13-25 – ​Cadet Conflict Management System

Cadet Administrative and Training Orders (CATOs)


1. This order describes the policy for cadets using the Cadet Conflict Management System (CCMS) and its application in managing conflict situations in the Canadian Cadet Movement (CCM).


2. The CCMS encompasses a range of conflict resolution processes (power-based, rights-based and interest-based) that are available to manage cadet-duty related conflicts. The CCMS encourages an emphasis on prevention of conflict through training and awareness and a principle of early resolution through interest-based Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) processes. ADR is the preferred conflict resolution approach of the CCM and Canadian Forces (CF). The CCMS identifies and establishes linkages and access points between all conflict resolution processes. Effective application of the CCMS will aid cadets and adults in preventing conflict, and as required, effectively resolving conflict at the lowest possible level.

3. The three approaches are defined as:

  1. Power-based. A power-based approach is an approach in which the decision-maker (person with the authority and thus power) determines how the situation is resolved;
  2. Rights-based. A rights-based approach utilizes formal doctrine or procedure to resolve the conflict. This approach bases decisions on relevant policies, directives and, if applicable, findings in investigations; and
  3. Interest-based. An interest-based approach focuses on the underlying needs/interests of the parties involved. Parties work together to create their own solutions to the situation based on their interests, needs and values. Interest-based approaches, also known as ADR, are often seen as alternatives to power-based and rights-based “formal” procedures.

4. ADR is an approach that encourages individuals to be collaborative in one-on-one dialogues or with the assistance of a third party to better understand the issues and needs from each others’ perspective and to come up with a mutually satisfactory solution.

5. Within the CCM, “ADR First” should be the response to situations of conflict and disagreement. This fundamental approach is a transformational shift in how we approach conflict with the intention of being an organization that deals with conflict when and where it occurs. If ADR is inappropriate or not suitable, then the various rights-based processes or power-based approaches for resolution are always available and accessible.

6. This order should be read in conjunction with the following references: CATO 13-24 Harassment Prevention & Resolution; CATO 15-22 Conduct & Discipline – Cadets; and CATO 25-05 Personal Relationships as well as DAODs 5046-0 Alternative Dispute Resolution and 5012-0 Harassment Preventions and Resolution.

Definitions and Abbreviations

7. For the purpose of this order:

conflict. an expressed struggle involving two or more parties resulting from a real or perceived difference in needs or values. Conflict is not inherently good or bad, but can have good or bad consequences depending on how it is handled. (conflit)

conflict-competent. a combination of self-awareness, knowledge and application of ADR skills to effectively manage conflict at the earliest stages and prevent conflict escalation. (compétence en matière de gestion de conflits)

interests. specific needs that are important to an individual and the reasons why. (e.g., priorities, expectations, assumptions, concerns, hopes, beliefs, fears and values) (intérêts)

third-party assistance. is a technique that involves both parties participating in a facilitated discussion with the aim of finding a mutual resolution to the conflict. An adult member of the CCM can act as a third party facilitator in this process as well as any peer with related facilitation training or experience. (aide d’une tierce partie)

Policy Statement

8. The CCM is committed to:

  1. resolving conflicts at the lowest most appropriate level whenever possible and in a timely and cooperative manner;
  2. establishing, promoting and utilizing ADR as the preferred approach to preventing the escalation of conflict and resolving disputes wherever and whenever appropriate; and
  3. strengthening leadership competencies by ensuring that all leaders are conflict- competent.


9. The goal of the CCMS is, whenever possible, to prevent disputes from arising and/or escalating and to provide its members with processes to readily and effectively resolve conflict, particularly at the lowest level.


10. The objective of the CCMS is to increase the awareness, availability, accessibility of a range of conflict resolution processes and the use of ADR options as the preferred method of resolving conflict within CCM.

11. By applying ADR approaches, cadets and leaders will be able to facilitate the resolution of conflict informally and quickly. ADR processes:

  1. respect the chain of command and honour the members;
  2. promote cohesion and morale;
  3. support the mission and vision of the Cadet Program; and
  4. complement other formal processes.


12. The CCMS can be used for all cadet-duty related conflicts.  The information that follows explains the importance of conflict prevention as well as steps that can be taken to address an existing conflict situation.

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13. All cadets and leaders are responsible to take every measure to identify and minimize situations in which conflict could arise. Conflict management techniques are integrated into various programs for the cadets and the CIC throughout their training (see CATO 11-04 and CATO 24-01 respectively).

Addressing Conflict Situations

14. Assess the situation to identify the type of conflict, and more importantly, what the problem is that needs to be solved.  At this point, the individual can then reflect and self-assess to determine if they are the right person to manage the situation.  Cadets can approach their chain of command, any adult leader or their Unit Cadet Conflict Management Advisor (UCCMA) for assistance.  Adults can approach their chain of command, any peer or leader, any Cadet Conflict Management Advisor (CCMA), or their local Dispute Resolution Centre (DRC) for assistance/consultation, in an effort to make an informed decision on the way ahead.

15. Annex A outlines three approaches within the CCMS that can be utilized to address a conflict situation. Select the most appropriate conflict resolution approach taking into consideration of the philosophy of “ADR First”.  Also understand that choosing an ADR approach first does not preclude the subsequent option of a rights-based or power-based approach if ADR does not resolve the conflict.

16. Resolving the conflict:

  1. for power-based approaches, the chain of command may exercise their lawful authority, subject to, and in accordance with CF/CCO Orders, regulations and instructions;
  2. for rights-based approaches, individuals seek assistance of a third party, such as the chain of command, the UCCMA, etc., to initiate one of the processes.  (See CATO 13-24 Harassment Prevention and Resolution, CATO 15-22 Conduct and Discipline –Cadets, DAODs 5046-0 Alternative Dispute Resolution and 5012-0 Harassment Preventions and Resolution
    A case that is proceeding through a rights-based process can be held in abeyance, at any point of the process, while ADR is attempted and if ADR is not successful all of the rights and responsibilities return upon termination of the  ADR attempt; and
  3. for interest-based (ADR) approaches, see Annex B – ADR Conflict Management Techniques.

17. Case management:

  1. situations resolved through power and rights-based processes follow their respective procedures for opening and closing files;
  2. situations, without UCCMA or chain of command involvement, resolved at the lowest level using ADR (self-help, one on one conversation, or third-party assistance) require no documentation;
  3. cases that are referred to the chain of command  require the names of the parties involved plus relevant case information; and
  4. situations originating from power or rights-based processes that attempt ADR require notification to the referral agent or chain of command that the conflict is either resolved to the parties’ mutual satisfaction or not resolved.

18. A conflict situation involving a cadet may be referred to the DRC if appropriate but it may also be referred elsewhere within the chain of command or to another officer.  Note that only the Detachment Cadet Conflict Management Advisor (DCCMA)/Regional Cadet Conflict Management Advisor (RCCMA) can refer a cadet case to the DRC. The DRC will notify the DCCMA/RCCMA of the outcome of the intervention by indicating that a settlement has or has not been reached.

19. If the case cannot be resolved through ADR refer back to the CCMS to reassess the conflict and select another approach.

Roles and Responsibilities

20. Roles and responsibilities of CCM members, positions and organizations are contained in Annex C.


Annex A

Selecting a Conflict Resolution Approach

Annex B

ADR Conflict Management Techniques

Annex C

Roles and Responsabilities​​

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OPI: D Cdts 3

Date:  Dec 09

Amendment:  Original

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