Greenhouse gas offset toolkit

This Greenhouse Gas Offset Toolkit provides information and resources related to carbon markets, the elements and requirements of offset systems and considerations when developing offset projects.

While primarily intended for Indigenous audiences, this information may be helpful to anyone interested in developing an offset project. For detailed information about how to participate in a particular offset program, please refer to the rules for that program.

The essentials: carbon markets 101

The essentials: carbon markets 101

The essentials: carbon markets 101

What are greenhouse gases?

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are gases which, when released, build up in the atmosphere, absorbing and trapping heat from the sun. This impact has been termed the “greenhouse effect”.  The increase of these gases in the atmosphere causes global temperatures to rise and the global climate to change.

Common GHGs include:

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)

Some GHGs have a greater effect on the climate than others. In order to compare them equally, GHGs can be converted into the standard unit of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) based on their global warming potential (GWP).  When converted into CO2e, different GHGs can be added together to give total GHG emissions or emission reductions.

Global Warming Potential (GWP):

Methane has a GWP that is 25 times that of carbon dioxide, which means that 1 tonne of methane has the same effect on the climate as 25 tonnes of carbon dioxide, and 1 tonne of methane can be converted to 25 tonnes CO2e.

What are GHG emissions, reductions and removals?

GHG emissions occur when GHGs are released into the air through human activities, such as burning fossil fuels like gasoline and diesel, and through biological processes, like the decomposition of organic matter. GHG emissions can be reduced through actions that reduce or eliminate GHG emitting activities or processes. GHGs can be removed from the atmosphere through natural or engineered capture and storage. For example, plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere as they grow. Technological processes can also capture GHGs and convert them chemically or physically so they can be stored.

What are carbon markets?

A carbon market refers to the buying and selling of credits (also known as tradeable units) that represent GHG emissions, reductions or removals. Organizations or individuals buy tradeable units in a carbon market in order to meet a GHG emissions limit or objective.

There are two types of carbon markets – voluntary and compliance. The type of market depends on whether the tradeable units are used to meet voluntary or regulatory emissions limits.

Individuals or organizations that voluntarily commit to limit the GHG emissions from their activities can use units from the voluntary market to help meet their commitment.  For example, some organizations voluntarily commit to be carbon neutral or “net-zero” by a certain year. This means that they commit to reduce their emissions and compensate for any remaining emissions with equivalent GHG removals. Another example is individuals who wish to limit the emissions from their travel or other activities.

Companies that have a limit on their GHG emissions that is set through government regulations can only use units from a compliance market to meet their limits.  Non-regulated individuals and organizations may also be allowed to purchase and use units from the compliance market to meet their voluntary emissions reductions goals.

Compliance market: -	Credits used for compliance with regulations -	Credits used to meet voluntary objectives Voluntary market: -	Credits used to meet voluntary objectives

What is an offset credit?

A GHG offset credit (also called a carbon credit) is a tradeable unit that represents one tonne of reduced GHG emissions or GHGs removed from the atmosphere. Offset credits are issued to project proponents that voluntarily reduce emissions or remove GHGs from the atmosphere if they meet the requirements of a GHG offset system. These credits can be sold in a carbon market and used by others for regulatory compliance or to meet voluntary emission reduction objectives.

What is a GHG offset system? 

A GHG offset system (also called a GHG offset program) is a set of rules and processes for how offset credits can be generated. In order to generate offset credits, individuals or organizations undertake voluntary projects that meet the offset system rules set by the offset system administrator. In general, these individuals or organizations – referred to as project proponents – must  register their project with the offset system administrator and follow a protocol, approved by the administrator, that provides detailed instructions for projects. The offset system administrator makes sure that the project proponent has met the rules of the system before issuing offset credits.

Offset systems directed towards the voluntary market are usually administered by non-government organizations, which set the rules and issue offset credits to project proponents that meet their rules.

Offset systems geared towards the compliance market are usually established by government administrators, which set the rules for how offset credits are generated and issues credits for eligible reductions or removals.

Offset systems established for the voluntary market may allow a wider range of project types and provide greater flexibility to project proponents, while offset systems directed towards regulatory compliance generally have stricter rules.

What is an offset project?

Offset projects are voluntary activities that generate GHG reductions or removals beyond what would have happened without the project (the baseline). Project proponents must register their projects with an offset system administrator, then implement the project, monitor and record project data, and quantify the reductions or removals as required by the offset system rules. They also must have their reduction or removal claims verified by a qualified, independent third party.

Examples of some offset project types include:

  • Better management of forests to keep more carbon in trees / soil
  • Avoiding releases of methane gas from landfills
  • Taking action to protect forests or grasslands from development (so stored carbon is not released)
  • Switching to chemicals in refrigeration systems that cause less global warming
  • Composting organic waste instead of sending it to the landfill
  • Tree planting
  • Capturing methane gas generated from livestock manure
  • Increasing the amount of  carbon stored in agricultural soils through adoption of regenerative practices

Who can be a project proponent?

A project proponent (or project developer) implements an offset project in order to generate offset credits. The offset program administrator sets the rules as to who is eligible to generate offset credits within their system.  Some offset systems, for example, have requirements that the project proponent live or have a business in the jurisdiction of the offset system.

Offset credit from carbon sequestration or emissions avoidance by an offset project are sold to a GHG emitter. Revenue is generated by the project through the sale.

What is an offset protocol?

Offset protocols can be thought of as the “recipe” for an offset project.  The protocol specifies eligible project activities and gives detailed instructions for how to calculate the number of offset credits generated by the project. Protocols have clear rules for how to set the project baseline (the emissions levels before the project, also known as the “business-as-usual” scenario). They also set out rules for data collection and monitoring, as well as assessing and managing project risks. Offset protocols are generally designed so that the quantification of reductions and removals achieved by the offset project is conservative and does not lead to over-estimates.

What is an offset credit worth?

The value of an offset credit fluctuates over time and depends on several factors:

Supply and demand

The price of offset credits is primarily influenced by supply and demand. If there are many offset credits available with little demand, prices will be low. If there are few offset credits available and a large demand, prices will be higher.  The supply of GHG offset credits will depend on the number of offset projects that are generating credits, which is affected by the availability of offset protocols, the investment in offset projects, and the expected demand for offset credits in the future. Offset projects can also take time to start generating and supplying offset credits – up to several years depending on the project type. Demand in the compliance market is influenced by many factors including the stringency of emission reduction regulations and the cost of other emission reductions. Demand in the voluntary market depends on the number of individuals and businesses making voluntary commitments to reduce emissions and the level of ambition of voluntary commitments. These factors make it challenging to predict offset supply, demand, and prices.

Compliance vs voluntary market

Offset credits from systems targeted towards the compliance market generally sell at a higher price because they can be used to meet regulations for emissions reductions. Offset credits geared towards the voluntary market generally sell at lower price.

Type of project generating the offset credit

Some offset credit buyers, particularly in the voluntary market, choose to buy credits from projects that provide other benefits (like biodiversity or community development), are located in a certain area, or have other specific characteristics. These buyers may be willing to pay more for offset credits from certain projects.

Perceived quality of offset credits

The value of offset credits in the voluntary market depend on whether there is confidence that the offset system has strong rules to ensure the projects and the credits they generate are of high quality.

Rules to replace invalid credits

Occasionally, an offset credit may be identified as invalid after it is issued. This could happen because the credit was issued based on incorrect information or because the stored carbon was later released. Program administrators generally require that invalid credits be replaced. Offset systems may require the project proponent or whoever owns the invalid credit to replace it. Some offset systems also have a pool of credits that can be used to replace invalid credits in certain circumstances. Offset credits from systems that make the buyer replace invalid credits are usually sold at a lower price because there is more risk for the buyer.

What is a GHG offset registry?

Reputable offset systems make key information about registered offset projects and offset credits available to the public. A GHG offset registry helps to track where projects are located, who has registered a project and been issued offset credits, whether the credits have been sold, whether the credits have been used, and who used the credits.

Having this information publicly available helps ensure that GHG offset systems are transparent, accountable, and credible. Potential offset credit buyers can check the registry to see that the offset credits they are interested in purchasing have been issued to the project, and have not already been sold, or used by another buyer.

Gechi-inendaagwak: Gaa-bagidanaamong Gaa-adaawaadeg 101

Gechi-inendaagwak: Gaa-bagidanaamong Gaa-adaawaadeg 101

Wegonen Gaa-naagwasinong ishpiming Gaa-gizhideg?

Amii ini GHGs gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming gaa-ayaag, ozhi’oomaganoon ishpiming, giizisong onji-ozhi’oomagan gizhidewin. Mii dash iwe gaa-izhinikaadeg “Gaa-naagwasinong Gaa-izhiseg”  Bagidinigaadeg iwe gaa-naagwasinog ji-gizhidemagak ishpiming mii ge-izhi-gizhideg aki miziwe gaye ji-aanjiseg gaa-izhiwebak miziwe.

Mii ono GHGs gaa-wiindegin:

  • Bezhig dinookaan Gaa-naagwasinog Gaa-bagidanaamong (CO2)
  • Gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming waasiganing izhi-aabadan
  • Anaamakamig gaa-onjiimagak gaa-naagwasinog (CH4)
  • Gaa-naagwasinog dakisijiganing gaa-izhi-aabadak
  • Gaa-naagwasinog gaa-aabadak gii-bakodaabideng
  • Gaa-naagwasinog gaa-aabadak dakisijiganing

Aanind GHGs nawach da-gizhideshkaagemaganoon apiich godak. Ji-gojichigaadegin ini GHGs daa-dagonigaade iwe gaa-naagwasinog CO2e aaniin epiichi-gizhideshkaamaganogwen (GWP).  CO2e gii-aanjiseg iwe, bakaan dino GHGs daa-achigaadewan ji-bagijiseg iwe GHG gaa-naagwasinog gemaa gaawiin.

Gaa-ani-gizhideg miziwe akiing (GWP):

Iwe Anaamakamig gaa-onjiimagak gaa-naagwasinog ayaamagan GWP 25 dasing na-wach daa-gizhideshkaagemagan apiich wiin iwe Gaa-bagidanaamoying, giishpin 1 gichi-dibaabiishkoojigan iwe Anaamakamig gaa-on-jiimagak gaa-naagwasinog nasaab daa-inishkaagemagan daabish-koo iwe gaa-bagidanaamong gaye 1 gichi-dibaabiishkooji-gan izhi-aanjichigaadeg 25 gichi-dibaabiishkoojigan gaa-bagidanaamoying.

Wegonenan GHG gaa-bagijisegin, gaa-ani-agaasiinadak gaye gaa-odaapinigaadeg?

GHG bagijisewan gii-bagidinigaadegin ishpiming GHGs giishpin gii-aabajichigaadeg waasiganibimide gaye diizan waasiganibimide gaye gii-wanaadak gaa-gii-bimaadiziimagak. Nawach bangii GHG daa-bagijise giishpin nawach bangii aabajichigaadegin waasiganibimiden. GHGs daa-onji-odaapinigaadewan ishpiming giishpin eshkwaad igo izhiseg gemaa bemaadizid odaapinang gaye ganawendang. Daabishkoo giishpin gitigaanan odaapinamowaad iwe gaa-bagidanaamoying gii-nitaawigigin. Gaye gaa-nagajitoowaad owe dinookaan o-daa-odaapinaanaawaan GHGs gaye ji-aanjitoowaad gaa-izhiiyaanigin ji-ganawendamowaad.

Wegonen iwe gaa-bagidanaamoying ge-izhi-adaawaadegiban?

Mii iwe gaa-ijigaadeg ji-adaawengiban gaye ji-adaawaadegiban iwe ganedat (gaye ge-adaawaadegiban) ini GHG gaa-bagijisegin, gaa-ani-agaasiinokin gemaa gaa-odaapinigaadegin. Izhichigewinan gemaa awiyag gaa-adaawewaad ganedat ge-adaawaadegi-baniin gii-adaawaadeg gaa-bagidanaamong ji-bagidinang GHG.

Niizhwayag ayaawan ge-izhi-adaawaadegiban gaa-bagidanaamong – wiin igo ji-doodang bizaanigo gemaa ji-inind ji-doodang. Wegonen ge-odaapinigaadeg da-izhise giishpin wiin igo ganedat wii-adaawed gemaa inind ji-adaawed iwe gaa-bagijiseg.

Awiyag gemaa izhichigewinan gaa-inendamowaad bangii eta ji-bagidinamowaad GHG ishpiming o-daa-aabajitoonaawaan ini ge-adaawaagewaapan ji-gashkitoowaad gaa-wii-izhichigewaad.  Daabishkoo, aanind izhichigewinan inendamowaad gaawiin ji-bagi-dinanziwaad gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming bezhigo-biboon izhiseg. Amii ekidowaad gaawiin aapiji o-da-bagidinanziinaawaa iwe gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming meshkwach dash naasaab minik GHG o-da-odaapinaanaawaa. Bezhig miinawaa giishpin awiyag inendamowaad gaawiin ji-bagidinanziwaad gaa-naagwasinog gaawiin babaa-ayaasigwaa ishpiming.

Ini izhichigewinan gaa-ikidowaad bangii eta ji-bagidinamowaad gaa-naagwasinog e-inaakonindwaa ogimaawining onji gaa-onji-bagidinindwaa ji-adaawaagewaad eta da-izhichigewag.  Igi gaa-inaakonindwaa gaawiin memwaach ji-biminizha’amowaad inaakonigewin da-bagidinaawag ji-adaawewaad gaye ji-aabajitoowaad ge-aabajitoowaad ji-bagidinamowaad.

Izhi-adaawaade gaabagidinigaadeq ji-baqijiseq ishpiming -	Ganedidan geadaawaadegin inaakonigewin e-bagidinigaadeg -	Ganedidan gaa-aabajichigaadegin bizaanigo izhichigeng Bizaanigo ji-adaawaageng -	Ganedidan gaa-aabajichigaadegin bizaanigo izhichigeng

Wegonen iwe gaaban ganedat?

Mii iwe (gaye gaaban ganedat izhinikaade) daa-adaawaade bezhig gichi-dibaabiishkoojigan GHG ji-bagidinigaadegin gemaa GHGs ji-onji-odaapinigaadegin ishpiming. Ini gaaban ganedat ge-adaawaadegiban gaa-bagidinang bangii nawach ji-aabajichigaadeg GHGs miinaawag, giishpin izhichigewaad gaa-inindwaa ji-izhichigewaad. Ono dash gaaban ganedat adaawaadewan gaa-izhi-adaawewaad ini dinookaanan gaye bakaan awiyag ji-aabajitoowaad gaa-bagidinindwaa gemaa bangii eta ji-bagidinamowaad iwe ishpiming.

Wegonen iwe GHG gaaban ganedat izhichigewin? 

Iwe GHG gaaban ganedat bagidiniwewin (gaye GHG gaaban ganedat izhichigewin izhinikaade) ikidom aaniin ge-ayizhiing ji-aabajichigaadegin ini gaaban ganedat. Ji-aabajichigaadegin ini gaaban ganedatan, awiyag gemaa izhichigewinan da-izhichigewag gaa-inindwaa minik ji-bagidinamowaad iwe gaa-dazhinjigaadeg. Ogo awiyag gemaa izhichigewinan – gaa-dazhiikamowaad ono izhi-chigewinan – o-daa-ozhibii’aanaawaan odizhichigewiniwaa e-wii-izhichigewaad, ji-biminizha’amowaad gaa-inindwaa ji-doodamowaad, gaa-izhi-bagidinindwaa, ji-wiindeg aaniing ge-izhichigewaad. Awe gaa-naagajitood owe da-ikido iwe izhichigewining gaa-anokii-waad e-gii-biminizha’amowaad gaa-gii-inindwaa jibwaa-aabajitoowaad ini ganedads.

Gaawiin wiin ogimaawining onjiisiiwag igi gaa-naagajitoowaad ono izhichigewinan aaniish ozhichigaadewan inaakonigewinan ge-bimi-nizha’amowaad igi gaa-dazhiikamowaad ini izhichigewinan.

Ogimaawining dash wiin onjiimaganoon ini gaa-dazhiikamowaad gaa-inindwaa aaniin ge-izhichigewaad, ozhichigaadewan inaakoni-gewinan aaniin ge-izhi-aabajichigaadegin ini ganedads gaye e-ozhichigaadegin ini ganedad ge-aabajichigaadegin.

Ini gaye ozhichigaadewan ji-aabajitoowaad igi gaawiin ge-bagidini-gesigwaa ishpiming niibiwa dinookaanan izhichigewinan gaye aanii-nigo ji-izhichigewaapan aabajitoowaad ini izhichigewinan, nawach niibiwa ji-biminizha’amowaad inaakonigewinan.

Wegonen iwe gegoon gaa-adaawaadegiban izhichigewin?

Ini gaa-dazhinjigaadegin wiinawaa go gaa-dazhiikamowaad ji-bagi-jisegin GHG ishpiming daa-gii-izhise gaawiin memwaach ji-izhiseg iwe izhichigewin. Igi gaa-dazhiikamowaad o-daa-ozhibii’aanaawaan odizhichigewini-waan gaa-naagajitoonid, miinawaa ji-doodamowaad iwe, gaye ji-naagadawaabandamowaad gaye ji-ozhibii’amowaad wayaabandamowaad gaye enendamowaad, gaa-inindwaa ji-doodamowaad. Gaye daa-ozhibii’igaadeniwan gaa-ikidowaad bangii eta e-gii-agidinamowaad imaa ishpiming, awiyan gaa-inwaazonid ji-ozhibii’ang.

Daabishkoo ono dinookaanan gaa-ijigaadegin:

  • Nawach babenak ji-naagajichigaadegin mitigwakiin ji-ayaamagak iwe gaa-bagidanaamoying mitigong / azhashkiing.
  • Ji-manaa-bagijiseg iwe anaamakamig gaa-onjiimagak gaa-naagwasinog imaa gaa-izhi-ningwa’igaadeg azhashki akiing.
  • Ji-naadamawindwaa mitigoog gaye mashkosi ji-aabajitoosigwaa igi gaa-waakaa’igewaad (ji-bagijisesinog gaa-naagwasinog)
  • Ji-aabajichigaadeg bakaan gegoon imaa dakisijiganing gaawiin dash ji-onji-gizhidesinog aki miziwe.
  • Ji-izhichigeng ji-wanaadak webinigan apiichwiin webiniganikaang ji-izhi-webinigaadeg
  • Ji-nitaawigi’indwaa mitigoog
  • Ji-odaapinigaadeg gaa-naagwasinog bizhikiwi-moowing gaa-ayaag.
  • Nawach niibiwa ji-ayaamagak gaa-naagwasiog gaa-bagidanaamoying imaa gitige-azhashkiing.

Awenen ge-izhichigepan ono dinookaan izhichigewin?

Awe ge-izhichigepan owe (gaa-dazhiikang izhichigewin) omaajitoon owe dinookaan ji-bagidinind ji-bagidiniged ishpiming bizaanigo. Awe gaa-naagajitood dash ikido ge-inaakonigeng awenen ge-gash-kitoopan ji-aabajitood iwee izhichigewin.  Aanind izhichigewinan inaawag ji-izhidaad imaa awe gaa-anokiitang izhichigewining gemaa ji-dananokiid besho imaa gaa-dazhiikang odizhichigewin.

Gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan daa-onjiozhichigaade zhooniyaakewin adaaweng gaaban ganedat. Adaawaadegin ganedatan gaa-naagajichigaadegin izhichigewinan.

Wegonenan ini izhichigewin inaakonigewinan?

Izhichigewinan inaakonigewininan ikidoomaganoon aaniin ge-izhichiged awe gaa-anokiitang iwe.  Wiindamaagem awenenag ge-daziikamowaad iwe gaye aan mayaa ge-izhichigeng ji-debinigaadeg aan minik ge-adaawaadegibaniin apii dazhiikigaadeg iwe izhichigewin. D-wiindamaagem gaye aaniin ge-ayizhiing (aaniin minik ge-bagidinigaadeg gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming, daabishkoo sa go gaa-izhichigeng bizhishig). Da-wiindamaagewag gaye aaniin minik gikendaasowin ge-maawa-jichigaadeg ge-naagajichigaadeg, gaye naagadawaabanjigaadeg iwe izhichigewin aaniin ge-izhi-maanzhichigemagakiban. Ono gaa-dazhinjigaadegin izhichigaadeg ji-gikenjigaadeg bangii eta gemaa gii-odaapinigaadeg bagijisewin imaa izhichigewining deminik gaawiin gaye ozaam niibiwa ji-inenjigaadeg ji-ayaamagak.

Aan epiitendaagwak iwe gaaban ganedat?

Bakaan da-apiitendaagwan iwe izhichigewin ani-akiiwang ono dash ge-onji-izhiseg:

Eyaamagak gaye endawenjigaadeg

Minik eyaamagak gaye minik endawenjigaadegin ini gaa-dazhinji-gaadegin da-apiitagindewan. Giishpin niibiwa ayaamagakin ini gaaban ganedat gaawiin dash aapiji andawendaagwakin, da-niisagindewan. Giishpin dash bangii eta gaaban ganedat ayaagin, niibiwa dash awiyag andawendamowaad, da-ishpagindewan.  Minik eyaamagakin ganedat izhichigewinan gaa-izhi-ozhi’oomagakin ganedat da-onji-ayaawan ini GHG gaaban ganedat gaye minik eyaamagakin gaaban ganedat inaakonigewin, zhooniyaa ge-asind imaa gaaban ganedat, gaye aan minik ge-andawenjigadegin gaaban ganedat ani-akiiwang. Maagizhaa gaye ganedat izhichigewinan ginwesh da-izhisewan ji-maajii-ozhi-oomagak gaaban ganedatan – niibiwa daso-gikinoonowin. Niibiwa gegoon gaa-izhiseg da-onji-andawenjigaade iwe ikidong ji-adaawaadeg daabishkoo bangii eta bagijiseg gaa-naagwasinog ishp-ming gaye gaa-inagindegin godak gaa-bagijisegin. Aaniin minik igi gaa-ikidowaad bangii eta ji-bagidinamowaad iwe gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming gaye minik enendamowaad da-ikidoomagan aaniin minik ge-anawenjigaadeg iwe bizaanigo ji-adaawaageng gaa-ijigaadeg. Mii wenji-zanagak ji-ikidong aaniin minik ge-andawenjigaadeg iwe gaaban ganedat ayaamagak, gaye endawendaagwak gaye ge-inagindeg.

Inaakonigeng gemaa bizaanigo ji-adaawaageng

Ge-aabadakin ini gaaban ganedat imaa gaa-izhi-inaakonigeng adaawewining nawach niibiwa inagindewan aaniish daa-aabajichigaadewan gii-inaakonigeng bangii ji-bagijiseg ishpiming gaa-naagwasinog. Ini gaaban ganedat ge-aabadakin bizaanigo ji-adaawaadeg nawach niisagindewan.

Dinookaan izhichigewin ge-onji-ozhi’oomagak gaaban ganedat

Aanind gaa-adaawewad gaaban ganedatan, daabishkoo bizaanigo ji-adaawewaad, izhichigewinan onji-adaawewag ge-onji-minosewaad (daabishkoo biodiversity gemaa ji-minochigaadeg dazhiikewin) ngoji gaye izhi-ayaamagan gemaa godak gegoon. Ogo nawach niibiwa da-wii-diba’igewag ini gaaban ganedatan aaninda izhichigewining.

Enenjigaadegin epiitendaagwakin gaaban ganedatan

Epiitendaagwakin gaaban ganedatan imaa bizaanigo gaa-izhi-adaawaa-degin minik epiichi-inenjigaadeg ji-mino-inaakonigeng imaa offset system da-onji-inenjigaade ini izhichigewinan gaye ganedat ge-onji-ozhi’oomagakin e-onizhishingin.

Ge-inaakonigeng ji-odaapinigaadegin gaa-onizhishinzinogin gaaban ganedat

Ningoding gaawiin onizhishinzinoon gaaban ganedat inenjigaade gii-ishkwaa-ozhichigaadeg. Giishpin gaawiin gwayak gaa-inaajimosing gemaa giishpin nawach wiikaa gaa-bagidinigaadeg ngwana iwe gaa-ganawenjigaadeg gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming, daa-izhise iwe. Gaa-naagajichigewaad ikidowag ji-naabishkigaadegin ini credits gaa-onizhishinzinogin. Mii ge-ikidowaad gaaban ganedatan gaa-ayaawaad awe izhichigewin gaa-ayaad ji-naabishkang iwe gaa-onizhishinzinog. Aanind gaaban ganedat izhichigewin odayaanaawaan ganedat ge-aabajichigaade-gibaniin ji-naabishkaagemagakin naaningoding. Gaaban ganedatan gaa-onjiimagakin gaa-izhi-inind gaa-gii-adaawed ji-naabishkang ini ganedatan gaa-onizhishinzinogin nawach ji-dabasi-adaawaadang ozaam gaa-adaawed ji-wanichiged.

Wegonen iwe GHG gaaban ganedat biindigebii’odizowin?

Gaa-onizhishingin ini gaaban ganedat daa-wiindamaagemaganoon aan ezhisegin gaaban ganedat gaa-biindigebii’odizong izhichigewinan gaye godak. Iwe GHG gaaban ganedat biindigebii’igan daa-wiiji’iwemagan ji-gikenjigaadeg aandi eyaagin izhichigewinan, awenen gaa-biindigebii’ang izhichige-win gaye gaa-gii-miinind gaaban ganedat gemaa giishpin gaa-adaa-waagaadegin ini ganedat gemaa gaa-aabajichigaadegin gaye awenen gaa-aabajitood ini ganedat.

Gakina awiya gikendang owe da-izhisemagan GHG gaaban ganedat ji-gikenjigaadegin aan ezhisegin gaye giispin ji-debwemagakin. Gaaban ganedatan gaa-wii-adaawewaad odaa-waabandaanaawaa iwe biindigebii’igan ji-waabandamowaad giishpin ini offset credits gaa-wii-adaawed gaa-izhi-miinind odizhichigewining gaye gaamashi gaa-adaawaadesinogin gemaa bakaan awiya ji-aabajitood.

The essentials: greenhouse gas offset projects

The essentials: greenhouse gas offset projects

The essentials: greenhouse gas offset projects

Offset project proponents generate offset credits through voluntary activities that reduce GHG emissions or increase the removal and storage of GHGs from the atmosphere, in accordance with an offset protocol. The GHG reductions or removals achieved by the project are quantified (measured and calculated) and verified by a qualified, independent third party according to the offset system rules.

Some offset project types include:

  • Better management of forests to keep more carbon in trees / soil
  • Avoiding releases of methane gas from landfills
  • Taking action to protect forests or grasslands from development (so stored carbon is not released)
  • Switching to chemicals in refrigeration systems that cause less global warming
  • Composting organic waste instead of sending it to the landfill
  • Tree planting
  • Capturing methane gas generated from livestock manure
  • Increasing the amount of carbon stored in agricultural soils through adoption of regenerative practices

Offset systems are based on the following principles to ensure there is a high degree of trust in the system. An offset project must follow all of these principles so that there is confidence in the offset credits generated.


The offset project must achieve GHG emissions reductions or removals through a specific and measurable activity. The project proponent needs to demonstrate that the GHG reductions or removals have actually been achieved.


The offset project must reduce or remove GHGs beyond what was going to happen without the offset project, also known as the baseline scenario or business-as-usual case.

If the GHG reductions or removals would have occurred without the offset project, the project is not additional.


The offset project proponent needs to accurately account for the GHG reductions or removals they achieve, in accordance with the offset protocol they use. This means using approved methods and measurement devices to collect data and calculate GHG reductions or removals. 


There may be a risk that the carbon stored by a project is released in the future (either voluntarily or involuntarily). For projects that increase the capture and storage of CO2 in plants, trees, soils geological formations, or prevent the release of carbon, the project proponent must ensure the permanence of the GHG removals or emissions reductions for a required amount of time.

  • Offset systems commonly require that CO2 storage be maintained for significant periods, up to 100 years after the offset credits are generated.
  • Offset system administrators may hold back some portion of the offsets credits generated as a form of insurance that can be used in case there are involuntary releases of stored CO2 in the future.
  • If project proponents release the stored CO2 on purpose (such as by cutting down a forest), they may have to pay back the credits they were issued.


An offset project can only be registered under one offset system at a time and the GHG reductions can only be credited once. Ensuring uniqueness avoids situations referred to as double counting, which can lead to an overestimation of the total GHG reductions achieved by the offset project. 


Information about the project must be collected and recorded so that this information can be reviewed and confirmed by a qualified, independent third party.


In addition to the above principles, an offset system will have specific rules about what projects can participate in the system.

Scope defines the types of activities or characteristics a project must have in order to register to generate offset credits. This may include project start date, location, project activities and what GHGs are being reduced or removed.

Project start date

The project start date corresponds to when the project activity begins. The project activity start date is usually defined by the protocol but is typically when work has started to implement the project or when GHG reductions begin. A project start date is important because projects that start before the allowed start date in the offset system are not considered additional. A project must have started on or after the allowed start date to be able to register in the system.

Project location

Offset systems and protocols apply to specific geographic regions where offset projects must be located. An offset system or protocol might be applicable across the country, or only in a single province or region. 

Project activities

Not all activities can generate offsets.  An offset protocol will identify which activities can generate offset credits.

Targeted GHGs

While there are many different activities that are good for the environment, GHG offset systems are focused on projects that reduce or remove greenhouse gases.  Different offset projects reduce or remove different types of GHGs. Forest projects target CO2, while waste projects often target methane (CH4). An offset system or protocol may identify which GHG reductions or removals can generate offset credits.

Gechi-inendaagwak: Gaa-naagwasinog Gaa-izhiseg gaaban ganedat Izhichigewinan

Gechi-inendaagwak: Gaa-naagwasinog Gaa-izhiseg gaaban ganedat Izhichigewinan

Gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan gaa-dibendamowaad odoozhitoonaawaan gaaban ganedat bizaanigo bangii eta gii-bagidinamowaad ini GHG gemaa gii-odaapinamowaad gaye gii-onji-odaapinamowaad GHG ishpiming, gaa-inindwaa offset inaakonigewining onji. Iwe GHG nawach bangii ji-bagijiseg gemaa ji-odaapinigaadeg imaa izhichigewining onji daa-dibaginjigaade (ji-dibaabiishkoojigaadeg gaye ji-gikenjigaadeg) gaa-gikendang awiya ji-doodang gaaban ganedat inaakonigewining izhi.

Aanind gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan ono:

  • Nawach babenak ji-naagajichigaadegin mitigwakiin ji-ayaamagak iwe gaa-bagidanaamoying mitigong / azhashkiing.
  • Ji-manaa-bagijiseg iwe anaamakamig gaa-onjiimagak gaa-naagwasinog imaa gaa-izhi-ningwa’igaadeg azhashki akiing.
  • Ji-naadamawindwaa mitigoog gaye mashkosi ji-aabajitoosigwaa igi gaa-waakaa’igewaad (ji-bagijisesinog gaa-naagwasinog)
  • Ji-aabajichigaadeg bakaan gegoon imaa dakisijiganing gaawiin dash ji-onji-gizhidesinog aki miziwe.
  • Ji-izhichigeng ji-wanaadak webinigan apiichwiin webiniganikaang ji-izhi-webinigaadeg
  • Ji-nitaawigi’indwaa mitigoog
  • Ji-odaapinigaadeg gaa-naagwasinog bizhikiwi-moowing gaa-ayaag.
  • Nawach niibiwa bagidanaamowin daa-ganawenjigaade gitigewini-azhashkiing minochigaadeg azhashki ji-mino-nitaawigig gitigaan.

Gaaban ganedat izhichigewinanowe daa-inaakonigem nawach niibiwa ji-debweyen-damowaad awiyag ji-onizhishing iwe izhichigewin. Iwe izhichigewin odaa-biminizhaan ji-minoseg ji-ozhi’oomagakin ini gaaban ganedatan.

Gaa-ayaamagak geget:

Iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin geget bangii GHG o-daa-bagidinaanaawaa ishpiming gemaa ji-odaapinamowaad ji-dibaabanjigaadenig dash. Iwe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang daa-waabanda’iwe nawach bangii GHG ji-bagidinang gemaa ji-odaapinang.

Giiyaabi dash:

Iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin nawach bangii GHG gemaa o-daa-odaapi-naanaawaan apiich wiin ge-gii-izhisemagakiban giishpin ayaasino-giban iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin, ge-izhisemagakiban isa go.

Nawach bangii GHG bagidinigaadeg gemaa odaapinigaadeg gaawiin memwaach ayaamagak izhichigewin, gaan giiyaabi da-ayaasinoon.


Iwe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang gwayak daa-dibaajimo bangii eta gii-bagidinang GHG gemaa gii-odaapinang, gaa-inaakonigeng ji-doodamowaad gaa-gii-inindwaa. O-daa-aabajitoon gaa-gii-inind ji-aabajitood gaye dibaabiishkooji-gan ji-aabajitood ji-maawadoonang GHG gikendaasowin. 

Nepich igo:

Maagizhaa daa-ganawenjigaade iwe gaa-bagidanaamong gaa-naagwasinog ji-bagidinigaadeg ani-akiiwang (bizaanigo gemaa gaawiin bizaanigo). Ini izhichigewinan nawach niibiwa gaa-odaapinamowaad gaye gaa-ganawendamowaad CO2 gitigaaning mitigong azhashkiing asiniing gemaa gaa-bagidinanzigwaa ji-bagidinigaadeg iwe gaa-bagidanaamoying, awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang daa-nepiji-odaapinaanan GHG gemaa nawach bangii eta ji-bagidinang ishpiming.

  • Gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan ikidoomagan gii-ganawenjigaadeg iwe CO2 gaa-bagidanaamoying ginwesh igo ji-ganawenjigaadeg daabishkoo 100 daso-biboon gaa-ishkwaa-ozhi’oomagakin gaaban ganedatan.
  • Gaaban ganedatan gaa-naagajitoowaad o-daa-ganawendaanaawaan bangii ini gaaban ganedatan maagizhaa bichi-bagidinigaadeg iwe CO2 gaa-bagidanaamong ishpiming ani-akiiwang.
  • Giispin izhichigewin gaa-dibendang bagidinang iwe CO2 onjida (gii-shka’aakwed), daa-diba’ige’aa ji-giiwe-diba’ang ini credits gaa-gii-miinind.

Aabiding eta:

Gaaban ganedat izhichigewin daa-biindigebii’igaade aabiding eta gii-izhiseg gaye bangii eta GHG bagidinigewinan ganedat aabiding daa-aabadan. Aabiding eta ayaamagak gaawiin niizhing daa-aginjigaadesinoon iwe, mii dash ozaam daa-ishpi-aginjigaade maamaw GHG gaa-bagidinigaadeg imaa gaaban ganedat izhichigewining. 


Daa-maawadoonigaade gekenjigaadeg iwe izhichigewin gaye ji-ozhibii’igaadeg awiya bakaan gaa-gikendaasod ji-waawaabandang gaye ji-ikidod edebwemagak.

Minik ako

Dago dash ono, iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin o-da-biminizha’aanan inaakoni-gewinan wegonenan izhichigewinan ge-dagwiimagakin imaa.

Da-ikidoomagan aaniin ge-izhichiged awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang ji-biindigebii’ang gaaban ganedatan. Apii gaa-gii-maajitaad, aaniindi eyaad, ezhichigemagak iwe izhichi-gewin gaye giishpin nawach bangii GHG gaa-bagidinigaadegin gemaa gaa-odaapinigaadegin.

Apii Gaa-gii-maajitaamagak Izhichigewin

Apii gaa-maajitaamagak izhichigewin iwe apii gaa-gii-maadakami-giziwaad imaa. Apii gaa-maajitaamagak izhichigewin ikidowag igi gaa-inaakonige-waad mii dash wiinigo apii gaa-gii-maadanokiiwaad gemaa apii nawach bangii GHG gaa-gii-bagidinamowaad gii-maajitaawag. Gichi-inendaagwan ji-gikenjigaadeg aan apii gaa-gii-maajitaawaad aaniish giishpin ozaam wiiba gaa-gii-maajitaawaad gaawiin giiyaabi dash da-inenjigaadesinoon iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin. Mayaa iwe apii gaa-gii-bagidinind ji-maajitaad daa-maajitaamagan iwe izhichigewin ji-biindigebii’igaadeg imaa systeming.

Aaniindi Eyaamagak Izhichigewin

Ini gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan gaye inakonigewin da-ikidom aaniindi mayaa edanakamigiziwaad offset izhichigewinan. Iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gemaa inaakonigewin bizaanigo daa-inenjigaade agami-akiing ji-ayaamagak gemaa akiikaaning eta. 

Izhichigewin ge-izhichigemagak

Gaawiin gakina izhichigewinan daa-onji-ozhi’oomagazinoon gaaban ganedatan.  Gaaban ganedat inaakonigewin da-ikidoomagan wegonen izhichigewinan ge-onji-ozhi’oomagakin gaaban ganedatan.

GHGs Ge-Ganawaabanjigaadegin

Aanawi niibiwa dinookaanan izhichigewinan daa-onizhishinoon, GHG gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan da-aabadanoon nawach bangii ge-bagidinigaadeg gemaa odaapinigaadeg gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming.  Bebakaan dino gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan nawach bangii ji-bagidinigaadegin gemaa ji-odaapinigaadegin ini GHGs. Mitigwaki izhichigewinan odazhiikaanaawaa CO2, ini dash webinigani-izhichigewinan anaamakamig gaa-ayaamagak gaa-naagwasinog (CH4) odazhiikaanaawaa. Gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gemaa inaakonigewin daa-ikidoomagan giishpin nawach bangii GHG ji-bagidinigaadeg gemaa ji-odaapinigaadeg daa-onji-ozhi’oomagan gaaban ganedatan.

The essentials: benefits of greenhouse gas offset projects

The essentials: benefits of greenhouse gas offset projects

The essentials: benefits of greenhouse gas offset projects


Taking part in an offset project represents an economic development opportunity. Offset projects create a revenue stream from the sale of offset credits that can help fund community priorities. Projects in sectors such as forestry, agriculture and waste management can present employment opportunities. In communities where employment is tied to natural resource development, offset projects may be able to provide jobs related to better management of the land and reduced carbon pollution.


Offset projects represent a way to earn revenue from activities that mitigate climate change. Offset projects that involve improvements in land management practices may also offer other environmental co-benefits such as improved wildlife habitat, soil quality, water quality, and conservation of forest.


Land-based projects can improve wildlife and plant populations for cultural and traditional use, and support activities such as hunting and harvesting. Other project types related to waste management can reduce the risks of harmful pollutants and improve community well-being and health. Offset project development may also help to build community capacity through the development of new skills and knowledge.

Gechi-inendaagwak: Gaa-onji-onizhishing Gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming gaaban ganedat Izhichigewinan

Gechi-inendaagwak: Gaa-onji-onizhishing Gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming gaaban ganedat Izhichigewinan


Dagwiing gaaban ganedat izhichigewin daa-onji-zhooniyaakem. Gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan daa-onji-ozhichigaade zhooniyaakewin adaaweng gaaban ganedat ge-aabadakiban dazhiikewining. Izhichigewinan daabishkoo mitigokewin, gitigewin gaye gii-naagajichigaadegin webiniganan daa-onjise anokiiwin. Dazhiikewining gaa-onjiseg anokiiwin imaa gaa-ayaamagak besho, daa-onji-ozhichigaade anokiiwin nawach dash gaye babenak ji-naagajichigaadeg aki gaye gaawiin niibiwa ji-onji-wiinichigemagak iwe ishpiming gaa-inaabateg.


Gaaban ganedat izhichigewining daa-onjise zhooniyaa dazhiikigaadeg aaniin ge-onji-gibitinigaadeg noojigo gii-izhiwebak noongom agwajiing. Ini gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan daa-onji-minosemagan gii-naagajitoowing gidakiiminaan gaye godak ji-izhi-minoseg gidakiiminaan daabishkoo gaa-izhi-dazhiikewaad awensiwag gaye enakamigaak azhashki gaye enaagamig nibi gaye enaakwaag noopimiing.


Izhichigewinan gaa-ayaagin bagwadakamig daa-onji-minosewag aya’aawishag awensiwag gaye gaa-nitaawigingin ji-mino-aabajitoowaad anishinaabeg gaye ji-andawenjigewaad ji-manoominikewaad. Godak dinookaanan izhichigewinan daabishkoo gii-naagajichigaa-deg webiniganan nawach bangii daa-onji-wiinichigaade aki gaye daa-onji-minosewag gaa-daawaad dazhiikewining ji-mino-ayaang. Offset izhichigewin daa-onji-minose dazhiikewin gikenjigaadegin oshki-anokiiwin gaye oshki-gikendaasowin.

The essentials: implementing a greenhouse gas offset project

The essentials: implementing a greenhouse gas offset project

The essentials: implementing a greenhouse gas offset project

If your community is interested and ready to implement an offset project, the following steps describe the process. Trusted partners with experience in carbon markets and offset project development may be able to help build capacity and develop the technical knowledge needed to implement a greenhouse gas (GHG) offset project.

1. Selection of offset system and protocol

Each offset system has its own requirements for participation, so it is worth assessing the options available for your project type and location.

Having a sense of who might buy your offset credits should be considered when choosing to participate in a particular offset system. If your project offers significant additional benefits, such as biodiversity or habitat protection, it may be attractive to buyers in the voluntary market. Credits issued by offset systems geared towards the compliance market may be of most interest to large GHG emitters subject to regulatory requirements. Depending on supply and demand, offset credits generated for the compliance market may sell for a higher price than those directed towards the voluntary market.

The offset system you select must have an offset protocol available for your offset project type.

Identify the relevant offset protocol based on the project activities and ensure your project can meet the requirements of the offset system and the relevant offset protocol.

2. Planning an offset project

The planning phase of an offset project may require substantial time and effort; however, this phase will help ensure the success of the project. Some offset system administrators may require project proponents to submit a project plan prior to project registration.

3. Validation

Some offset system administrators require project proponents to engage a qualified, independent third party to check project information for correctness prior to project registration.  The validator will provide an opinion as to whether the project proponent has designed the project according to the requirements set out in the protocol and can expect to successfully generate the estimated number of GHG offset credits.

Most systems do not require validation; however, validation may still be helpful to provide confidence that the project will generate the expected credits (and may be helpful in getting financing for the project), particularly if a project proponent does not have previous experience with offset projects. The project proponent is responsible for hiring and paying the third party to do the validation. A company with experience in the specific offset system and project type, as well as GHG accounting should be selected.

4. Registration of project in the offset system

All systems require project proponents to provide specific information about the project as part of the registration application. The procedures and information required to register the project will differ by system, but required information can include:

4A. Project summary

  • Includes project description, location, GHG being reduced or removed, start date and the protocol that is being used.

4B. Entitlement to GHG reductions

  • An offset project proponent must demonstrate entitlement (ownership or rights) to the GHG emission reductions or removals and the offset credits generated by the project.
  • This is important so that there are no competing claims on the same GHG reductions and so that they are not counted twice.
  • Some funding programs may claim entitlement to all or part of the reductions achieved by a project, so it is important to understand how receipt of government funding for the project activity may impact the ability to participate in an offset system.
  • Establishing entitlement to GHG reductions and removals and the resulting offset credits may take time, so it is important that the community begin to determine their entitlement in the early stages of project development.
  • There are three common scenarios:
Project is on private land

The project proponent is the landowner or has a legal agreement with the landowner that assigns entitlement to GHG removals or emissions reductions from activities on the land.

Project is on Reserve land or land owned by the community

The project proponent is the community or has a legal agreement with the community that assigns entitlement to GHG removals or emissions reductions from activities on the land.

Project is on Indigenous traditional territory on Crown Land

Entitlement to GHG removals or emission reductions rests with the Crown until assigned otherwise. Communities would need to come to an agreement with the provincial or federal government in order to demonstrate entitlement to GHG removals or emission reductions. In BC, these agreements are called “Atmospheric Benefits Sharing Agreements”.

4C. Baseline scenario and project scenario

  • The baseline scenario (also known as the business-as-usual case) is a description of the activities and GHG emissions that would have occurred without the implementation of the offset project.
  • The project scenario is a description of the activities and an estimate of the GHG emission reductions or removals that will be achieved by the offset project, according to the offset protocol.

4D. Identification of sources, sinks, and reservoirs

  • Include all relevant greenhouse gas sources, sinks and reservoirs for the project activity as described in the offset protocol.
  • A protocol may allow certain emissions sources to be excluded from the GHG accounting if the source is not impacted by the project activities. 

A process that releases GHGs into the atmosphere. Sources can include fuel combustion or fertilizer use.


A process that removes GHGs from the atmosphere. Sinks include the capture and storage of carbon in plants, trees and soils.


A component that has the capacity to accumulate, store and release GHGs. Reservoirs can include plants, trees and soils.

Examples of GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs in a forest offset project Sources: -	Decay of wood and leaf material -	Release of CO2 by trees -	Fuel use Sinks: -	Absorption of CO2 by trees -	Storage of carbon in growing trees -	Increase in soil carbon levels Reservoirs: -	Forest -	Soil -	CO2 in atmosphere -	Timber removed

4E. Additionality

  • A project proponent will have to demonstrate that the GHG reductions achieved by the project would not have occurred without the project, i.e. they are additional.
  • Key aspects of additionality are that the project activities are not already common practice or required by regulations.
  • In some offset systems it is up to the project proponent to show how their project is additional because there are certain barriers to its implementation.

4F. Risk mitigation plan

  • For projects that increase the capture and storage of carbon in plants, trees, soil, or geologic formations, project proponents will need to assess the risk that the carbon will later be released into the atmosphere due to unforeseeable events.
  • A risk management plan includes a description of any measures and monitoring activities to reduce that risk.
  • Examples of risks for a forest project are natural events such as wildfire, insect infestation or windstorms.

4G. Leakage

  • Leakage occurs if an activity or demand for the products of an activity shift to another location when the project is implemented. This causes increases in GHGs elsewhere. An example is reducing forest harvest in one area leading to increases in forest harvest somewhere else.
  • Identify characteristics of the project that will affect the rate of leakage.

4H. Estimate of GHG reductions

  • Include an estimate of the GHG reductions or removals that will be achieved by the project, based on the rules and methodologies in the GHG offset protocol. A consultant or project partner with expertise in quantification can assist in determining this estimate.

5. Implementation

The offset project is carried out following the rules of the offset system and protocol. This includes the activities to reduce or remove GHGs, but also the collection of information and maintenance of records needed to quantify (measure and calculate) and verify the reductions or removals. Quantification is the process of collecting data and calculating the amount of GHG reductions or removals achieved by the project and, therefore, the number of credits that are generated.

6. Monitoring

The GHG emission reductions or removals are quantified using methods set out in the selected offset protocol. This can include using information about the project activities (amount of fuel, electricity or fertilizer used, amount timber harvested, etc.) and emissions factors for those activities to estimate the amount of GHGs emitted as a result. Emissions factors are used to convert data about activities (e.g., volume of fuel consumed, amount of electricity used or quantity of fertilizer applied) into GHG emissions data . In other cases, computer models are used to estimate emissions. The approach to estimating GHG emissions and removals from agricultural land or forestry includes a combination of repeated measurements and computer modeling.

Offset projects that involve increasing the biological storage of carbon in plants, trees, soil or geological formations must monitor the permanence of those GHG removals during the project and after the crediting period ends. A project monitoring plan must include:

  • Procedures for gathering and managing information
  • Description of how the sources, sinks and reservoirs will be monitored

7. Reporting

Reporting allows for transparency and accountability of GHG offset projects in an offset system. The project proponent needs to regularly submit verified project reports to the offset system administrator in order to receive offset credits. Reporting requirements are set out in offset system protocols and rules.

8. Verification

Verification is an important step to ensure the quality and integrity of the offset project, and create confidence in the accuracy of project reports. Once a project proponent operates the project for a specified amount of time (often a minimum of one year), the project proponent must hire a qualified, independent third party Verification Body to confirm:

  • the offset project has been implemented in accordance with its protocol and the rules of the offset system.
  • the amount of GHG reductions or removals achieved is accurate.

The project proponent provides monitoring information and other project records to the Verification Body. The offset system rules will specify verification requirements, including the experience and professional qualifications or accreditation that the Verification Body must possess.

9. Credit issuance

Once the offset system administrator is satisfied that all system rules have been followed, they will issue GHG offset credits to the project proponent. According to the offset system rules, the program administrator may hold back a certain number of credits generated by the project in a buffer pool or environmental integrity account. The program administrator would draw from the pool to make up for credits issued by the offset system that they later found to be invalid.

10. Sale of credits

Although the sale of offset credits can be seen as the final step of an offset development process, it is helpful to understand early in the project development process who will buy the credits, how many credits they will buy, and the price they will pay per credit.

Because offset credit prices can change, there is a trade-off between price certainty if purchase agreements are negotiated in advance, and trying to sell at the best possible price. Offset credits can also be sold directly to the user of the offset credits or to an agent such as a broker or wholesaler. Selling to an agent means the agent does the work to find buyers in the market. Selling directly to the user requires more work to find buyers and negotiate sales agreements, but may allow credits to be sold at a higher price.

Implementing an offsets project 1.	Selection of offsets system and protocol 2.	Planning an offset project 3.	Validation (if needed) 4.	Registration of project in the offset system 5.	Implementation 6.	Monitoring 7.	Reporting 8.	Verification 9.	Credit issuance 10.	Sale of credits
Gechi-inendaagwak: Izhichigeng iwe Gaa-naagwaasinong Ishpiming gaaban ganedat Izhichigewin

Gechi-inendaagwak: Izhichigeng iwe Gaa-naagwaasinong Ishpiming gaaban ganedat Izhichigewin

Giishpin gidazhiikewin andawenjigaadeg ji-dagwiing gaaban ganedat izhichigewin, owe daa-izhichigenaaniwan. Gaa-nagadenimindwaa gi-daa-gagwe-wiidanokiimaawaag gaa-gikendamowaad gaaban adaawewin gaye gaaban ganedat izhichigewin ji-ozhi’aaweg ge-anokiiwaad gaye ji-ondinameg gikendaasowin ji-onji-maajitooyeg gaa-naagwasinog ishpimiing (GHG) izhichigewin.

1. Odaapinameg Offset System gaye Inaakonigewinan

Endaso gaaban ganedat izhichigewin ayaa ge-izhichigewaad gaa-dagwiiwaad, onizhishin dash ji-waawaabandameg wegonen ge-doodameg jibwaa-maajitaayeg izhichigewin gaye aaniindi ge-ayaag.

Gikendameg gaye awenen ge-adaawed iwe gaaban ganedatan ge-dibendameg da-onizhishin apii inendameg ji-dagwiiyeg imaa gaaban ganedat izhichigewin. Giishpin ayaamagak wenizhishing imaa gidizhichigewining daabishkoo gaa-daswewaanagak bimaadiziwin gemaa ji-ganawenjigaadeg ge-danakiiwaad awensiwag da-wii-adaawewag awiyag bizaanigo adaawewining. Gaa-miigiwewaad ganedatan igi gaaban ganedat ge-aabajitoowaad igi ikidong ji-izhi-adaaweng o-da-andawendaanaawaa igi niibiwa GHG gaa-bagidinamowaad gaa-inaakonindwaa ji-izhichigewaad. Eyaamagak gaye endawenjigaadeg, gaaban ganedatan gaa-inwaadegin ji-aabadakin imaa gaa-ikidong ji-izhi-adaaweng nawach daa-ishpagindewan apiich wiin ini bizaanigo gaa-adaawewaad.

Iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin ge-odaapinaman daa-ayaamagan gaaban ganedat inaakonigewin ge-onizhishing gaa-wiidoodaman gidizhichigewining.

Gikendan iwe offset inaakonigewin ge-aabajitooyin gidizhichigewin-ing gaye gidizhichigewin ji-gashkitoomagak ji-doodaman iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin endawenjigaadeg enaakonigeng.

2. Maajitooyin iwe Gaaban Ganedat Izhichigewin

Maajitooyin iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gi-ga-ozhiitaa nitam; amii eta ge-izhi-minoseg gidizhichigewin giishpin weweni ozhiitaayin jibwaa-maajitaayin. Aanind gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gaa-naagajitoowaad o-da-andawenimaawaa’ izhichigewin gaa-dibendamonid ji-waabanda’iwed ge-doodamowaad jibwaa-biindigebii’odizowaad.

3. Debwetaagoowin

Aanind gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gaa-naagajitoowaad o-da-andawenimaawaa’ izhichigewin gaa-dibendamonid ji-andomaanid awiyan gaa-gikendaasonid ji-waabandang iwe izhichigewin gwayak ji-izhichigemagakiban jibwaa-biindigebii’odizowaad.  Awe ge-waabandang da-dibaajimo giishpin awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang gaa-izhitoogwen iwe izhichigewin gaa-inaakonigeng gaye ji-gashkitood gwayak ji-onji-ozhi’oomagakin GHG gaaban ganedat anokiimaganinig.

Aanind izhichigewinan gaawiin memwaach inaasiiwag ji-waabanjigaadegin zhaagooch dash daa-onizhishin ji-gikenjigaadeg ji-onji-ozhi’oomagakin gaaban ganedatan (gaye nawach dawendan zhooniyaa ji-gagwedweng) memindage giishpin awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang gaa-izhichigesig owe odaanaang gaaban ganedat izhichigewin dinookaan. Awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang o-daa-anokii’aa’ awiya gaye ji-diba’amawaad ini gaa-gikendaasonid ji-onji-debwetaagozid. Iwe izhichigewin gaa-nagajitoomagak gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gaye izhichigewin dinookaan gaye GHG zagakibii’igewin daa-odaapinigaade.

4. Biindigebii’igaadeg Izhichigewin imaa gaaban ganedat izhichigewining.

Gakina izhichigewinan onandawenimaawaa’ izhichigewinan gaa-dibenda-monid ji-miigiwenid wiindamaagewin apii biindigebii’odizong. Ge-izhichigeng gaye wiindamaagewin ge-aabadak biindigebii’odi-zong bebakaan da-izhinaagwan owe dash wiin igo naasaab:

4A. Izhichigewin Ezhinaagwak Dakobii’igan

  • - aan ezhinaagwak iwe izhichigewin, aaniindi eyaamagak, GHG na nawach bangii bagidingaade gemaa odaapinigaade, aanapii emaaji-taang gaye wegonen inaakonigewin e-aabajichigaadeg.

4B. Enind minik bangii GHG ge-bagidinigaadeg

  • Awe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gaa-dibendang da-waabanda’iwe edibend-ang (dibendamowin gemaa miinigoowiziwin) bangii nawach ji-bagidinang gaa-naagwasinog gemaa ji-odaapinang gaye gaaban ganedat ge-onji-ozhi’oomagakin imaa izhichigewining.
  • Gichi-inendaagwan owe gaawiin dash niibiwa o-da-wii-andawenda-ziinaawa naasaab GHG ji-izhiseg gaye niizhing ji-aginjigaadegin.
  • Aanind gaa-ondinind zhooniyaa o-daa-dibendaanaawaan gakina gemaa bangii iwe nawach bangii gaa-bagidinigeng izhichigewining onji, gikendan dash aaniin ge-izhiseyeg odaapinameg ogimaa ozhooniyaamin, ge-izhi-dagwiiyeg imaa gaaban ganedat systeming.
  • Ozhitooyeg aaniin ge-izhi-dibendameg ini nawach bangii GHG ji-bagidinameg gaye ji-odaapinameg gaye offset credits ge-gashkichi-gaadegin ginwesh daa-izhise, gikendan dash aaniin gidazhiikewin ge-izhi-gashkichigemagakiban maajitaamagak gidizhichigewin.
  • Nisinoon ge-izhisegiban:
Gidizhichigewin ayaamagan akiing gaa-dibenjigaadeg

Awe gaa-dibendang izhichigewin odibendaan gaye iwe aki gaa-dazhi-ayaamagak gemaa inaakonigewining o-gii-onji-ozhibii’aan ji-bagidiniwed bakaan gaa-dibendang GHG ji-odaapinigaadegin imaa.

Izhichigewin ayaamagan Ishkoniganing gemaa Dazhiikewin gaa-dibendang iwe aki

Awe dazhiikewin izhichigewin odibendaan gaye iwe aki gaa-dazhi-ayaamagak gemaa inaakonigewining o-gii-onji-ozhibii’aan ji-bagidiniwed bakaan dazhiikewin GHG ji-odaapinigaadegin imaa.Izhichigewin ate imaa akiing gaa-dibendang Akiikaan Ogimaa gaye dash gaa-aabajitoowaad Anishinaabeg ji-gii’osewaad

Izhichigewin ate imaa akiing gaa-dibendang Akiikaan Ogimaa gaye dash gaa-aabajitoowaad Anishinaabeg ji-gii’osewaad

Bizaanigo GHG ji-odaapinamowaad gemaa ji-baginidamowaad o-da-dibendaan Akiikaan Ogimaa baamaa ikidong bakaan. Dazhiikewinan o-daa-nagishkawaawaan Akiikaan Ogimaan gemaa Gaanada Ogimaan ji-bagidinindwaa GHG ji-odaapinamowaad gemaa nawach bangii ji-bagidinamowaad. Wedi BC Akiikaaning, owe izhinikaadewan “Ishpimin Wenizhishing Ji-wiiji-miininding Ikidowinan”.

4C. Ezhiseg gaye Izhichigewin Ge-izhiseg

  • Amii owe ge-izhiseg (ezhiseg bizhishig) da-wiinde aaniin ge-inaka-migak gaye ini GHG ge-bagidinigaadeg ge-gii-izhisegiban giishpin gaawiin izhichigenaaniwanzinog iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin.
  • Owe izhichigewin ge-izhiseg dibaajimom aaniin ge-doodamowaad gaye aaniin minik GHG nawach bangii ge-bagidinamowaad ge-odaapinamowaad imaa gaaban ganedat izhichigewining, gaa-inaakonigeng.

4D. Ji-gikenjigaadeg Ge-onjiimagak Gegoon, Ge-godaawishkaag gaye Nibi Gaa-gii-giba’igaadegiban

  • Ozhibii’an gakina ge-onjiimagakiban gaa-naagwasinog gaye gaa-odaapinigaadeg ishpiming gaye gaa-izhi-ayaag wenizhishing imaa gidizhichigewining gaa-izhibii’igaadeg offset inaakonigewining.
  • Iwe inaakonigewin da-ikidoomagan wegonen ge-bagijiseg ishpiming ge-dagonigaadesinog imaa GHG zagakibii’igaadeg giishpin gaa-onjiimagak izhi-izhisesinog izhichigewin.
Aanind GHG gaa-onjiimagakin, gaa-odaapinigaadeg ishpiming gaye gaaizhi-ayaag wenizhishing imaa Mitigwaki Gaaban Ganedat Izhichigewining  Ge-onjiseg gegoon -	Ani-wanaadan mitig gaye aniibiish -	Gaa-bagidinamowaad mitigoog iwe gaabagidanaamoying -	Gaa-aabadak waasiganibimide Gaaodaapinigaadeg GHG ishpiming -	Mitigoog gaaodaapinamowaad iwe gaa-bagidanaamoying -	Gaa-ayaaagak gaabagidanaamoying mitigong gaa-bimigiwaad -	Gaa-ani-baatiinadak gaabagidanaamoying azhashkiing Gegoon geizhi-ayaamagak wenizhishing -	Mitigwaki -	Azhashki -	Gaa-bagidanaamong ishpiming gaaayaamagak -	Gaa-giishka’aakweng
Ge-onjiseg Gegoon

Ge-izhi-bagidinigaadeg GHG gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming onji. Daabishkoo gaa-jaagideg waasiganibimide dinookaan gemaa aki miijim.

Gaa-odaapinigaadeg GHG ishpiming

Ge-izhi-odaapinigaadeg GHG gaa-naagwasinog ishpiming onji. Daabishkoo gii-odaapinigaadeg gaye gaa-ganawenjigaadeg iwe gaa-bagidanaamoying gitigaaning gaye mitigong gaye azhashkiing gaa-onjiimagak.

Ge-izhi-ayaamagak wenizhishing

Mii imaa ge-izhi-maawaji’oomagakiban gaye ganawenjigaadegiban gaye ge-izhi-bagidinigaadegibaniin GHG gaa-naagwasinog. Daabishkoo gitigaanan mitigoog gaye azhashki.

4E. Gaye Giiyaabi

  • Izhichigewin gaa-dibendang da-waabanda’iwe e-gashkitood nawach bangii GHG ji-bagidinang gaawiin dash daa-gii-gashkichi-gaadesinoon giishpin ayaamagazinog iwe izhichigewin, geyaabi.
  • Gaawiin izhichigenaaniwanzinoon gaa-anokaadamowaad ogo izhichigewining gaa-doodamowaad gaye ji-inaakonindwaa.
  • Aanind gaaban ganedat izhichigewinan awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang da-waaban-da’iwe aaniin ezhisemaganinig odizhichigewin aaniish zanagise ji-doodaming ngoding.

4F. Ge-izhichigeng Ji-onji-maanzhisesinog Ozhiitaawin

  • Aanind izhichigewinan nawach niibiwa gaa-odaapinamowaad gaye gaa-ganawendamowaad gaa-bagidanaamowing daabishkoo gaa-ayaamagak gitigaaning, mitigong, azhashkiing gaye asiniing, igi izhichigewinan gaa-dibendamowaad o-daa-naagadawaabandaanaa-waa giishpin naagach ge-bagidinigaadegwen iwe gaa-bagidanaamong ishpiming gikenjigaadesinog noongom ji-izhiseg niigaan.
  • Ge-izhichigeng ji-onji-maanzhisesinog Ozhiitaawining gi-daa-wiindaan aaniin ge-izhichigeng ji-izhisesinog iwe.
  • Mii ono ge-maanzhisegibaniin mitigwaki izhichigewining: zakideg gemaa manijooshag amwaawaad mitigoo’ gemaa gichi-nooding.

4G. Aanjisewin

  • Giishpin andawenjigaadeg gegoon gemaa gegoon izhiseg bakaan inake jibwaa-maajitaamagak izhichigewin mii iwe aanjisewin. Nawach niibiwa GHGs da-bagidinigaadewan bakaan inake. Daabishkoo nawach bangii mitigokenaaniwang ngoji miinawa dash nawach niibiwa mitigokeng ngoji bakaan.
  • Gikendamog niigaan aaniin iwe ge-onji-izhisegiban, niigaan ji-gikendameg maagizhaa aanjiseg gegoon.

4H. Gagwe-gikendaagwak nawach bangii GHGs ji-bagijisegin

  • Atoon imaa aaniin enendameg minik bangii GHG ge-bagijisegin gemaa ge-odaapinigaadegin imaa izhichigewining onji, gaa-inaako-nigeng gaye gaa-ayizhiing GHG offset inaakonigewin aabadak. Gaa-gikendaasod gemaa izhichigewin gaa-wiijitwaad gaa-gikendang dibaabanjigewin o-da-gikendaan owe.

5. Izhichigenaaniwang

Owe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin da-bimiwijigaade biminizha’igaadeg offset system gaye inaakonigewin. Amii owe nawach bangii GHGs ji-bagijisegin gemaa ji-odaapinigaa-degin gaye dash ji-maawadoonigaadeg gikendaasowin gaye ji-ganawenjigaadeg zagakibii’igewin (ji-dibaabanjigaadeg) gaye ji-ikidong debwe iwe minik e-bagijiseg gemaa e-odaapinigaadeg. Dibaabanjigewin iwe gii-maawadoonigaadeg gikendaasowin gaye gii-dibaabanjigaadeg aan minik GHG nawach bangii ebagijiseg gemaa wedaapinigaadeg izhichigewining onji, gaye minik gaaban

6. Naagajicchigewin

Iwe GHG nawach bangii gaa-bagijiseg gemaa gaa-odaapinigaadeg dibaabanjigaade izhichigeng gaa-gii-inaakonigeng offset imaa. Daa-aabajichigaade gikendaasowin iwe izhichigewin gaa-izhichigemagak (minik waasiganibimide, waasigan, gitigaan miijim, minik mitigokewin, gaye godak) gaye gaa-bagijiseg ishpiming daa-onji-gikenjigaade minik GHG ge-bagijisegin. Aanind nake, gaa-daataanginigaadeg aabadan ji-gikenjigaadeg owe bagijisewin. Ji-gikenjigaadeg GHG gaa-bagijiseg gaye gaa-odaapinigaadeg imaa azhashkiing gaa-izhi-gitigeng gemaa mitigokewining dibaabanjigaa-de moozhag gaye gaa-daataanginigaadeg aabadan. Bagijisewining eyaamagakin aabajichigaade ji-ondinigaadeg giken-daasowin ezhichigeng (daabishkoo aan minik bimide gaye waasigan gemaa gitigaan miijim e-aabadak GHG ji-onji-bagijiseg.

Offset izhichigewining nawach niibiwa gaa-izhi-ganawenjigaadeg gaa-bagidanaamowing imaa gitigaaning, mitigong, azhashkiing asiniing daa-naagajitoonaawaa giishpin nepich ji-onji-odaapinigaadegin GHGs megwaa izhiseg izhichigewin gaye ishkwaaseg credit. Izhichigewin naagajichigewin ozhiitaawin owe daa-izhichigemagan:

  • Daa-maawadoonigaade gaye daa-naagajichigaade gikendaasowin
  • Daa-dibaadode aaniin ge-ondinigaadeg gegoon gaye gaa-odaapinigaadeg ishpiming gaye gegoon ge-izhi-ayaamagak wenizhishing.

7. Dibaajimong

Dibaajimong da-onji-gikenjigaade aaniin ezhiseg gaye ji-debwema-gakin GHG offsets izhichigewinan gaaban ganedat izhichigewining. Izhichigewin gaa-dibendang da-dibaajimo bizhishig ezhi-debwema-ganinig odizhichigewin imaa offset system gaa-naagajitood ji-ondizid ini gaaban ganedat. Da-ozhibii’igaade imaa gaaban ganedat inaakonigewining aaniin ge-izhi-dibaajimod awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang.

8. Debweyendamowin

Da-onizhishin ji-debwetaagooyin ji-minoseg iwe offset izhichigewin gaye ji-minwendamowaad debwe gwayak e-izhichigemagak gidizhichigewin gii-dibaajimoyin. Apii awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang bimiwidood izhichigewin (maagizhaa ango-biboon), mii ge-izhi-anokii’aad gaa-gikendaasonid bakaan gaa-onjiinid ji-ganawaabandang iwe izhichigewin ji-ozhibii’-ang dash enendang debwewin owe ji-ikidod:

  • Weweni gii-izhichigemagan iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin e-gii-biminizha-igaadeg inaakonigewin imaa gaaban ganedat izhichigewin onji.
  • Minik GHG gaa-bagijiseg gemaa gaa-odaabinigaadeg debwemagan.

Awe izhichigewin gaa-dibendang gii-dibaajimo dibaginjigewin gaye godak izhichigewin zagakibii’igewin imaa Debweyendamowining. Iwe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin inaakonigewinan ikidoomaganoon aaniin mayaa endawendaagwak ji-izhi-debweng, gaye aan minik bemi-inanokii-waad gaye epiichi-gikendaasowaad gemaa godak ezhi-nagajitoo-waad gaa-anokiiwaad imaa Debwyendamowining.

9. Gaaban ganedat Gaa-miigiweng

Apii awe gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gaa-naagajitood gakina izhichigewin inaakonigewinan gii-biminizha’igaadewan inendang, o-da-miinaawaan ini izhichigewin gaa-dibendamonid ini GHG gaaban ganedatan. Mii enaakonigeng imaa gaaban ganedatan awe gaa-naagajichiged o-daa-azhenaanan aanind ganedatan gaa-gii-ozhi’oomagakin imaa izhichigewining gikendaasowin gaa-izhi-ganawenjigaadeg gemaa ini ganedatan gaa-ayaagin maagizhaa gaawiin naabishkanzigwaa igi izhichigewin gaa-dibendamowaad ayaasigwaa ini gaaban ganedatan. Awe gaa-naagajichiged o-da-onji-odaapinaan imaa ji-naabishkang ganedatan imaa gaaban ganedat izhichigewin gaa-gii-izhi-mikamowaad naagach gaawiin e-onzhishinzingin.

10. Adaawaadegin Ganedatan

Aanawi adaawaadegin gaaban ganedatan inendaagwan iwe ishkwaawaach imaa offset gii-izhichigeng, gi-daa-nisidawinaam wiiba awenen ge-adaawed ganedatan aaniin minik gaye, aaniin minik ge-diba’igewaad endaso-minik ganedat.

Aaniish daa-aanjise aaniin enagindegin ini gaaban ganedatan meshkwach niigaan adaaweng da-minose apiichi gagwe-adaawaageng ji-gagwe-ishpaginjigeng. Gaaban ganedatan daa-adaawaagaadewan awe gaa-aabajitood gaaban ganedatan gemaa nisaw ge-izhi-dagwiipan adaawaagewinini. Adaawaageng imaa adaawaagewininiing mii awe ge-mikawaad ge-adaawenid. Adaawaageng dibinawe imaa gaa-wii-adaawed nawach da-zanagan ji-mikawindwaa gaa-wii-adaawewaad gaye ji-mikigaadeg ge-izhi-minwendamowaad gakina, nawach dash niibiwa daa-inaginjigaade ganedat.

Izhichigeng iwe gaanaagwaasinong ishpiming gaaban ganedat izhichigewin   1.	Gaaban ganedad izhichigewin gave mayaa ge-izhichgeng 2.	Niigaanendamowin gaye ozhichigan izhichigewin 3.	Debwetaagoowin (giizhpin andawenjigaadeg) 4.	Biindigebii’odizowin 5.	Gaaban ganedad izhichigewin ji-izhiaabagag 6.	Naagajicchigewin 7.	Dibaajimong 8.	Godak awiyag jidebweyendamowaad 9.	Gaaban ganedad bagidinigaadeg 10.	Adaawaadegin ganedatan

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