Fleet average performance for oxides of nitrogen emissions of 2015 model year vehicles

Official title: Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2015 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

Transportation Division
Environment and Climate Change Canada

March 2018

List of tables

List of figures

1. Executive summary

Under the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (hereafter referred to as the “regulations”), each new light-duty vehicle, light-duty truck and medium-duty passenger vehicle is required to be certified by its manufacturer to one of the bins corresponding to those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency for which there are specific emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and other pollutants. Manufacturers and importers of these vehicles are required to report on their fleet average NOx emission performance for each model year.

This twelfth annual performance report summarizes the fleet average NOx emission performance of the Canadian 2015 model year fleet of vehicles. A total of 21 companies submitted end of model year reports comprising a total of 1,837,959Footnote 1 vehicles manufactured in Canada or imported into Canada for the purpose of first retail sale. This report includes the fleet average NOx value for each company as well as their number of emission credits or deficits. It also provides a comparison of the distribution of vehicles certified to the various emissions bins and compares the overall NOx performance with that of previous model years.

The average NOx value for the Canadian 2015 model year combined fleet of light-duty vehicles, light light-duty trucks, heavy light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles is 0.05876512Footnote 2 grams/mile compared to the standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Each company had a fleet average NOx value that was at or below the standard and complied with the fleet averaging provisions of the regulations based on their reports.

The average NOx value continued to decrease for the 2015 model year. This result is consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations.

2. Purpose

The purpose of this report is to summarize the fleet average NOx emission performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2015 model year (MY) based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports and any subsequent revisions received prior to the publication of this report. It also serves to report on the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NOx emission program in achieving the environmental performance objectives.

3. Introduction

On January 1, 2004, the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA). These regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines. The regulations align Canada’s emission standards for light-duty vehiclesFootnote 3 (LDVs), light light-duty trucksFootnote 4 (LLDTs), heavy light-duty trucksFootnote 5 (HLDTs), medium-duty passenger vehiclesFootnote 6 (MDPVs), heavy-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines and on-road motorcycles with those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through incorporation by reference to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

Each new LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV is required to be certified to a bin for which there are specific emission standards for NOx and other pollutants. A company’s choice of bin to which individual vehicle models are certified in a given model year is limited by the obligation to comply with the fleet average NOx standards associated with that model year. The current NOx standard is 0.07 grams/mile, which was introduced in the 2009 model year.

A company’s fleet average NOx value is the weighted average based on the number of vehicles certified to each bin. Though the emission bins, fleet average NOx standards, and methods of calculating fleet average NOx values are aligned with those of the U.S. EPA, there are differences in the structure of the NOx averaging program in Canada, which is designed to recognize vehicles that are sold concurrently in Canada and the U.S. The regulatory requirements are structured to deliver fleet average emissions comparable to those of the U.S. while minimizing the regulatory burden on companies and enabling the marketing of vehicles in Canada independently from the U.S.

Amendments to the regulations in 2015 introduced more stringent “Tier 3” standards beginning with the 2017 model year that include a standard comprised of the sum of non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) presented as “NMOG + NOx”.  Under the Tier 3 standards, companies certify a vehicle to a combined “NMOG + NOx” bin. Beginning with the 2015 model year, companies were able to optionally certify vehicles to the new Tier 3 bins. The Tier 3 standard is a change from the Tier 2 standard which utilized a NOx standard.  Consequently, performance of Tier 3 certified vehicles, including early certified 2015 and 16 model year vehicles, will be reported beginning with the 2017 model year results once Tier 3 credits and early action credits become available.

The regulations require that all companies submit a report to the Minister of the Environment and Climate Change no later than May 1 after the end of each model year. The end of model year report must contain detailed information concerning the company’s fleet(s) and/or groups of vehicles.

For more information regarding the calculation of fleet average NOx values and NOx emission credits or deficits, please refer to the regulations, which can be found on the CEPA environmental registry.

3.1 Scope of company reports

Table 1 presents a list of the companies that submitted an end of model year report for the 2015 model year in accordance with the requirements of the Regulations, including the vehicle makes and a summary of the data received.

The results exclude early-certified Tier 3 vehicles and as a result, they are not accounted for in the calculation of the average NOx value. For the 2015 model year, one company reported Tier 3 vehicles. These comprised less than 0.04% of the total vehicles reported by all companies.

 

Table 1: Summary of company reports
Company Makes Number of test groupsFootnote 7 Total number of vehicles Average NOx  value (grams/mile)Footnote 8 Initial credit balancesFootnote 9 2015 model year balanceFootnote 7
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited Aston Martin 3 117 0.0700 0 0
BMW Group Canada BMW, Mini, Rolls-Royce 25 41,030 0.069823 922 929
FCA Canada Inc. Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep, Fiat, Alfa Romeo, RAM 21 276,642 0.0426958 66,466 74,019
Ferrari North America, Inc. Ferrari 4 265 0.0700 0 0
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited Ford, Lincoln 40 220, 483 0.0613356 53,714 56,606
General Motors of Canada Limited Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC 25 247,866 0.0405872 96,111 103,401
Honda Canada Inc. Acura, Honda 15 178,785 0.0672313 20,241 20,736
Hyundai Auto Canada Corp. Hyundai 18 108,537 0.0695587 3,370 3,418
Jaguar Land Rover Canada, ULC Jaguar, Land Rover 12 7,695 0.04582 1,079 1,265
Kia Canada Inc. Kia 18 67,871 0.069712 4,927 4,947
Lotus Cars Limited Lotus 1 8 0.070 0 0
Maserati North America, Inc. Maserati 3 432 0.0700 0 0
Mazda Canada Inc. Mazda 8 64,927 0.070000 15,090 15,090
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc. Mercedes, Smart 20 43,080 0.069758 233 243
Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada, Inc. Mitsubishi 7 25,680 0.070000 116 116
Nissan Canada Inc. Infiniti, Nissan 25 154,102 0.0692264 18,946 19,065
Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd. Porsche 12 4,889 See noteFootnote 10 See noteFootnote 10 See noteFootnote 10
Subaru Canada, Inc. Subaru 9 53,328 0.060241 2,828 3,348
Toyota Canada Inc. Lexus, Scion, Toyota 35 226,272 0.0675894 28,875 29,420
Volkswagen Group Canada Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Volkswagen 29 109,539 See noteFootnote 10 See noteFootnote 10 See noteFootnote 10
Volvo Cars of Canada Corp. Volvo 4 6,411 0.07000 3,538 3,538

A total of 21 companies submitted a report for the 2015 model year covering a total of 334 distinct test groups. It should be noted that certain test groups were common between companies that shared vehicle platforms or powertrains.

The company average NOx values ranged from 0.0405872 grams/mile to 0.070000 grams/mile for the fleet of LDVs, LLDTs, HLDTs, and MDPVs, and no companies reported a fleet average NOx value that was above the standard of 0.07 grams/mile.

A total of 19,685 credits were generated by companies for the 2015 model year. No company incurred a deficit with respect to their fleet, and no company reported a deficit at the end of this model year. In addition, there were no credit transfers to or from companies for the 2015 model year.

3.2 Distribution of bins and total Canada NOx fleet average value

Table 2 summarizes the distribution of vehicles by the NOx standard of each bin. It also provides the calculated fleet average NOx value of the entire Canadian fleet for the 2015 model year.

Table 2: Distribution of vehicles by the NOx standard of each bin
Bin number NOx standard (grams/mile) Total number of vehicles in "bin" Percentage of vehicles in "bin"
8 0.20 605 0.03
7 0.15 0 0.00
6 0.10 0 0.00
5 0.07 1,169,322 63.62
4 0.04 607,795 33.07
3 0.03 56,874 3.09
2 0.02 1,241 0.07
1 0.00 2,122 0.12

Note: Beginning in the 2009 model year, applicable standards are limited to bins 1 to 8 for all categories.

For the 2015 model year, almost all of the 1,837,959 vehicles (99.97% of the fleet) were certified to a bin at or below the fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile. The average NOx value for the Canadian fleet was 0.05876512 grams/mile.

3.3 Fleet average NOx values trend

Figure 1 presents the average NOx values trend relative to the applicable standards since 2004 for both the LDV/LLDT and HLDT/MDPV fleets. Beginning in 2009, LDVs, LLDTs, HLDTs, and MDPVs all conform to one NOx fleet average standard.

Figure 1: Fleet Average NOx Values and Standards

Figure 1. Fleet average NOx values and standards
Long description for figure 1

Figure 1 is a graph presenting the average NOx values trend relative to the standard since 2004 for both the light-duty vehicle/light light-duty truck and heavy light-duty truck/medium-duty passenger vehicle fleets.  Overall, the fleet average NOx value for the combined fleet of light-duty vehicles, light light-duty trucks, heavy light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles decreased from 2004 to 2015.  More specifically, the fleet average NOx value for the 2015 model year is 16.5% below the standard of 0.07 grams/mile.  It should be noted that the fleet average NOx values for the 2009 to 2015 model years are shown as single points since light light-duty trucks, heavy light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles were subject to the same standard as light-duty vehicles.

Download the Excel sheet containing the source data tables.

Overall, the fleet average NOx value for the combined fleet of LDVs, LLDTs, HLDTs, and MDPVs decreased from 2004 to 2015. More specifically, the fleet average NOx value for the 2015 model year continues to decrease and is 16.05% below the standard of 0.07 grams/mile.

4 Conclusions

This is the twelfth year that companies were subject to the fleet average NOx requirements under the Regulations. A total of 21 companies submitted reports for a total of 334 distinct test groups comprising 1,837,959 vehicles that were either manufactured in Canada or imported into Canada for the purpose of first retail sale.

The average NOx value for the Canadian 2015 model year combined fleet of LDVs, LLDTs, HLDTs and MDPVs is 0.05876512 grams/mile compared to the standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Each individual company had a fleet average NOx value that was at or below the standard, and all companies complied with the fleet averaging provisions of the regulations based on their reports.

The average NOx value continued to decrease for the 2015 model year. This result is consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations.

Disclaimer

This document provides a summary of data collected pursuant to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999.  Information presented in this report is subject to on-going verifications and update.

Cat. No.: En81-10E-PDF
ISSN: 1927-2456

Photos: © Environment and Climate Change Canada
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Environment and Climate Change, 2018

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