Consultation on the update to the national implementation plan on persistant organic pollutants: references


[1] Canada's 2006 NIP

[2] Adapted from the Stockholm Secretariat document Step-by-step companion guide to the review and updating of the National Implementation Plans 2011.

[3] Climate change and POPs: predicting the impacts. Report of UNEP/AMAP expert group.

[4] Information regarding POPs exposure of Aboriginal peoples in Canada's Arctic is drawn from the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP). The NCP co-ordinates Canada's action on northern contaminants, and as such monitors environmental and human exposure to elevated levels of contaminants (including “new” or emerging POPs), particularly in wildlife species that are important to the traditional diets of northern Aboriginal peoples. See Chapter 7 (Article 11) for more on the NCP.

[5] Ecological Screening Assessment Report on Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Its Salts and Its Precursors that Contain the C8F17SO2 or C8F17SO3, or C8F17SO2N Moiety

[6] The Chemicals Management Plan (CMP)

[7] The CMP has been applauded in many quarters, including the environmental nongovernmental organization (ENGO) community; for example by the Environmental Defence Fund, and consumer product organizations.

[8] Canadian provinces and territories have laws addressing these issues within their respective jurisdictions.

[9] Environment Canada's Pollution and Waste website

[10] CEPA Environmental Registry

[11] Final Regulations expected by winter 2013. Publication of Proposed Regulations

[12] Publication of Amendment to Schedule 3

[13] PCBs are also listed to the Export Control List and thereby subject to the Export Control List Regulations

[14] Publication of Proposed Amendment to Schedule 3

[15] Annex D to the Convention details the information requirements and screening criteria for Parties wishing to submit a proposal to list a chemical under the Convention. This Annex lists criteria for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range environmental transport and adverse effects.

[16] New Substances Program

[17] Priority Substances List

[18] List of Toxic Substances - Schedule 1

[19] The Register of Specific Exemptions

[20] Acceptable Purposes Register for PFOS and PFOSF

[21] Canada's domestic regulations allow the use of PFOS for fume suppressants in metal plating only until May 2013.

[22] Notifications for Articles in Use

[23] 2006 NAP (Part II of Canada's 2006 NIP).

[24] Risk Management Strategy for Pentachlorobenzene and Tetrachlorobenzenes

[25] The Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee of the Stockholm Convention concluded in the Risk Management Evaluation of PeCB that for PeCB formed as by-product in combustion processes, there is a clear relation to PCDD/F releases formed by combustion.

[26] Risk Management Evaluation for Pentachlorobenzene. See footnote 25 for web link.

[27] Source: Environment Canada - Pollution Inventories and Reporting Division. 2012.

[28] The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is Canada's legislated, publicly accessible inventory of pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling.

[29] Canada's Second National Report to the Stockholm Convention pursuant to Article 15

[30] Convention on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and its Protocol on POPs

[31] The Compliance and Enforcement Policy for CEPA 1999

[32] The 2009 CCME Progress Report

[33] The Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee of the Stockholm Convention concluded in the Risk Management Evaluation of PeCB that for PeCB formed as by-product in combustion processes there is a clear relation to PCDD/F releases formed by combustion.

[34] Risk Management Evaluation for Pentachlorobenzene. See footnote 25.

[35] Canada's 2006 NAP (a component of Canada's 2006 NIP)

[36] Canada-wide Standard for Dioxins and Furans

[37] Recommendations for the Design and Operation of Wood Preservation Facilities, 2004

[38] PeCB can be found as an impurity in pentachlorophenol, a wood treatment chemical used (but not manufactured) in Canada. Pentachlorophenol is a registered pesticide in Canada, regulated under the PCPA.

[39] The Risk Management Strategy for Pentachlorobenzene and Tetrachlorobenzene

[40] The CCME website for the Canada-wide Standards on Dioxins and Furans provides links to pollution prevention strategies for these sectors, e.g. Waste Incineration Pollution Prevention Strategy.

[41] Please see Chapter 1 or visit the PCPA website

[42] CleanFARMS

[43] The Basel Convention

[44] The Basel Convention Technical Guidelines and the Updated General Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management of Wastes Consisting of, Containing or Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

[45] Decision BC-10/9 regarding technical guidelines on the environmentally sound processing of wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with persistent organic pollutants.

[46] CCME National Classification System for Contaminated Sites

[47] CCME Guidance Document on the Management of Contaminated Sites in Canada

[48] The Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan

[49] Publications on the Federal Contaminated Sites program and approach and the Federal Contaminated Sites Management Framework

[50] The Federal Contaminated Sites Inventory

[51] The Treasury Board Policy on the Management of Real Property

[52] Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) subscription service

[53] Environment Canada website

[54] Chemical Substances website

[55] Completed assessments of existing substances

[56] Risk management documents

[57] Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) Stakeholder Advisory Council

[58] Pollution Probe Primer on Toxic Substances

[59] National Pollutant Release Inventory

[60] Northern Contaminants Program

[61] Human Health Research in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, toxicology, and benefits/risk management, to better assess, understand and manage the health risks in Northern Canada related to the long-range transport of contaminants.

[62] Canada's second National Report


Figure 5-1: Dioxin and Furan Emissions Trends 1990 - 2010, Excluding Natural Sources

Figure 5.1 shows dioxin and furan emission trends from 1990 to 2010 from industrial, non-industrial, transportation, incineration, miscellaneous, and open sources, along with total emissions (excluding natural sources). The dioxin and furan emissions are expressed in grams of toxic equivalency (TEQ) and are plotted on a yearly basis, from 1990 to 2010. Total emissions range from a high of approximately 440 g TEQ in 1990 to a low of approximately 60 g TEQ in 2010. Total emissions decline sharply in 1991, remain relatively steady from 1991 to 1997, and then decline again from 1997 to 2001. A slight increase in 2002 is attributed mainly to industrial and open sources and precedes another decline in emissions from 2003 to 2010. The two greatest sources of emissions over the twenty year period are incineration and industrial sources.

The figure also includes an overlay of regulatory and other measures implemented to address dioxin and furan emissions, noting the year in which each was enacted. In 1990, dioxins and furans were declared “toxic” under CEPA; in 1992, Pulp and Paper mill regulations for effluent, defoamers and wood chips entered into force; in 2001, the Canada-wide Standards for Waste Incineration, and for Pulp and Paper Boilers were endorsed; in 2003, the Canada-wide Standards for Conical Waste Combustion of Municipal Waste, Iron Sintering Plants, and for Steel Electric Arc Furnaces were endorsed; and in 2009, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment released a Progress Report indicating successful implementation of Canada-wide Standards for dioxins and furans.


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