Canada's Eighth National Communication and Fifth Biennial Report on Climate Change (2022) – Executive summary

Canada must report regularly on climate action. This report outlines our actions to reduce emissions and address impacts at home and abroad.

Introduction and Executive Summary

Canada is pleased to present its Eighth National Communication and Fifth Biennial Report to meet its reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Canada has prepared these reports in accordance with adopted guidelines and other guidance for National Communications and Biennial Reports.

The following Introduction and Executive Summary provides an overview of Canada's Eighth National Communication and Fifth Biennial Report to the UNFCCC.

National action

Canada has taken significant steps to address climate change since its last report to the UNFCCC. In addition to being one of the first Parties to the UNFCCC to sign and ratify the Paris Agreement, Canada has followed through on its Paris commitments over the past seven years by taking action, investing over $120 billion to reduce emissions, protect the environment, spur clean technologies and innovation, and help Canadians and communities adapt to the impacts of climate change. Building on the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change (2016), in 2020 the Government of Canada released its strengthened climate plan, A Healthy Environment and a Healthy Economy, to deepen emissions reductions across the economy, create new, well-paying jobs, make life more affordable for households, and build a better future.

This was followed in 2021 by implementation of the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act, which enshrines in legislation the Government of Canada's commitment to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. The Act also establishes the 2030 greenhouse gas emissions target as Canada's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement, an emissions reduction target of 40 to 45 percent below 2005 levels by 2030. It also holds the federal government accountable by establishing a transparent process to plan, report on, assess, and adjust the Government's efforts to achieve Canada's national targets, which are set based on the best scientific information available, and provides for periodic examination of the Government's actions by the Auditor General of Canada. As well, the Act established a Net-Zero Advisory Body in legislation, to provide independent advice to the Government of Canada.

As an early deliverable under the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act, Canada published the first Emissions Reduction Plan (ERP) in 2022. The 2030 Emissions Reduction Plan lays out the next steps to reach Canada's 2030 emissions reduction target, providing greater certainty and improving transparency and accountability on the way to net-zero. The 2030 ERP includes a suite of new mitigation measures and strategies, $9.1 billion in new investments, and builds on the foundation set by Canada's existing climate actions across sectors. The plan also reflects input from thousands of Canadians, businesses, and communities, as well as submissions from Indigenous partners, provinces, territories and the Net-Zero Advisory Body. Additional measures continue to be developed, both to ensure Canada reaches its 2030 target and to support deeper reductions beyond 2030. Progress under the plan towards Canada's 2030 target will be reviewed in progress reports produced in 2023, 2025, and 2027. Additional targets and plans will be developed for 2035 through to 2050.

As climate impacts continue to intensify, the Government of Canada recognizes that a more ambitious, strategic and collaborative approach is required to adapt and build resilience to the impacts of climate change. This is why the Government of Canada released for final comment in November 2022 Canada's first National Adaptation Strategy—Canada's National Adaptation Strategy: Building Resilient Communities and a Strong Economy. Developed by working closely with provincial, territorial and municipal governments, Indigenous Peoples and other key partners and stakeholders, the Strategy establishes a shared vision for climate resilience in Canada, identifying key priorities for increased collaboration, and establishing a framework for measuring progress at the national level.

International action

At the international level, Canada is taking strong action to demonstrate its commitment to advancing international adaptation policies and supporting the international clean growth economy.

Canada is continuing to mobilize climate finance to support the international community in mitigating and adapting to climate change. After fully delivering on its 2015 commitment to provide $2.65 billion in climate finance to developing countries by fiscal year 2020-21, the Government of Canada committed in 2021 to provide $5.3 billion over five years to continue helping developing countries affected by climate change transition to sustainable, low-carbon, climate-resilient, nature-positive, and inclusive economies. This commitment dedicates a minimum of 40 percent of funding towards adaptation, and increases the proportion of grant contributions to 40 percent, from 30 percent previously. In line with Canada's Feminist International Assistance Policy, Canada will ensure that at least 80 percent of projects will integrate gender equality considerations.

Through its efforts with the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform and beyond, Canada has demonstrated leadership on enhancing the engagement of Indigenous Peoples on international climate action. From 2019 to 2022, Canada provided funding to establish an Indigenous Peoples Focal Point within the UNFCCC Secretariat to support the work of the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform. These efforts are essential to supporting diverse perspectives across climate action leadership, and will continue to be a major focus of Canada's international action.

Canada continues to work with international partners to advance and promote climate action, research, and capacity-building. For example, as a founding member of Mission Innovation (MI), Canada regularly collaborates with international partners to strengthen global cooperation on clean energy innovation in order to advance affordable and reliable clean energy solutions that will revolutionize energy systems across the world. Canada has demonstrated leadership in supporting the first phase of MI and announced that it exceeded its target to double public spending on clean energy research, development, and demonstration. In June 2021, Canada joined other MI members in launching MI 2.0 with the intent to strengthen cooperation on pioneering clean energy solutions. In addition, Canada will continue to advance gender as a key priority in international climate change efforts. Between 2018 and 2021, Canada supported the delivery of five capacity-building workshops for women negotiators (one in the Caribbean and four in francophone Africa), in partnership with France and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Through these workshops and by providing funding to support women negotiators' travel and participation in UNFCCC sessions, the Government of Canada is supporting meaningful representation, diversity, and inclusion at the UNFCCC. This commitment is also reflected in Canada's own delegation to the UNFCCC, by prioritizing diversity and inclusion, including of Indigenous Peoples.

National circumstances

Canada's unique geographic, demographic, and economic circumstances influence its GHG emissions profile. For example, while Canada has a relatively small population, it also has one of the largest landmasses in the world, most of it located in the northern half of the northern hemisphere. These factors contribute to heavier energy and transportation use than in smaller and/or more densely populated countries.

Canada's population remains the smallest among G7 countries but is rapidly growing, mostly through international migration. With 38.2 million inhabitants in 2021, it is anticipated that Canada's population could reach between 43.6 and 57.7 million by 2050. Two-thirds of Canada's population and urban centres are located within 100 kilometres of the Canada–U.S. border, leaving large parts of the country sparsely populated. The large distance between metropolitan areas and low population density generates high emissions from the Transportation Sector making it the second largest contributor of GHG emissions in Canada.

Canada experiences a wide range of climate conditions, with most of the inhabited regions seeing distinct seasons—in particular very warm summers and very cold winters. Heating and cooling have a significant impact on energy use and GHG emissions. Canada's climate has been increasingly warming over the last several years. Northern regions are the most affected, and extreme events such as drought, heat waves, forest fires, floods and severe thunderstorms are happening more frequently. The cost of associated disasters is rising as a result.

Although climate and geography contribute to making Canada a heavy energy user, energy efficiency has improved in recent years. In addition, 82 percent of Canada's total electricity is produced from non-GHG emitting sources, with hydroelectricity comprising most of this production. The share of renewable power from sources other than hydro has been increasing steadily since 1990 while the supply generated from coal has decreased substantially over the same time period. The Clean Electricity Regulations will be part of a suite of federal measures to help drive progress towards a net-zero electricity grid by 2035, while maintaining system reliability and electricity affordability for customers.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a notable impact on the Canadian economy. GDP had a negative growth of ‑5.2 percent in 2020, but recovered by 2021 to 4.6 percent (the highest growth rate since 2007).

While Canada's economy is primarily driven by the Service Sector, its Manufacturing, Construction, Mining, Oil and Gas, and Forestry Sectors still represent almost 30 percent of the economy, which is unique among industrialized countries. These emissions-intensive sectors contribute significantly to Canada's emissions. However, Canada's abundant natural resources, skilled workforce and competitive business environment also provides opportunities to grow its cleantech and low-carbon economy, including through clean fuels, nature-based solutions, and critical minerals development and battery production, to help support not only Canada's but the world's net-zero future.

Canada's greenhouse gas inventory

Canada's National Inventory Report is prepared and submitted annually to the UNFCCC and includes estimates of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) in the following five sector categories, as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Energy, Industrial Processes and Product Use, Agriculture, Waste, and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF).Footnote 1  Canada also reports estimates of historical emissions and removals according to the following economic sector categories: Electricity; Transportation; Oil and Gas; Heavy Industry; Buildings; Agriculture; and, Waste and Others.

In 2020, Canada emitted 672 Mt CO2 eq, a net decrease of 69 Mt in total emissions (or 9 percent) from 2005 emissions.Footnote 2 The Energy Sector (consisting of Stationary Combustion Sources, Transport, and Fugitive Sources) continues to account for the majority of Canada's emissions, at 80 percent or 540 Mt. Other emissions are generated from the Agriculture Sector (8 percent), the Industrial Processes and Product Use Sector (7.5 percent), and the Waste Sector (4 percent). Alberta continues to have the highest emissions among Canadian provinces, primarily due to expanding oil and gas operations.

Similar to other industrialized countries, carbon dioxide is the largest contributor to Canada's GHG emissions and accounted for 80 percent of Canada's emissions in 2020. Other emissions include methane (14 percent), largely from fugitive sources in oil and natural gas systems, agriculture and landfills, and nitrous oxide (5 percent) from agricultural soil management. Combined, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) contributed less than 2 percent of Canada's emissions.

Policies and measures

Institutional arrangements

Within the Government of Canada, the Minister of Environment and Climate Change is responsible for domestic and international climate change policies. However, as the environment is a shared jurisdiction in Canada, and given the cross-cutting nature of climate change, several federal, provincial and territorial ministries work together to address this issue. At the federal level, most climate change regulations are developed under the authorities of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA).

In 2016, the Government of Canada developed the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change in collaboration with provinces and territories, and with input from Indigenous partners. Building on this national effort, the Government of Canada released its strengthened climate plan, A Healthy Environment and a Healthy Economy, in December 2020, to deepen emissions reductions across the economy, create new, well-paying jobs, make life more affordable for households, and build a better future.

In 2021, the Government of Canada enacted the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act. The Act sets legal requirements for current and future governments to plan, report, and course correct on the path to net-zero emissions by or before 2050. It commits Canada in legislation to achieving its 2030 Nationally Determined Contribution under the Paris Agreement of 40 to 45 percent below 2005 levels, as well as committing Canada to setting national targets for the reduction of GHG emissions every five years from 2030 with the objective of attaining net-zero emissions by 2050. The Act provides a durable framework of accountability and transparency to deliver on this commitment. As an early deliverable under the Act, Canada published the 2030 Emissions Reduction Plan in 2022, providing a plan for how Canada will reach its 2030 target. The first progress report on the 2030 Plan must be completed by the end of 2023.

Moreover, in September 2022, the Government of Canada released Faster and Further: Canada's Methane Strategy. The Strategy provides a pathway to further reduce methane emissions from across the economy while supporting Canadian technology and creating good-paying jobs.

Federal, provincial and territorial Ministers continue working together through longstanding inter-ministerial fora, such as the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment and the Energy and Mines Ministers Conference, to implement and report on emissions reductions efforts and to align priorities for collaboration on adaptation.

Policies and measures to reduce emissions

Based on Canada's National Inventory Report, Canada's emissions fell by 9.3 percent from 2005 levels by 2020. In addition to this, the LULUCF accounting contribution in 2020 would contribute an additional 24 Mt (or 3 percent) of reduction in 2020. Official information on the net purchases by Québec of international credits is not yet available, but preliminary estimates suggest about 11 Mt. With these contributions, Canada's emissions would fall by about 14 percent from 2005 levels by 2020. Furthermore, significant efforts have been made to establish funding, programs, and accountability and transparency frameworks to support the accelerated reductions required to meet Canada's 2030 reduction targets and to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.

A number of key cross-cutting measures are planned or in place to reduce emissions across Canada. For example, every jurisdiction in Canada has had a comparable price on carbon pollution in place since 2019, and strengthened benchmark criteria were announced in 2021 that all carbon pollution pricing systems will need to meet from 2023 to 2030.

Under the Pan-Canadian Framework, the Strengthened Climate Planand the 2030 Emissions Reduction Plan, federal, provincial and territorial governments are working to target emissions across all sectors of the economy. For example:

Key investments and new innovations will play an important role in reaching Canada's emissions reductions goals. The Government of Canada announced in the 2030 Emissions Reduction Plan and in Budget 2022 that it will expand the Low Carbon Economy Fund by investing an additional $2.2 billion over seven years (starting in fiscal year 2022-23). Advances in clean technology and innovation are also anticipated to make Canada a global leader in supporting the transition to a lower carbon future. In 2021, Export Development Canada facilitated $6.3 billion-worth of business for cleantech—a 39 percent year-over-year increase from 2020.


Projections provide important insight into the expected impacts of the suite of existing measures and can be a valuable tool when identifying where more effort is needed. Canada's GHG projections are derived using a detailed bottom-up simulation model where energy data is allocated to individual subsectors using the North American Industrial Classification System. These subsectors are then aggregated into the economic sectors presented in this report. Projections are based on ECCC's Energy, Emissions and Economy Model for Canada (E3MC), which is internationally recognized and incorporates external data from consistent sources. ECCC consults extensively with other government officials, selected experts and provinces and territories on annual emissions projections. 

For its Eighth National Communication and Fifth Biennial Report, Canada has presented projections that include both a "with measures" scenario (WM) and a "with additional measures" scenario (WAM, both outlined in Section 5.2).

Under the WAM scenario, emissions in 2030 decline to 491 Mt Including contributions from Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), Nature-Based-Climate Solutions (NBCS) and Agriculture Measures and credits purchased under the Western Climate Initiative (WCI). This is 97 Mt below the 2030 WAM projection in the Fourth Biennial Report. Post-2030, the WAM scenario sees emissions continuing to decline, reaching 443 Mt in 2035. Figure 1 shows the "with measures" and "with additional measures" projections, as well as the projections presented in Canada's Fourth Biennial Report.  

Figure 1-1: Scenarios of Canadian emissions (including LULUCF) to 2035 (Mt CO2eq)
Figure 1-1: Scenarios of Canadian emissions (including LULUCF) to 2035 (Mt CO2eq)
Long description
Figure 1-1: Scenarios of Canadian Emissions (Including LULUCF) to 2035 (Mt CO2eq)
Year 2022 National Inventory Report 2019 National Inventory Report 4th Biennial Report With Measures Scenario 5th Biennial Report With Measures Scenario 4th Biennial Report With Additional Measures Scenario (including Western Climate Initiative Credits) 5th Biennial Report With Additional Measures Scenario (including Western Climate Initiative Credits) 5th Biennial Report With Additional Measures Scenario (including Western Climate Initiative Credits and Nature Based Climate Solutions/Agriculture Measures)
2005 741 730 - - - - -
2006 732 720 - - - - -
2007 760 743 - - - - -
2008 741 722 - - - - -
2009 684 681 - - - - -
2010 721 700 - - - - -
2011 739 710 - - - - -
2012 728 711 - - - - -
2013 731 717 - - - - -
2014 704 713 - - - - -
2015 737 709 - - - - -
2016 707 692 - - - - -
2017 708 698 698 - 698 - -
2018 727 - 703 - 703 - -
2019 717 - 698 - 698 - -
2020 649 - 682 649 670 649 -
2021 - - 672 681 658 679 -
2022 - - 664 686 645 677 -
2023 - - 655 683 631 664 -
2024 - - 653 677 624 651 -
2025 - - 658 672 622 631 -
2026 - - 660 666 619 606 -
2027 - - 660 655 611 578 -
2028 - - 662 642 607 550 -
2029 - - 661 633 596 528 -
2030 - - 658 625 588 506 491
2031 - - - 621 - 494 479
2032 - - - 617 - 485 470
2033 - - - 614 - 478 463
2034 - - - 610 - 470 455
2035 - - - 608 - 458 443

While every effort is made to be as complete as possible in what is included in the model, there will always be measures that are not included. This includes the aforementioned federal measures that have not been sufficiently developed to support inclusion, such as the oil and gas cap on emissions, elements of the Green Buildings Strategy, as well as additional mitigation measures that could be implemented by the provinces and territories between now and 2030. Emissions reductions from additional future actions will be assessed as new measures are implemented. 

Uncertainty is an inherent and unavoidable aspect of any model that is generating long-term projections. The current global context further complicates the development of projections given the extent of global change in recent years, notably due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the worsening impacts of the climate crisis including large scale flooding and heat waves, and the emerging and related dual inflation and energy supply crises in 2022. The scenarios presented reflect recent events that could impact future emissions, using expert and data driven forecasts. These forecasts can change dramatically from year to year, driven by global conditions. A notable change in 2022 has been global energy prices, which are forecast to drive higher natural gas production in Canada's energy sector, which is a shift from the natural gas price and demand forecasts in recent years. 

The uncertainty inherent in projections is addressed via modelling and analysis of alternate cases that focus on variability in: future economic growth, population projections and oil and natural gas production and prices. The sensitivity analyses generated through these alternate cases are used to identify a range of possible emissions projections. Under the WM scenario, emissions reductions in Canada are projected to be 625 Mt in 2030. Through the sensitivity analysis, emissions reductions in 2030 under the WM scenario are projected to range from between 612 and 664 Mt. Environment and Climate Change Canada also updates emissions projections annually, reflecting the latest historical data and up-to-date future economic and energy market assumptions.


Recent extreme events in Canada have caused billions of dollars in damages, displaced thousands, and disrupted supply chains. Projections also indicate that today's record-breaking events will be tomorrow's new normal. Impacts are building upon each other and leading to additional effects such as increased demand for emergency assistance, loss of biodiversity, reduced food and economic security, and increased demands on physical and mental health services. Climate change often worsens existing inequalities and vulnerabilities, leaving some people living in Canada more exposed than others.

Building on the Pan-Canadian Framework, Canada released its first National Adaptation Strategy for final comment in November 2022. The Strategy establishes a shared vision for climate resilience in Canada, identifies key priorities for increased collaboration, and establishes a framework for measuring progress at the national level. The Strategy offers the opportunity to scale up ongoing actions and advance new initiatives and leadership through the help of shared priorities and collaborative action. Through the National Adaptation Strategy, the federal government is committed to continued collaboration and partnerships with jurisdictions and organizations to support stronger adaptation action. Adaptation efforts must respect the jurisdictions of local, provincial, territorial, national, and Indigenous governments, and act to accelerate and build upon their existing efforts.

Canada has advanced adaptation efforts by making substantial, successive funding commitments. The Government of Canada earmarked $2.2 billion from Budgets 2021 and 2022 to support a number of federal adaptation policies and programs, including the co-development of an Indigenous Climate Leadership Agenda with Indigenous Peoples, a top-up of the Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund (established in 2017), enhancing wildfire preparedness, and completing flood maps for high-risk areas. To show how the Government of Canada plans to contribute to achieving the proposed targets, goals and objectives laid out in the National Adaptation Strategy, Canada released the Government of Canada Adaptation Action Plan in November 2022. The Action Plan includes a total of 68 federal actions across 22 departments and agencies, illustrating the depth and breadth of action being taken. The November 2022 announcement also included $1.6 billion in new federal funding commitments to help protect communities from coast to coast to coast.

The Government of Canada is also continuing to support Indigenous and northern communities in adapting to climate change impacts through a number of targeted programs. This includes support for risk assessments, adaptation planning, implementation of structural and non-structural adaptation measures, and the co-application of scientific and Indigenous Science and Knowledge for community-based climate monitoring.

In support of climate resilience, Canada developed the Emergency Management Strategy for Canada, an official emergency management and disaster risk reduction strategy. Through this Strategy and its iterative action plans, federal, provincial and territorial governments are working on a number of important initiatives, including the National Risk Profile, which will create a forward-looking national picture of disaster risk and emergency management capabilities. Governments will also review the Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements, an important federal disaster relief program.

While governments and communities have made significant progress to strengthen their response and resilience to climate change, additional efforts are required to effectively prepare for projected impacts. Strategic partnerships and investments will be critical to improve decision-making, build the capacity and skills needed to adapt, and support community-led projects.

Financial, technology, and capacity-building support

Canada is committed to supporting developing countries to obtain clean and reliable sources of energy and enhance resilience, particularly the poorest and most vulnerable countries, in their fight to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Between 2015 and 2021, Canada fully delivered on its commitment to provide $2.65 billion in climate finance to support developing countries in their transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient economies.

Between 2019 and 2020, nearly $965 million from Canada's $2.65 billion climate finance pledge was delivered through bilateral, multi-bi, and multilateral channels, as well as to the organizations and financial mechanisms of the UNFCCC. These channels include the Green Climate Fund, the world's largest international climate fund dedicated to supporting developing countries pursue climate action, and the Global Environment Facility, through which Canada is able to support developing countries implement multilateral environmental agreements and priorities such as biodiversity, land degradation, and sustainable forest management.

In 2021, Canada committed to provide $5.3 billion over the next five years to continue its international climate action support. A minimum of 40 percent of this funding will be earmarked for adaptation, another 40 percent for grant contributions, and 20 percent will fund projects that either leverage nature-based climate solutions or contribute biodiversity co-benefits. In line with Canada's Feminist International Assistance Policy (FIAP), at least 80 percent of projects will integrate gender equality considerations. Canada's sub-national governments are also making meaningful contributions to scaling up Canada's climate finance, including Québec's $3 million contribution to the Adaptation Fund in support of the Paris Agreement goals.

Export credit agencies such as Export Development Canada (EDC) and FinDev Canada are playing an important role in supporting investments for climate activities. For example, EDC has been issuing green bonds since 2014, resulting in more than $2 billion to fund environmental protection and climate change mitigation. In 2021, FinDev Canada committed to increase its climate finance allocation to 35 percent by 2025 and launched its Climate Change Strategy to outline how FinDev's climate change policy would be implemented.

Canada recognizes the essential role that clean, affordable and accessible technologies play in mitigating and adapting to climate change, and will continue its efforts to engage with international partners and share Canadian technologies and expertise. For example, Canada has provided knowledge, science-based carbon budget models, mentoring and guidance on forest GHG emissions mitigation and forest management to Belize, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Ecuador, the European Union, Honduras, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Korea, Peru, Poland, Uruguay, and the United States. Canada continues to support the International Energy Agency's research through the Clean Energy Transitions Programme and the Technology Collaboration Programme. In 2019, Canada joined the International Renewable Energy Agency to support the promotion and adoption of renewable energy globally.

Research and systematic observation

In Canada, climate science research and monitoring approaches involve federal, provincial, municipal, academic and private sector partners.

In December 2020, Canada released the Climate Science 2050: Advancing Science and Knowledge on Climate Change report to strengthen the coordination and development of mitigation and adaptation science. Work is now underway to develop an associated plan, titled Climate Science 2050: Canada's Climate Change Science and Knowledge Plan, to identify priorities for new research, and the synthesis and mobilization of existing knowledge, to inform action towards achieving net-zero emissions in Canada.

The three major research funding agencies in Canada, known together as the Tri-Councils, continue to provide funding for climate science research programs and fostering innovation between academia, non-governmental and community partners, and Canadian companies. For example, in 2022 the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada issued a new call for proposals to the Alliance Mission Grants with a nominal budget of $22 million to support research related to net-zero GHG emissions targets.

Systematic climate observations are essential for understanding the mean states of various climate components over time and the natural variability around these means, for detecting changes in means and extremes, and for attributing these changes to specific causes. The long-term systematic collection, quality assurance, and dissemination of climate system data is an important aspect of systematic observations, and Canada is working with the World Meteorological Organization to share data openly and freely, as well as to address global and regional observation network gaps.

Canada is a significant contributor to the Global Climate Observing System, including by providing monthly climatological datasets and support for the World Meteorological Organization's Climate Normals and the Global Ocean Observing System, and the Global Terrestrial Observing System. In 2024, Canada will take on the Presidency of the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites, prioritizing the role of Earth observations for protection of biodiversity and climate action.

A growing area of research is the use of remote sensing methods to derive methane emissions on global and regional scales. Canadian industry leads the world in Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) technology and is currently advancing it to better observe atmospheric gases from space, including critical gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) that are leading causes of climate change.

Education, training, and public awareness

Across Canada, all levels of government and numerous non-governmental organizations have undertaken a range of activities to broaden public awareness of climate change and encourage collective action.

In 2021 and 2022, Environment and Climate Change Canada launched an advertising campaign titled Our Healthy Environment and Economy, with the goal of raising awareness and increasing the uptake of Canada's various environmental programs and incentives. Post-campaign surveys revealed that two-thirds of respondents intended to increase their personal efforts to protect the environment within the next six months.

The Canadian Centre for Climate Services, launched in 2018, plays a key role in providing credible, useful, and timely climate data, information, and tools for Canadians. The Centre incorporates information from federal departments, provincial and territorial governments, and climate science experts to provide training and guidance on using climate data and to develop new products as needed. The Centre also houses several climate data portals, include climate model projections, a climate atlas that combines climate science, mapping, and Indigenous Knowledge, and advanced analytic tools for academia.

The Office of Energy Efficiency within Natural Resources Canada provides accessible information for Canadians to make informed decisions on consumer products and renovations, such as a handbook for homeowners on how to make their homes more energy efficient. The Office also supports the EnerGuide and ENERGY STAR program, two major labelling programs, which provide useful information on household appliances, heating and cooling products, and light-duty vehicles.

In June 2022, the Government of Canada launched the Regional Energy and Resource Tables to identify and pursue opportunities for economic growth, energy transformation, and sustainable job creation in each region of the country. This collaborative initiative will involve close partnerships between federal, provincial and territorial governments, a tailored approach to engagement with Indigenous governments and groups and a process to seek input from municipal governments, experts, industry, labour, non-profit organizations and others. As of November 2022, nine provinces and territories have launched their Tables. Efforts from this initiative will culminate in the development of comprehensive place-based economic strategies that consider pathways to achieving economic growth opportunities and the enabling conditions such as building the workforce needed to advance these opportunities.

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