Turkey Lakes Watershed Study reference list: 2012

12-01 Kerr, J.G.,  M.C. Eimers, I.F. Creed, M.B. Adams, F. Beall, D. Burns,  J. L. Campbell, S. F. Christopher, T. A. Clair, F. Courchesne, L. Duchesne, I. Fernandez, D. Houle, D. S. Jeffries, G. E. Likens, M. J. Mitchell, J. Shanley, and H. Yao. The effect of seasonal drying on sulphate dynamics in streams across southeastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry 111 (1-3), 393-409, doi 10.1007/s10533-011-9664-12011, 2012.

Summary: Peak stream SO42- levels have been reported following periods of catchment drying. The regional extent of this relationship and the level of response were evaluated at 20 catchments including the TLW across southeastern Canada and northeastern USA. The proportion of variance in annual SO42- stream concentrations explained by seasonal drying concentrations was calculated using regression analysis. Of the 20 catchments, 13 exhibited a SO42-concentration response to drying, and the response scores were positively associated with percent wetland and percent saturated area within the catchment. These results demonstrate that climate warming and catchment drying may affect catchment SO42- dynamics.

12-02 Naylor, B.J., R.W. Mackereth, D.P. Kreutzweiser and P.K. Sibley. Merging END concepts with protection of fish habitat and water quality in new direction for riparian forests in Ontario: a case study of science guiding policy and practice. Freshwater Science 31 (1):248-257, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/11-035.1, 2012.

Summary:  In Ontario the emulation of natural disturbance (END) paradigm has been used in the management of forests to conserve biological diversity and long-term health, but riparian forests have been excluded. This paper describes new forest management guidelines that integrate the protection of fish habitat and water quality with the desire to emulate natural disturbance patterns in riparian forest. Science-based knowledge from TLW and other research was used to develop these new forest management directions.

12-03 Kreutzweiser, D.P., P.K. Sibley, J.S. Richardson and A.M. Gordon. Introduction and a theoretical basis for using disturbance by forest management activities to sustain aquatic ecosystems. Freshwater Science 31:224-231, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/11-114.1, 2012.

Summary: Emulation of natural disturbance (END) principles can include intentional logging disturbance near water to emulate natural riparian disturbance. Integrating current scientific understanding of land-water linkages in forest watersheds including work done at TLW with general disturbance ecology suggests that periodic watershed and riparian disturbances may be natural renewal processes required for the long-term sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. This paper introduces the concepts of END and provides a theoretical basis for using END in riparian forests to sustain aquatic habitats and ecosystems.

12-04 Sibley, P.K., D.P. Kreutzweiser, B.J. Naylor, J.S. Richardson and A.M. Gordon. Emulation of natural disturbance (END) for riparian forest management: synthesis and recommendations. Freshwater Science 31(1):258-264. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/11-094.1, 2012.

Summary: The application of emulation of natural disturbance (END) concepts to riparian forests has been evaluated in a limited but growing number of studies including the TLW. This paper critically examined 1) the historical, scientific, and practical foundations of applying END in riparian forest management as an alternative to fixed-width buffers, and 2) the extent to which mimicking natural disturbance and renewal processes can protect aquatic ecosystems through conservation of riparian and aquatic biodiversity. Future research areas, outstanding questions and uncertainties about the use of END in riparian forest management and initial guiding principles of END in riparian areas are addressed in this paper.

12-05 Snider, D.M., J.J. Venkiteswaran, S.L. Schiff and J. Spoelstra. Deciphering the oxygen isotope composition of nitrous oxide produced by nitrification. Global Change Biology 18, 356-370, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02547.x, 2012.

Summary: In this study fertilized agricultural soils and unfertilized temperate forest upland and wetland soils from the TLW were aerobically incubated with different 18O/16O waters, and conceptual and mathematical models were developed to systematically explain the δ18O-N2O formed by nitrification. The natural range of nitrifier δ18O-N2O is discussed and explained in terms of our conceptual model, and the controls that define aerobically produced δ18O-N2O are identified. Despite the highly complex nature of δ18O-N2O produced by nitrification the δ18O range determined in this study and through the literature is narrow. As a result, in many situations δ18O values may be used in conjunction with δ15N-N2O data to apportion nitrifier- and denitrifier-derived N2O.

12-06 Mengistu, S.G.  Topographic influences on trends and cycles in nutrient export from forested catchments on the precambrian shield.  PhD. Thesis, Department of Geology and Environmental Science, University of Western Ontario, London.  148pp,  2 appendices, 2012.

Summary:  This dissertation explored topographic controls on spatial and temporal patterns in water yield and nutrient (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) export from forested headwater catchments at the TLW. Topographic metrics representing hydrologic storage potential explained the majority of the observed spatial variation in dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus export. For temporal variation, catchments with low hydrologic loading potential were generally more sensitive to trends and cycles for water and nutrient export. Despite many similarities in these headwater catchments, topography influenced the absolute and relative magnitude of hydrological and biogeochemical export from these catchments, which will have implications on the productivity and biodiversity of downstream aquatic systems.

12-07 Liu, W. 2012. Spatiotemporal modeling of the impacts of forest harvesting, climate change and topography on stream nitrates in a forested watershed. PhD Thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston. 229 pp.

Summary: This dissertation is an empirical modeling investigation of the impact of forest harvesting, climate change and topography on stream nitrate fluxes in the TLW. Impact of forest harvesting intensity on stream water nitrate fluxes was modeled using three different approaches including developing transfer function noise (TFN) models that related different variables, and introducing geographically weighted regression (GWR) to model spatial and temporal relationships. Results showed a new phenomenon not reported in previous studies: clustered wave-up and wave-downs of stream nitrate increases caused by clearcut and selection cut at the monthly scale; significant responses of stream nitrate fluxes to wet nitrogen deposition in all catchments at the monthly scale between 1982 and 2003, and; significant spatial and seasonal variability of relationships between topography and stream nitrate fluxes across space and over time.

12-08 Semkin, R.G., D.S. Jeffries, R. Neureuther, G. Lahaie, M. McAulay, F. Norouzian and J. Franklyn. 2012. Summary of hydrological and meteorological measurements in the Turkey Lakes Watershed, Algoma, Ontario, 1980-2010. Water Science and Technology Directorate Contribution No. 11-145. Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON, 85 p.

Summary:  This report represents an update of the hydrometeorological summary report for the 1980-1999 period in support of ongoing research into the effects of atmospheric deposition (particularly acidic precipitation) on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in TLW. Results are presented for: precipitation quantity and hydrology at six gauging stations; 24-hour mean air temperature; wind speed and direction; relative humidity and vapour pressure; barometric pressure; solar radiation; basin-wide surveys of snow water equivalent during the periods of accumulation and ablation, and; the impact of the El Niňo/La Niňa Southern Oscillation on precipitation and hydrology in the watershed and on long-wave solar radiation. 

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