Code of practice for managing particulate matter emissions in the potash sector: nomenclature

Official title: Code of practice for the management of PM2.5 emissions in the potash sector in Canada

Nomenclature

Abbreviations

AQMS
Air Quality Management System

BLDS
Baghouse Leak Detection Systems

BLIERs
base-level industrial emissions requirements

CAM
compliance assurance monitoring

CCME
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment

ESP
electrostatic precipitator

Fe3O4
iron (II, III) oxide (magnetite)

MACT
maximum achievable control technology

KCl
potassium chloride (muriate of potash or sylvite)

NaCl
sodium chloride (halite)

PCS
Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan

PM10
particulate matter (under 10 microns)

PM2.5
fine particulate matter (under 2.5 microns)

QIP
quality improvement plan

SG
specific gravity

SO2
sulphur dioxide

TPM
total particulate aatter

U.S. EPA
United States Environmental Protection Agency

Glossary

Baghouse (fabric collector)
Type of dust collector that uses large filter housing filled with numerous long filter bags to capture particles contained in gas.

BLDS
Baghouse Leak Detection System: A stainless steel probe inserted into the middle of the clean air duct of a baghouse and a linkage to the sensing electronics to detect leaking or broken filters.

Brine
Brine is a solution of salt, usually sodium chloride, in water.

Centrifuging (debrining)
Screen-bowl centrifuges are used to remove water (debrine) from the flotation concentrates.

Compacting
Process used to produce larger, coarse and granular particule sizes in the potash sector.

Conventional underground mining
The process of tunneling below the earth and removing ore deposits from the subsurface.

Crushing
Process used in underground mining that reduces the particle size distribution of large mineral ore pieces to finer pieces.

Crystallization
Process used to produce soluble grade muriate of potash, which separates minor impurities of sodium chloride from potash fines of greater purity.

Cyclones
PM control devices used to separate solids from gas streams by centrifugal force, which are suitable for high dust loadings and removal of coarse particulate fractions.

Drying
Thermal process that removes the remaining moisture content and burns residual organic reagents (especially flotation amine) from the centrifuging process.

Dust collector
Processing unit designed to capture most particles contained in gas.

Electrostatic precipitator (ESP)
A large chamber filled with long, vertical electrodes that uses magnetic forces to separate suspended particulate matter from the gas stream.

Excursion
A deviation of one or more operating, maintenance or other parameters outside of normal operating conditions that materially reduce the PM reduction efficiency of the control equipment below its design control efficiency or best possible control efficiency expected for the normal operating conditions for that site.

Evaporation
Solution mining process used prior to crystallization where the brine is heated up to approximately 100 0C, making it undersaturated in KCl and supersaturated in NaCl, to precipitate out the NaCl.

Froth flotation
Process used to achieve primary separation of potash ore (KCl) from halite (NaCl) and gangue materials. Chemicals, amine renders KCl hydrophobic (attach to air bubbles) while leaving NaCl hydrophilic.

Glazing
Post-treatment step where the final products are mixed with a small amount of water and dried again to obtain a hard outer coating, to fill cracks in the particles, to strengthen the compacted particules, and to eliminate sharp corners.

Heavy media separation
Process to produce an intermediate-sized product (~1.7 mm) at two specific facilities. In this process, a mix of particles containing KCl and NaCl in this size range are introduced into a brine to which magnetite (Fe 3O 4) was added. The magnetite increases the brine’s specific gravity, which during centrifuging floats the KCl to the surface, while NaCl and other impurities drop out. The KCl is then sent to be debrined.

Liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio
Measure of water (or brine) flow rate through the scrubber per unit volume of exhaust gas; indicates scrubber collection efficiency.

Prairie evaporite deposit
An area beneath the southern plains of Saskatchewan where a significant portion of the potash reserves is located.

Removal of fine tailings
Process of removing insoluble minerals (fine tailings) that are part of the brine used in scrubbing.

Screening
Mechanical process of sizing dried potash into classified fractions.

Scrubbing
Process of adding brine to crushed ore in agitaded tank cells to remove clay and other insoluble impurities.

Spark rate
A measure of how close to the maximum voltage an ESP is operating; provides an indicator of collection efficiency.

Venturi wet scrubber
High-velocity and high static pressure drop gas cleaning system that atomizes water/brine to achieve high collection efficiencies.

Wet scrubber
Wet particulate removal system where the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid to remove air pollutants.

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