Toxic substances list: BENPAT

The substance 1,4-Benzenediamine, N,N’-mixed phenyl and tolyl derivatives, (CAS RN 68953-84-4), referred to throughout this document as “BENPAT”, was included in Batch 11 of the Challenge. BENPAT is a complex reaction product composed of three main structures and some impurities. The substance is imported in Canada and used as an antioxidant and as an antiozonant in rubber. Globally, it is used in tires.

The final screening assessment report (FSAR) concluded that BENPAT is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity, as defined in paragraph 64(a) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999(CEPA1999).

The proposed risk management objective for BENPAT was to reduce releases of the substance to the environment from the manufacturing of rubber products and tires, and from consumer products to the greatest extent possible.

Update on risk management activities

The Proposed Risk Management Approach document (September 2011) outlined the proposed actions for this substance, including activities to support the development of appropriate and efficient controls. The primary focus of these activities was to quantify levels of releases and presence of BENPAT in the environment to inform risk management. 

The industrial releases of BENPAT in Canada are expected to be lower than estimated in the screening assessment as indicated by a technical study[1] on rubber conducted in 2012 and information obtained from stakeholders on the industrial processes and current management practices at tire manufacturing and rubber compounding facilities.
Development of a method to measure components of BENPAT in the influent, effluent and biosolids of municipal wastewater treatment systems was initiated in 2013. A preliminary method was documented in an ECCC report in 2016.  This method could be validated and used for monitoring to inform risk management decision making.

In 2018, ECCC issued a mandatory survey to monitor changes in use patterns and quantities of this substance in Canadian commerce. The information gathered will be used to assist risk management decisions.

For more information on this substance, please visit the Chemical Substances website.

Risk assessment


Risk management activities

Information gathering

2018 mandatory survey: Section 71 Notice

In August 2018, a notice was issued For BENPAT in the Canada Gazette, Part I: Vol. 152, No. 34 – August 25, 2018  under section 71 of CEPA 1999. More information, including how to submit a response, is available on the Information gathering webpage


Substances Management Information Line
Chemicals Management Plan
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Gatineau, QC K1A 0H3

Telephone: 1-800-567-1999  (in Canada) or 819-938-3232
Fax: 819-938-3231

[1] Environment Canada. March 2012. Tire Manufacturing and Tire Retreading Sector Study: Sector Overview and Profile.
[2] Tire and Road Wear Particles Research & Publications available at:

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