first Operation HONOUR Performance Measurement report. The list of measures and indicators will be updated annually.

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Table 5. List of Operation HONOUR Performance Measures and Indicators

Logic Model Output
(Support)

Performance Measure

OPI

a. Care and support for those affected by sexual misconduct

Annual # of Health Services clinical encounters in which Regular Force personnel were treated for SM[50]

DGHS/DFHP

Annual # of unique Regular Force patients treated by Health Services for SM[51]

DGHS/DFHP

Annual # of instances in which support was provided by SMRC counsellors to those affected by sexual misconduct

SMRC

Annual # of CAF members using Response and Support Coordination Services

SMRC

Annual # of chaplain sessions in which support was provided by chaplains to those affected by sexual misconduct

Chap Gen/D Chap Ops

Annual # of instances in which support throughout a complaint process was provided by DGICCM to those affected by sexual misconduct

DGICCM

Annual # of instances in which workplace restorative services were provided by DGICCM for incidents of sexual misconduct (TBC)

DGICCM

Output measure related to family violence and gender-based violence services for CAF families (TBC)

DGMWS/DMFS

b. New or improved support for those affected by sexual misconduct

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when the Support Strategy for CAF Members Affected by Sexual Misconduct is implemented (TBC)

SMRC

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when access to independent legal advice is implemented (TBC)

SMRC

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when the restorative engagement program is implemented (TBC)

SMRC

Logic Model Output
(Respond)

Performance Measure

OPI

c. Policies , directives, tools, and resources (e.g., Incident Management Decision Tree)

Statement about status of policies, directives, tools and resources in fiscal year

DGPMC-OpH

d. Punitive responses to sexual misconduct incidents (i.e.,  disciplinary actions)

Annual # of court martials of CAF members charged with sexual misconduct

JAG

Results of court martials of CAF members charged with sexual misconduct in fiscal year

JAG

Annual # of summary trials of CAF members charged with sexual misconduct

JAG

Results of summary trials of CAF members charged with sexual misconduct in fiscal year

JAG

Annual # of CAF members released due to sexual misconduct

DGMC/DMCA

e. Non-punitive responses to sexual misconduct incidents (e.g., administrative actions, alternative dispute resolution)

Annual # of instances of ADR in response to sexual misconduct

DGICCM

Annual # of administrative actions due to sexual misconduct

DGPMC-OpH

f. New non-punitive responses for incidents of sexual misconduct (e.g., rehabilitation)

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when the rehabilitation program for those who commit sexual misconduct is implemented (TBC)

SMRC

Logic Model Output
(Prevent)

Performance Measure

OPI

g. Reports on the progress of Operation HONOUR

Statement about reports on the progress of Operation HONOUR

DPMC-OpH

h. Relevant results from internal and external research

Statement about relevant internal and external research

DPMC-OpH
DGMPRA
SMRC

i. Learning opportunities for CAF members

Annual # of CAF members who have taken RitCAF

DGMWS/PSP

Total # of serving CAF members who have taken RitCAF
NOTE: DRI 3.3.8

DGPMC-OpH

Annual # of SMRC-led outreach events for CAF members

SMRC

Annual # of downloads for training modules on the Operation HONOUR website

ADM(PA)

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when the training and education framework is implemented (TBC)

DGPMC-OpH

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when online learning for families is implemented (TBC)

DGMWS/DMFS

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when trauma informed training for support providers (including SENTINEL) is implemented (TBC)

SMRC

j. Information and advice for CAF leadership (e.g., consultation, briefings)

Annual # of briefings delivered to CAF leadership by DPMC-OpH, SMRC, and DGMPRA related to Operation HONOUR (e.g., command team course briefings)

DGMPRA, DGPMC-OpH, SMRC

Annual # of contacts by the CoC to the SMRC

SMRC

Annual # of contacts by the CoC to DGICCM related to sexual misconduct

DGICCM

k. Information for internal and external audiences

Annual # of visits to key sections of the Operation HONOUR website

ADM(PA)

Annual # of downloads for the RitCAF app

SMRC

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when the Operation HONOUR Communications Plan is implemented (TBC)

DGPMC-OpH

Logic Model Outcome
(Immediate)

Performance Indicator

OPI

a. CAF members affected by sexual misconduct are cared for and fully supported

% of CAF members who were satisfied with the timeliness of support services they accessed (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who were satisfied with the overall care and support from the support services they accessed (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

b. CAF members and those affected by sexual misconduct know where to go to get help

% of CAF members who are aware of the support services that can be accessed from the Sexual Misconduct Response Centre (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who have reported experiencing or being impacted by sexual misconduct that have heard of the support services provided by the SMRC to CAF members (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who would know where to go to get help if they experienced sexual misconduct (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

c. CAF members know how to respond to incidents of sexual misconduct

% of CAF members who feel they have received adequate training on responding to sexual misconduct (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members that witnessed sexual misconduct and did not take action because they did not know what to do (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of senior officers and senior NCMs who feel that they have the tools and access to resources to respond effectively to SM (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who would report the incident if they experienced sexual misconduct (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who feel prepared to intervene if they witnessed sexual misconduct (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who are aware of CANFORGEN 049/19 (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who are aware of the Operation HONOUR Manual (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who understand the Operation HONOUR Manual (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who are aware of the Operation HONOUR Decision Tree (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who understand the Operation HONOUR Decision Tree (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

d. CAF members have the competencies to prevent sexual misconduct

% of CAF members who find sexual misconduct behaviours offensive (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who feel they have received adequate training on preventing sexual misconduct (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who agree that the organization makes it sufficiently clear to them how they should conduct themselves appropriately toward others within the organization (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who understand the definition of sexual misconduct in CANFORGEN 049/19 (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

e. CAF leaders understand the effect of climate and culture on sexual misconduct

Performance measures and indicators will be identified when the training and education framework is implemented (TBC)
NOTE: This outcome needs review.

DGMPRA

f. CAF members are aware that those who commit sexual misconduct are held accountable for their actions

% of CAF members who agree that CAF members who commit sexual misconduct are held accountable for their actions (Winter 2020 YSS)
NOTE: This outcome needs review.

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that CAF members who commit sexual misconduct are held accountable for their actions (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who believe that if they reported unethical conduct to senior leadership/management, those involved would be disciplined fairly regardless of their position (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that in their immediate working environment, personnel will be disciplined if they behave unethically (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that their immediate supervisor disciplines subordinates/employees who violate ethical standards (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

Logic Model Outcome
(Intermediate)

Performance Indicator

OPI

g. CAF member behaviours are aligned with CAF principles and values

Number of sexual misconduct incidents in the CAF reported to the chain of command

DGPMC-OpH

% of CAF members who have seen, heard, or experienced sexual misconduct in the past 12 months (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who took action upon witnessing an incident of sexualized or discriminatory behaviour (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who agree that in their immediate working environment, everyone treats one another with respect (Defence Ethics Survey)
NOTE: Used as an Ultimate Outcome Indicator

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that sexual misconduct is not tolerated in their current unit (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who agree that Operation HONOUR has been effective in reducing sexual misconduct in the workplace (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who experienced sexual harassment while performing their CAF duties in the past 12 months (YSS)

DGMPRA

h. CAF leadership fosters the principles of ethical conduct

% of CAF members who agree that their immediate supervisor discusses ethics or values with subordinates/employees (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that their immediate supervisor sets an example of how to do things the right way in terms of ethics (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that the leaders in their unit reinforce a culture of mutual respect, honour, and dignity (YSS)
NOTE: Used as an Ultimate Outcome Indicator

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that senior leadership/management sets a good example in terms of ethical behavior (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that the CAF works hard to create a workplace that prevents sexual misconduct (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada


i. CAF leadership responds appropriately to behaviours related to sexual misconduct

% of CAF members who agree that in their immediate working environment, reports of unethical conduct are taken seriously (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF member who agree that complaints about sexual misconduct are (or would be) taken seriously in their current unit (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who were satisfied with the actions taken by the person(s) in authority in response to sexual misconduct (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

j. CAF members trust peers and leaders to respond appropriately to sexual misconduct

% of CAF members who trust the chain of command to effectively deal with sexual misconduct (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who trust the chain of command to effectively deal with sexual misconduct (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who trust their peers in their unit to respond appropriately to incidents of sexual misconduct (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who trust their peers to respond appropriately to sexual misconduct (2021 SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% CAF members who cite a fear of negative consequences as a reason for not reporting sexual assault (SSMCAF)

Statistics Canada

% of CAF members who are confident they would not be retaliated against (in the form of repercussions, reprisals, or penalization) if they reported incidents of sexual misconduct (YSS)

DGMPRA

k. CAF members have confidence that administrative and disciplinary responses to sexual misconduct are appropriate

% of CAF members who agree that administrative actions taken in response to sexual misconduct are appropriate (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that disciplinary actions taken in response to sexual misconduct are appropriate (Winter 2020 YSS)

DGMPRA

Logic Model Outcome
(Ultimate)

Performance Indicator

OPI

l. An institution that fosters mutual trust, respect, honour and dignity

% of CAF members who agree that in their immediate working environment, a mutual relationship of trust prevails between employees and management/senior leadership (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that their immediate supervisor can be trusted (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members reporting high levels of civility and respect in the workplace (DWWS)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that in their immediate working environment, everyone treats one another with respect (Defence Ethics Survey)

DGMPRA

% of CAF members who agree that the leaders in their unit reinforce a culture of mutual respect, honour, and dignity (YSS)

DGMPRA

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Conclusion

Sexual misconduct is a highly complex and persistent social problem. It is unacceptable in any organization but particularly damaging in an organization like the CAF where team cohesion, confidence and trust are paramount. The presence of sexual misconduct in the CAF harms individuals, impacts on teams and has the ability to erode operational effectiveness. As an organization, we must always strive to create a CAF free from sexual misconduct where all persons are treated with dignity and respect.

Over the past two decades, the CAF has taken steps to address the perpetration of incidents of sexual misconduct—directly and indirectly—through policies, procedures and programs. While these efforts have improved incident response and established essential victim support, they have had limited effect in terms of preventing incidents from occurring. Since 2015, we have learned that successfully addressing sexual misconduct will require us to move from seeing it as a singular problem to be solved to considering it as a wicked problem in need of a holistic, long-term approach that addresses multiple aspects of the existing CAF culture.

The Path to Dignity and Respect: Sexual Misconduct Response Strategy, represents a significant shift in the CAF’s approach. The Path acknowledges the role that the existing culture plays in the issue of sexual misconduct in the CAF and identifies what aspects of the CAF culture must be eliminated, changed or strengthened to confront it effectively. Implementation of The Path will ensure sexual misconduct is never minimized, ignored or excused and it will set the conditions for cultivating an inclusive and respectful work environment.

With this strategy, Operation HONOUR has evolved into a comprehensive and sustained institutional effort focused on aligning behaviours and attitudes of CAF members with the ethical principles and core values expected of all persons who practice the profession of arms in Canada.

However, achieving long-term, sustainable change will take time. We will achieve this complex change by strengthening and aligning the cultural attributes that contribute to preventing incidents of sexual misconduct in the CAF. We are committed to measuring and evaluating progress over the long term and remaining transparent about our progress—with both members of the CAF and the Canadian public.

Guided by The Path, we will push forward towards our desired steady state: A CAF where all members proudly deliver operational excellence in an environment where everyone has the full support of an institution that fosters mutual trust, respect, honour and dignity.

The Canadian public expects it, CAF members deserve it, and we will achieve it.

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[50]Sexual Misconduct (SM) replaces Harmful and Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour (HISB) in the new definition.

[51]Ibid.

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Abbreviations

ADM(IM)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Information Management)
ADM(PA) Assistant Deputy Minister (Public Affairs)
ADR Alternative Dispute Resolution
CA Canadian Army
CADTC Canadian Army Doctrine and Training Centre
CAF Canadian Armed Forces
CANFORGEN Canadian Forces General message
CDS Chief of the Defence Staff
CFHS Canadian Forces Health Services
CFMWS Canadian Forces Morale and Welfare Services
CFLA Canadian Forces Legal Advisor
CMP Chief of Military Personnel
CO Commanding Officer
COATS
Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service
CoC Chain of Command
CP Campaign Plan
CSRT-SM
Canadian Armed Forces Strategic Response Team – Sexual Misconduct
CWO Chief Warrant Officer
DAIP Directorate Access to Information and Privacy
DAOD Defence Administrative Orders and Directives
DFHP Director Force Health Protection
DG Director General
DGHS Director General Health Services
DGICCM
Director General Integrated Complaint and Conflict Management
DGMC Director General Military Careers
DGMPRA Director General Military Personnel Research and Analysis
DGMWS Director General Morale and Welfare Services
DGPMC-OpH
Director General Professional Military Conduct-Operation HONOUR
DMCA Director Military Careers Administration
DMFS Director Military Family Services
DMP Director Military Prosecutions
DND Department of National Defence
DP Decisive Points
DPMC-OpH
Directorate Professional Military Conduct-Operation HONOUR
DRI Departmental Result Indicators
DWWS Defense Workplace Wellness Survey
ERA External Review Authority
FY Fiscal Year
FRAGO Fragmentary Order
GBA+ Gender-Based Analysis Plus
ICCM Integrated Complaint and Conflict Management
JAG Judge Advocate General
L1 Level One
LGBTQ2
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and Two-spirit
LoE Lines of Effort
LOO Lines of Operation
MILPERSCOM Military Personnel Command
MFRC Military Family Resource Centre
MFS Military Family Services
MP Military Police
NCM Non-Commissioned Member
OAG Office of the Auditor General
OCI Office of Collateral Interest
OPI Office of Primary Interest
OpH Operation HONOUR
OPHTAS Operation HONOUR Tracking and Analysis System
PA Public Affairs
PMF Performance Measurement Framework
PPD Plans and Policy Development
PSP Personnel Support Program
PSTC Peace Support Training Centre
RCAF Royal Canadian Air Force
RCChS Royal Canadian Chaplain Services
RCN Royal Canadian Navy
RCPM Research, Coordination and Performance Measurement
RitCAF Respect in the CAF
RMC Royal Military College of Canada
SHARP Standards for Harassment and Racism Program
SM Sexual Misconduct
SME Subject Matter Expert
SMRC Sexual Misconduct Response Centre
SSE
Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy
SSMCAF
Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces
TBC To Be Confirmed
TOR Terms of Reference
Trg & Ed Training and Education
UN United Nations
VAC Veterans Affairs Canada
VCDS Vice Chief of the Defense Staff
WG Working Group
WRT With Respect To
YSS Your Say Survey

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Bibliography

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