Consultation on the update to the national implementation plan on persistant organic pollutants: references
 Adapted from the Stockholm Secretariat document Step-by-step companion guide to the review and updating of the National Implementation Plans 2011.
 Information regarding POPs exposure of Aboriginal peoples in Canada's Arctic is drawn from the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP). The NCP co-ordinates Canada's action on northern contaminants, and as such monitors environmental and human exposure to elevated levels of contaminants (including “new” or emerging POPs), particularly in wildlife species that are important to the traditional diets of northern Aboriginal peoples. See Chapter 7 (Article 11) for more on the NCP.
 The CMP has been applauded in many quarters, including the environmental nongovernmental organization (ENGO) community; for example by the Environmental Defence Fund, and consumer product organizations.
 Canadian provinces and territories have laws addressing these issues within their respective jurisdictions.
 PCBs are also listed to the Export Control List and thereby subject to the Export Control List Regulations
 Annex D to the Convention details the information requirements and screening criteria for Parties wishing to submit a proposal to list a chemical under the Convention. This Annex lists criteria for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range environmental transport and adverse effects.
 Canada's domestic regulations allow the use of PFOS for fume suppressants in metal plating only until May 2013.
 Risk Management Strategy for Pentachlorobenzene and Tetrachlorobenzenes
 The Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee of the Stockholm Convention concluded in the Risk Management Evaluation of PeCB that for PeCB formed as by-product in combustion processes, there is a clear relation to PCDD/F releases formed by combustion.
 Risk Management Evaluation for Pentachlorobenzene. See footnote 25 for web link.
 Source: Environment Canada - Pollution Inventories and Reporting Division. 2012.
 Convention on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and its Protocol on POPs
 The Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee of the Stockholm Convention concluded in the Risk Management Evaluation of PeCB that for PeCB formed as by-product in combustion processes there is a clear relation to PCDD/F releases formed by combustion.
 Recommendations for the Design and Operation of Wood Preservation Facilities, 2004
 PeCB can be found as an impurity in pentachlorophenol, a wood treatment chemical used (but not manufactured) in Canada. Pentachlorophenol is a registered pesticide in Canada, regulated under the PCPA.
 The Risk Management Strategy for Pentachlorobenzene and Tetrachlorobenzene
 The Basel Convention Technical Guidelines and the Updated General Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management of Wastes Consisting of, Containing or Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
 Decision BC-10/9 regarding technical guidelines on the environmentally sound processing of wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with persistent organic pollutants.
 Human Health Research in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, toxicology, and benefits/risk management, to better assess, understand and manage the health risks in Northern Canada related to the long-range transport of contaminants.
Figure 5-1: Dioxin and Furan Emissions Trends 1990 - 2010, Excluding Natural Sources
Figure 5.1 shows dioxin and furan emission trends from 1990 to 2010 from industrial, non-industrial, transportation, incineration, miscellaneous, and open sources, along with total emissions (excluding natural sources). The dioxin and furan emissions are expressed in grams of toxic equivalency (TEQ) and are plotted on a yearly basis, from 1990 to 2010. Total emissions range from a high of approximately 440 g TEQ in 1990 to a low of approximately 60 g TEQ in 2010. Total emissions decline sharply in 1991, remain relatively steady from 1991 to 1997, and then decline again from 1997 to 2001. A slight increase in 2002 is attributed mainly to industrial and open sources and precedes another decline in emissions from 2003 to 2010. The two greatest sources of emissions over the twenty year period are incineration and industrial sources.
The figure also includes an overlay of regulatory and other measures implemented to address dioxin and furan emissions, noting the year in which each was enacted. In 1990, dioxins and furans were declared “toxic” under CEPA; in 1992, Pulp and Paper mill regulations for effluent, defoamers and wood chips entered into force; in 2001, the Canada-wide Standards for Waste Incineration, and for Pulp and Paper Boilers were endorsed; in 2003, the Canada-wide Standards for Conical Waste Combustion of Municipal Waste, Iron Sintering Plants, and for Steel Electric Arc Furnaces were endorsed; and in 2009, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment released a Progress Report indicating successful implementation of Canada-wide Standards for dioxins and furans.
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