Substituted Diphenylamines (SDPAs) - information sheet
Updated October 28, 2020:
The Final Screening Assessment for Substituted Diphenylamines (SDPAs) was published on December 9, 2017, under the Substance Groupings Initiative of the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP). The assessment is summarized in this information sheet and has not changed. The section in this information sheet entitled "Preventive actions and reducing risk" communicates updates in risk management activities, namely:
- Deletion of BNST from Schedule 1 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999).
On this page
- About these substances
- Exposure of Canadians and the environment
- Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
- Risk assessment outcomes
- Preventive actions and reducing risk
- Related information
- The Government of Canada conducted a science-based evaluation, called a screening assessment, to address the potential for harm to Canadians and to the environment from substances in the SDPA grouping.
- Under CEPA 1999, the risk posed by a substance is determined by considering both its hazardous properties (its potential to cause adverse human health or ecological effects) and the amount of exposure there is to people or to the environment. A substance may have hazardous properties; however, the risk to human health or to the environment may be low depending on the level of exposure.
- More information on assessing risk can be found in the overview of Risk Assessment and related fact sheets, particularly on Types of Risk Assessment Documents and the Risk Assessment Toolbox.
- As a result of the screening assessment, it was concluded that 14 SDPAs, including BNST, are not harmful to human health or to the environment, at levels of exposure considered in the assessment.
About these substances
- Fourteen substituted diphenylamines (SDPAs) with similar chemical structures and physical-chemical properties were assessed as part of the Substance Groupings Initiative of the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP).
- One of these substances is benzenamine, N-phenyl-, reaction products with styrene and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene, also known as BNST (CAS RN 68921-45-9).
- BNST was previously assessed in 2009 as part of the Challenge Initiative. At that time, BNST was concluded as entering the environment at levels that may constitute a danger to the environment. However, based on new information obtained on SDPAs, BNST is no longer considered harmful to the environment.
- The 14 SDPAs are industrial chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment.
- In Canada, SDPAs are mainly used as antioxidants in automotive and industrial lubricants, but also have some use in the manufacture of plastics or polyurethane foams and rubber products. SDPAs may be used as alternatives for each other.
Human and ecological exposures
- Exposure of Canadians to SDPAs from the environment (for example, air, water, sediment or soil) is expected to be low.
- Exposure of Canadians to SDPAs from the use of products available to consumers, such as foam cushioning and automotive lubricants, is expected to be low.
- In Canada, SDPA manufacturing is expected to be the predominant sector leading to the release of these substances to the aquatic environment.
- SDPAs also have the potential to be released to the environment during industrial activities (for example, blending lubricants, manufacturing plastic and rubber products) or during the use of lubricants.
Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
- Some SDPA substances are associated with health effects to the liver and blood. These effects were considered the critical or important effects for characterizing risk to human health in this assessment.
- The potential for adverse effects from SDPAs in the environment is low. However, these substances are persistent, and certain SDPAs that have a higher potential to be taken up by organisms have a higher relative ecological hazard potential.
Risk assessment outcomes
- Results of the final screening assessment indicate that the environmental concentrations of SDPAs are below the level expected to cause harm to organisms.
- Based upon a comparison of levels to which Canadians can be exposed, and the levels associated with health effects, it was determined that the risk to human health from the 14 SDPAs is low.
- The Government of Canada published the Final Screening Assessment for Substituted Diphenylamines on December 9, 2017.
Screening assessment conclusions
- As a result of the screening assessment, the Government concluded that the 14 SDPAs, including BNST, are not harmful to human health at levels of exposure considered in the assessment.
- The Government also concluded that these substances are not entering the environment at levels that are harmful to the environment.
Preventive actions and reducing risk
- Given the change in conclusion for BNST, as a result of the SDPAs Grouping assessment, the Government has published an order to delete BNST from Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999, also called the List of Toxic Substances.
- The Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations, 2012, were also amended to remove the restrictions on BNST.
- Although the 14 SDPAs are not considered to be harmful to human health or the environment at current levels of exposure, some of the substances contain chemical structures that are available for uptake in organisms. Therefore, there may be a concern if exposures were to increase.
- Follow-up activities for the 9 substances identified by CAS RNs 4175-37-5, 10081-67-1, 27177-41-9, 36878-20-3, 68411-46-1, 68442-68-2, 68608-79-7, 68921-45-9, and 184378-08-3 will involve including the substances in future information gathering initiatives, such as a mandatory survey under section 71 of CEPA 1999.
- The Government will use the data gathered through these follow-up activities to prioritize further information gathering or risk assessment of these substances, if required.
- Some SDPAs may be found in products available to consumers. Canadians should follow any safety warnings and directions related to the product and dispose of products responsibly. Products, including used oils, can be returned through the appropriate product stewardship program in their jurisdiction.
- The screening assessment focused on potential risks from exposure of the general population of Canada, rather than occupational exposure. Hazards related to chemicals used in the workplace are defined within the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. For information concerning workplace health and safety and what steps to take in the workplace, Canadians should consult their employer and/or the Occupational Health and Safety Regulator in their jurisdiction.
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