Page 7 - Fifth Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada

Appendix A: Limits of detection

Laboratory analyses of environmental chemicals and creatinine were performed at analytical laboratories within Health Canada, l'Institut national de santé publique du Québec, and the ALS Laboratory Group. Laboratories developed standardized operating procedures for the analytical methods used to measure environmental chemicals or their metabolites in biological samples. The limit of detection (LOD) is defined as the lowest concentration of the analyte whose analytical response is measured to be greater than the noise level with 99% confidence and evaluated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology (EPA, 2015).

Table A-1: Limits of detection
Chemical Cycle 1
(2007–2009)
Cycle 2
(2009–2011)
Cycle 3
(2012–2013)
Cycle 4
(2014–2015)
Cycle 5
(2016–2017)
Metals and trace elements in blood
Lead 0.02 µg/dL 0.1 µg/dL 0.16 µg/dL 0.16 µg/dL 0.17 μg/dL
Cadmium 0.04 µg/L 0.04 µg/L 0.080 µg/L 0.080 µg/L 0.097 µg/L
Chromium (VI)Table A-1 footnote a 0.12 µg/L
Selenium 8 μg/L 20 μg/L 32 µg/L
Mercury Mercury (total) 0.1 µg/L 0.1 µg/L 0.42 µg/L 0.42 µg/L 0.20 µg/L
Methylmercury 0.19 µg/L 0.19 µg/L 0.19 µg/L
Mercury (inorganic) 0.4 µg/L 0.22 µg/L
Metals and trace elements in urine
Boron 160 µg/L
Cadmium 0.09 μg/L 0.07 μg/L 0.066 µg/L
Arsenic (speciated) Arsenate 0.8 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.14 μg As/L
Arsenite 0.8 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.25 μg As/L
Arsenocholine and arsenobetaine 0.8 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.10 μg As/L
Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) 0.8 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.14 μg As/L
Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) 0.8 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.75 µg As/L 0.13 μg As/L
Metals and trace elements in hair
Aluminum 0.10 µg/g
Antimony 0.0020 µg/g
Arsenic 0.0050 µg/g
Barium 0.030 µg/g
Beryllium 0.030 µg/g
Bismuth 0.010 µg/g
Cadmium 0.010 µg/g
Chromium 0.020 µg/g
Cobalt 0.0010 µg/g
Copper 0.10 µg/g
Lead 0.0050 µg/g
Lithium 0.010 µg/g
Manganese 0.020 µg/g
Mercury (total) 0.0050 µg/g
Molybdenum 0.0020 µg/g
Nickel 0.020 µg/g
Platinum 0.0010 µg/g
Selenium 0.010 µg/g
Silver 0.010 µg/g
Tellurium 0.0020 µg/g
Thallium 0.00020 µg/g
Thorium 0.10 µg/g
Uranium 0.0015 µg/g
Vanadium 0.0010 µg/g
Zinc 5.0 µg/g
Self-care and consumer product chemicals
Bisphenol A (BPA) 0.2 µg/L 0.2 µg/L 0.23 µg/L 0.23 µg/L 0.32 µg/L
Parabens Methyl paraben 1.3 µg/L 1.3 µg/L 1.3 µg/L
Ethyl paraben 0.90 µg/L 0.90 µg/L 0.90 µg/L
Propyl paraben 0.30 µg/L 0.30 µg/L 0.30 µg/L
Butyl paraben 0.30 µg/L 0.30 µg/L 0.30 µg/L
Nicotine
Cotinine 1 µg/L 1 µg/L 1.1 µg/L 1.1 µg/L 1.1 µg/L
Acrylamide
Acrylamide haemoglobin adduct 11 pmol/g Hb 11 pmol/g Hb 11 pmol/g Hb
Glycidamide haemoglobin adduct 23 pmol/g Hb 23 pmol/g Hb 23 pmol/g Hb
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) 0.5 μg/L 0.075 µg/L
Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) 0.4 μg/L 0.066 µg/L
Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) 0.1 μg/L 0.084 µg/L
Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) 0.3 μg/L 0.2 μg/L 0.063 µg/L
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 0.3 μg/L 0.1 μg/L 0.066 µg/L
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) 0.3 μg/L 0.3 μg/L 0.43 µg/L
Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) 0.2 μg/L 0.13 µg/L
Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) 0.1 μg/L 0.092 µg/L
Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) 0.09 μg/L 0.12 µg/L
Pesticides
Ethylene thiourea (ETU) 0.033 µg/L
Organophosphate pesticides Dimethylphosphate (DMP) 0.8 μg/L 1 μg/L  0.58 µg/L
Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) 0.6 μg/L 0.6 μg/L 0.44 µg/L
Dimethyldithiophosphate
(DMDTP)
0.09 μg/L 0.3 μg/L 0.093 µg/L
Diethylphosphate (DEP) 0.5 μg/L 1 μg/L 0.29 µg/L
Diethylthiophosphate (DETP) 0.08 μg/L 0.3 μg/L 0.13 µg/L
Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) 0.06 μg/L 0.3 μg/L 0.067 µg/L
3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) 0.13 μg/L 0.13 μg/L
Malathion dicarboxylic acid (DCA) 0.19 μg/L 0.19 μg/L
Acephate 0.018 μg/L
Methamidophos 0.028 μg/L
ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) OPP-glucuronide 0.15 µg/L
OPP-sulfate 0.092 µg/L
Pyrethroids 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) 0.01 μg/L 0.01 μg/L 0.012 µg/L
4-Fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4-F-3-PBA) 0.008 μg/L 0.008 μg/L 0.0060 µg/L
cis-3-(2,2-Dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DBCA) 0.006 μg/L 0.006 μg/L 0.0059 µg/L
cis-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA) 0.007 μg/L 0.007 μg/L 0.0045 µg/L
trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) 0.01 μg/L 0.01 μg/L 0.0094 µg/L
Plasticizers
Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) 5 μg/L 5 μg/L 0.21 µg/L
Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) 0.5 μg/L 0.3 μg/L 0.98 µg/L
Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) 0.2 μg/L 0.06 μg/L 0.14 µg/L
Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) 0.2 μg/L 0.2 μg/L 0.60 µg/L
Monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) 0.1 μg/L 0.57 µg/L
Mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (3OH-MBP) 0.079 µg/L
Monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP) 0.2 μg/L 0.09 μg/L 0.25 µg/L
Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) 0.2 μg/L 0.05 μg/L 0.37 µg/L
Mono[2-(carboxymethyl)hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP) 0.27 µg/L
Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) 0.2 μg/L 0.08 μg/L 0.11 µg/L
Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) 0.28 µg/L
Mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) 0.2 μg/L 0.1 μg/L 0.17 µg/L
Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) 0.4 μg/L 0.4 μg/L 0.22 µg/L
Mono-carboxy-n-heptyl phthalate (MCHpP) 0.083 µg/L
Mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) 0.7 μg/L 0.3 μg/L 0.16 µg/L
Mono(carboxyisooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP) 0.30 µg/L
Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) 0.4 μg/L 0.3 μg/L 0.37 µg/L
Monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCiNP) 0.077 µg/L
Monooxoisononyl phthalate (MOiNP) 0.15 µg/L
Monohydroxyisononyl phthalate (MHiNP) 0.065 µg/L
Monoisodecyl phthalate (MiDP) 0.16 µg/L
Monooxoisodecyl phthalate (MOiDP) 0.097 µg/L
Monohydroxyisodecyl phthalate (MHiDP) 0.067 µg/L
Di(isononyl)cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono isononyl ester (trans-MINCH)  0.017 µg/L
Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono oxoisononyl ester (oxo-MINCH) 0.047 µg/L
Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono hydroxyisononyl ester (OH-MINCH) 0.078 µg/L
cis-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester (cis-cx-MINCH) 0.059 µg/L
trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-diarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester (trans-cx-MINCH) 0.33 µg/L
Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CHDA) 0.30 µg/L
2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB) 2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (TMPD) 1.7 µg/L
2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-hydroxy valeric acid (HTMV) 0.42 µg/L
Tri-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TEHT) 1-Mono(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (1-MEHTM) 0.22 µg/L
2-Mono(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (2-MEHTM) 0.16 µg/L
4-Mono(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (4-MEHTM) 0.098 µg/L
Volatile organic compounds
Benzene 0.0070 µg/L 0.0070 µg/L 0.022 µg/L
Carbon tetrachloride 0.005 µg/L
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 0.013 µg/L
2,5-Dimethylfuran 0.018 µg/L
Ethylbenzene 0.011 µg/L 0.011 µg/L 0.013 µg/L
Isopropylbenzene 0.010 µg/L
Methyl isobutyl ketone 0.029 µg/L
Nitrobenzene 1.1 µg/L
Styrene 0.012 µg/L 0.012 µg/L 0.011 µg/L
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 0.007 µg/L
Tetrachloroethylene 0.020 µg/L 0.020 µg/L 0.013 µg/L
Tetrahydrofuran 0.015 µg/L
Toluene 0.011 µg/L 0.011 µg/L 0.012 µg/L
Trichloroethylene 0.027 µg/L 0.027 µg/L 0.010 µg/L
Trihalomethanes Bromodichloromethane 0.012 µg/L 0.012 µg/L 0.005 µg/L
Dibromochloromethane 0.0070 µg/L 0.0070 µg/L 0.005 µg/L
Tribromomethane (bromoform) 0.010 µg/L 0.010 µg/L 0.013 µg/L
Trichloromethane (chloroform) 0.014 µg/L 0.014 µg/L 0.006 µg/L
Xylenes m-Xylene and p-xylene 0.023 µg/L 0.023 µg/L 0.005 µg/L
o-Xylene 0.0090 µg/L 0.0090 µg/L 0.006 µg/L
Adjustment factor
Creatinine 3 mg/dL 4 mg/dL 5.0 mg/dL 5.0 mg/dL 5.0 mg/dL

References

Appendix B: Conversion factors

Units of measurement are important. Results are reported here using standard units; however, units can be converted using the conversion factors presented below for comparison of data with other data sets.

Table B-1: Definition of units
Unit Abbreviation Value
litre L no data
decilitre dL 10-1 L
millilitre mL 10-3 L
microlitre µL 10-6 L
gram g no data
milligram mg 10-3 g
microgram µg 10-6 g
nanogram ng 10-9 g
picogram pg 10-12 g

For concentrations of environmental chemicals in blood and urine, data can be converted from μg/L to μmol/L using the molecular weight (MW) of the chemical and the formula:

Y µmol/L = X µg/L × conversion factor (CF), where the CF is equivalent to 1/MW.

For concentrations of environmental chemicals in hair, data can be converted from μg/g to μmol/g using the MW of the chemical and the formula:

Y µmol/g = X µg/g × CF, where the CF is equivalent to 1/MW.

Table B-2: Conversion factors for concentrations of environmental chemicals in blood and urine
Chemical MW
(g/mol)
CF
(µg/L → µmol/L)
Metals and trace elements
Lead 207.20 0.04826Table B-2 footnote a
Boron 10.81 0.09251
Cadmium 112.41 0.00890
Chromium (VI) 52.00 0.01923
Selenium 78.97 0.01266
Arsenic (speciated) Arsenate 0.01335Table B-2 footnote b
Arsenite 0.01335Table B-2 footnote b
Arsenocholine and arsenobetaine 0.01335Table B-2 footnote b
Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) 0.01335Table B-2 footnote b
Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) 0.01335Table B-2 footnote b
Mercury Mercury (total) 200.59 0.00499
Methylmercury 215.63 0.00464
Mercury (inorganic) 200.59 0.00499
Self-care and consumer product chemicals
Bisphenol A (BPA) 228.29 0.00438
Parabens Methyl paraben 152.15 0.00657
Ethyl paraben 166.18 0.00602
Propyl paraben 180.20 0.00555
Butyl paraben 194.23 0.00515
Nicotine
Cotinine 176.22 0.00567
Acrylamide
Acrylamide haemoglobin adduct Table B-2 footnote c
Glycidamide haemoglobin adduct Table B-2 footnote c
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) 214.04 0.00467
Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) 300.10 0.00333
Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) 314.05 0.00318
Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) 400.11 0.00250
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 414.07 0.00242
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) 500.13 0.00200
Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) 464.08 0.00215
Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) 514.08 0.00195
Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) 564.09 0.00177
Pesticides
Ethylene thiourea (ETU) 102.16 0.00979
Organophosphate pesticides Dimethylphosphate (DMP) 126.05 0.00793
Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) 141.10 0.00709
Dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP) 158.17 0.00632
Diethylphosphate (DEP) 154.10 0.00649
Diethylthiophosphate (DETP) 170.16 0.00588
Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) 186.22 0.00537
3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) 198.43 0.00504
Malathion dicarboxylic acid (DCA) 274.24 0.00365
Acephate 183.16 0.00546
Methamidophos 141.13 0.00709
ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) OPP-glucuronide 346.34 0.00289
OPP-sulfate 249.27 0.00401
Pyrethroids 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) 214.22 0.00467
4-Fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4-F-3-PBA) 232.21 0.00431
cis-3-(2,2-Dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DBCA) 297.97 0.00336
cis-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA) 209.07 0.00478
trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) 209.07 0.00478
Plasticizers
Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) 180.16 0.00555
Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) 194.18 0.00515
Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) 252.22 0.00396
Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) 222.24 0.00450
Monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) 222.24 0.00450
Mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (3OH-MBP) 238.24 0.00420
Monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP) 248.27 0.00403
Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) 256.25 0.00390
Mono[2-(carboxymethyl)hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP) 308.33 0.00324
Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) 278.34 0.00359
Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) 308.33 0.00324
Mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) 292.33 0.00342
Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) 294.34 0.00340
Mono-carboxy-n-heptyl phthalate (MCHpP) 308.13 0.00325
Mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) 278.34 0.00359
Mono(carboxyisooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP) 322.35 0.00310
Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) 292.37 0.00342
Monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCiNP) 336.38 0.00297
Monooxoisononyl phthalate (MOiNP) 306.35 0.00326
Monohydroxyisononyl phthalate (MHiNP) 308.37 0.00324
Monoisodecyl phthalate (MiDP) 306.18 0.00327
Monooxoisodecyl phthalate (MOiDP) 320.38 0.00312
Monohydroxyisodecyl phthalate (MHiDP) 322.40 0.00310
Di(isononyl)cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono isononyl ester (trans-MINCH) 298.42 0.00335
Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono oxoisononyl ester (oxo-MINCH) 312.40 0.00320
Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono hydroxyisononyl ester (OH-MINCH) 314.42 0.00318
cis-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester (cis-cx-MINCH) 326.40 0.00306
trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-diarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester (trans-cx-MINCH) 326.40 0.00306
Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CHDA) 172.18 0.00581
2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB) 2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (TMPD) 146.23 0.00684
2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-hydroxy valeric acid (HTMV) 160.21 0.00624
Tri-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TEHT) 1-Mono(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (1-MEHTM) 322.36 0.00310
2-Mono(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (2-MEHTM) 322.36 0.00310
4-Mono(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (4-MEHTM) 322.36 0.00310
Volatile organic compounds
Benzene 78.11 0.01280
Carbon tetrachloride 153.81 0.00650
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 147.00 0.00680
2,5-Dimethylfuran 96.13 0.01040
Ethylbenzene 106.17 0.00942
Isopropylbenzene 120.20 0.00832
Methyl isobutyl ketone 100.16 0.00998
Nitrobenzene 123.11 0.00812
Styrene 104.15 0.00960
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 167.84 0.00596
Tetrachloroethylene 165.83 0.00603
Tetrahydrofuran 72.11 0.01387
Toluene 92.14 0.01085
Trichloroethylene 131.39 0.00761
Trihalomethanes Bromodichloromethane 163.83 0.00610
Dibromochloromethane 208.28 0.00480
Tribromomethane (bromoform) 252.73 0.00396
Trichloromethane (chloroform) 119.38 0.00838
Xylenes m-Xylene and p-xylene 106.17 0.00942
Xylenes o-Xylene 106.17 0.00942
Adjustment factor
Creatinine 113.12 88.4Table B-2 footnote d
Table B-3: Conversion factors for concentrations of environmental chemicals in hair
Chemical MW
(g/mol)
CF
(µg/g → µmol/g)
Metals and trace elements
Aluminum 26.98 0.03706
Antimony 95.95 0.01042
Arsenic 121.76 0.00821
Barium 58.69 0.01704
Beryllium 74.92 0.01335
Bismuth 78.97 0.01266
Cadmium 137.33 0.00728
Chromium 107.87 0.00927
Cobalt 9.01 0.11099
Copper 200.59 0.00499
Lead 208.98 0.00479
Lithium 127.60 0.00784
Manganese 112.41 0.00890
Mercury (total) 63.55 0.01574
Molybdenum 204.38 0.00489
Nickel 52.00 0.01923
Platinum 232.04 0.00431
Selenium 58.93 0.01697
Silver 195.08 0.00513
Tellurium 238.03 0.00420
Thallium 207.20 0.00483
Thorium 50.94 0.01963
Uranium 6.94 0.14409
Vanadium 65.38 0.01530
Zinc 54.94 0.01820

Appendix C: Creatinine

Table C-1: Creatinine — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (mg/dL) for the Canadian population aged 6–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009)
Cycle n GM
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 6–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 5515 83
(78–89)
27
(23–30)
93
(86–99)
210
(200–220)
250
(240–260)
Males, 6–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 2663 100
(97–110)
36
(28–43)
110
(100–110)
230
(220–240)
270
(250–280)
Females, 6–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 2852 68
(62–74)
22
(18–25)
75
(66–84)
180
(160–190)
210
(200–230)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1042 66
(60–72)
24
(18–29)
74
(67–81)
140
(130–150)
170
(160–180)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 992 120
(110–130)
39
(30–47)
130
(120–140)
250
(230–280)
300
(260–330)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1172 90
(81–100)
29
(22–36)
99
(91–110)
230
(210–240)
280
(250–300)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1221 78
(73–84)
24
(19–28)
86
(76–96)
210
(190–230)
240
(230–250)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1088 72
(68–75)
26
(22–31)
81
(77–85)
150
(140–160)
190
(170–220)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean

Note: The LOD for cycle 1 is 3 mg/dL.

Table C-2: Creatinine — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (mg/dL) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011)
Cycle n GM
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 6299 100
(100–110)
35
(33–38)
110
(110–120)
240
(230–260)
280
(270–300)
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 3031 120
(120–130)
47
(42–53)
130
(120–150)
260
(240–280)
310
(280–340)
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 3268 89
(85–94)
30
(27–32)
100
(96–100)
200
(180–230)
250
(240–270)
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011) 572 59
(55–63)
26
(24–29)
61
(55–67)
110
(110–120)
140
(110–160)
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011) 1059 88
(83–94)
37
(33–42)
98
(94–100)
170
(160–170)
190
(170–210)
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 1042 130
(120–150)
52
(36–68)
150
(140–160)
270
(260–280)
300
(270–340)
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 1322 120
(110–130)
37
(25–48)
140
(130–160)
260
(250–280)
330
(270–380)
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 1223 100
(96–110)
33
(27–40)
110
(100–120)
240
(220–260)
280
(260–310)
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1081 85
(80–89)
32
(26–37)
96
(90–100)
180
(170–200)
230
(210–260)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean

Note: The LOD for cycle 2 is 4 mg/dL.

Table C-3: Creatinine — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (mg/dL) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013)
Cycle n GM
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 5704 97
(93–100)
33
(29–37)
100
(100–110)
240
(220–250)
280
(250–300)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2847 110
(110–120)
40
(35–46)
120
(110–130)
260
(230–280)
300
(260–340)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2857 83
(76–90)
26
(21–30)
93
(81–110)
210
(190–240)
250
(220–270)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 521 51
(45–58)
19
(14–24)
58
(51–65)
110
(99–110)
120
(110–120)
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 1013 84
(77–92)
35
(28–42)
93
(82–100)
160
(150–180)
200
(170–230)
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 998 130
(120–150)
52
(37–66)
150
(140–160)
280
(260–300)
320
(290–360)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 1048 110
(98–120)
36
(26–45)
110
(97–130)
270
(220–320)
330
(290–380)
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 1080 95
(86–110)
34
(24–44)
110
(98–110)
220
(200–250)
250
(230–280)
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1044 84
(76–91)
26
(19–32)
96
(89–100)
190
(170–210)
230
(210–240)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean

Note: The LOD for cycle 3 is 5.0 mg/dL.

Table C-4: Creatinine — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (mg/dL) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 4 (2014–2015)
Cycle n GM
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
4 (2014–2015) 5603 110
(110–120)
40
(35–46)
110
(110–120)
250
(240–260)
290
(270–310)
Males, 3–79 years
4 (2014–2015) 2815 130
(120–140)
50
(40–60)
140
(120–150)
270
(250–290)
320
(310–330)
Females, 3–79 years
4 (2014–2015) 2788 98
(94–100)
35
(30–39)
100
(98–100)
230
(210–240)
260
(250–270)
3–5 years
4 (2014–2015) 513 58
(51–65)
22
(15–29)
66
(58–73)
110
(99–120)
130
(120–150)
6–11 years
4 (2014–2015) 1008 90
(84–98)
35
(24–45)
99
(94–100)
170
(150–190)
210
(170–250)
12–19 years
4 (2014–2015) 991 140
(130–150)
54
(46–61)
150
(140–170)
280
(270–300)
350
(320–370)
20–39 years
4 (2014–2015) 1059 130
(120–140)
41
(36–47)
140
(130–160)
290
(260–320)
350
(320–390)
40–59 years
4 (2014–2015) 1037 110
(100–120)
41
(29–54)
110
(110–120)
240
(220–260)
270
(260–280)
60–79 years
4 (2014–2015) 995 100
(97–110)
37
(32–42)
100
(100–110)
200
(180–220)
240
(210–270)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean

Note: The LOD for cycle 4 is 5.0 mg/dL.

Table C-5: Creatinine — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (mg/dL) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n GM
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 5618 98
(92–100)
32
(29–36)
100
(97–110)
230
(220–240)
260
(240–280)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2803 110
(110–120)
43
(35–50)
120
(110–130)
240
(230–250)
280
(250–320)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2815 84
(79–90)
28
(24–32)
92
(84–99)
210
(190–230)
240
(230–260)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 546 59
(52–66)
26
(22–30)
68
(60–76)
110
(98–120)
130
(110–140)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 1006 86
(81–92)
37
(32–43)
92
(85–99)
160
(150–170)
190
(160–220)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 1005 140
(120–150)
58
(47–69)
150
(130–170)
290
(250–320)
340
(300–380)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 1057 110
(93–120)
33
(22–44)
120
(100–140)
250
(230–270)
290
(250–330)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1007 94
(85–100)
29
(20–37)
98
(90–110)
230
(210–250)
250
(230–270)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 997 88
(83–93)
32
(27–36)
97
(93–100)
190
(180–210)
220
(210–240)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 5.0 mg/dL.

Appendix D: Biomonitoring of metals and trace elements in hair

Overview

The first nationally representative data for 25 metals and trace elements in hair of Canadians are presented here. These data were collected between January 2016 and December 2017 as part of cycle 5 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) from approximately 2,000 Canadians aged 20–59 years at 16 sites across Canada.

The metals and trace elements measured in hair of individual respondents in cycle 5 of the CHMS are listed in Table D-1.

Table D-1: Metals and trace elements measured in hair of Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017) participants aged 20–59 years
Chemical Symbol CASRN
Aluminum Al 7429-90-5
Antimony Sb 7440-36-0
Arsenic As 7440-38-2
Barium Ba 7440-39-3
Beryllium Be 7440-41-7
Bismuth Bi 7440-69-9
Cadmium Cd 7440-43-9
Chromium Cr 7440-47-3
Cobalt Co 7440-48-4
Copper Cu 7440-50-8
Lead Pb 7439-92-1
Lithium Li 7439-93-2
Manganese Mn 7439-96-5
Mercury (total) Hg 7439-97-6
Molybdenum Mo 7439-98-7
Nickel Ni 7440-02-0
Platinum Pt 7440-06-4
Selenium Se 7782-49-2
Silver Ag 7440-22-4
Tellurium Te 13494-80-9
Thallium Tl 7440-28-0
Thorium Th 7440-29-1
Uranium U 7440-61-1
Vanadium V 7440-62-2
Zinc Zn 7440-66-6

Metals and trace elements can accumulate in hair as it grows, making it a useful matrix to measure both recent and long-term exposures. Chemicals can enter hair through internal and external exposure. Internal exposures (via inhalation, ingestion, etc.) are incorporated into growing hair through the blood supply following absorption of a chemical into the body. External exposures result in deposition onto hair from sources such as air, water, and product use. The amount of a chemical measured in hair indicates the total amount resulting from both internal and external exposures. As such, measurements in hair do not provide information about the source or route of the exposure.

Laboratory Analyses

Metal and trace element analyses in hair were performed at the Centre de toxicologie du Québec (CTQ), Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (INSPQ), Québec, Canada (INSPQ, 2018). Hair samples were collected from the occipital region of the head by cutting strands close to the scalp, clearly identifying the proximal (scalp) end of the samples. A minimum natural hair length of 2 cm was required and approximately 100 strands of full-length hair were collected. Segments of hair 2 cm to 3 cm in length were cut from the proximal end of the sample and digested overnight in pressurized Teflon bombs at 120°C under acidic conditions (concentrated nitric acid). The digest was then diluted in a solution of L-cysteine and gold, and analyzed for metals and trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method employed a PerkinElmer NexION 300S with a ESI-SC-2 autosampler. Results are expressed on a wet-weight basis. The analytical method was fully validated for clinical and monitoring purposes following ISO 17025 guidelines. Internal quality control was ensured by analyzing certified hair reference materials from the Japanese National Institute for Environmental Studies and the European Commission's Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements as well as non-certified materials from the Québec Multi-element External Quality Assessment Scheme (QMEQAS). External quality and accuracy of the analytical method was assessed by participating in interlaboratory comparison programs, including QMEQAS.

Biomonitoring in Canada

Of the 25 metals and trace elements measured in hair as part of the CHMS, existing Canadian hair biomonitoring data were identified for 15 of them. These metals and trace elements include aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. The majority of the studies reporting metals and trace elements in hair predate the 1990s; most were focused on either children or occupational and industrial exposures (Chattopadhyay and Jervis, 1974; Gibson and Dewolfe, 1979; Gibson et al., 1985; Gibson et al., 1989; Jervis et al., 1977; Moon et al., 1986; O'Toole et al., 1972; Randall and Gibson, 1989; Vanderkooy and Gibson, 1987). The remaining 10 metals and trace elements (barium, beryllium, bismuth, lithium, molybdenum, platinum, silver, tellurium, thallium, and thorium) were not identified in hair biomonitoring literature in Canada for any time period. This summary focuses on recent data (1990 onward) available for a subset of metals and trace elements, namely arsenic, manganese, mercury, selenium, uranium, and zinc.

Of the six metals and trace elements for which there are recent Canadian biomonitoring data in hair, mercury is the most studied. Concentration of mercury in hair and blood indicates methylmercury exposure, while urine concentrations generally indicate inorganic mercury exposure. The normal level of mercury in hair is 1 µg/g to 2 µg/g, but people who consume fish one or more times per day may have mercury levels in hair exceeding 10 µg/g (UNEP/WHO, 2008). In Canada, a comprehensive overview of studies measuring mercury in hair is presented in the Canadian Mercury Science Assessment Report (CMSAR) (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2016). The geometric mean hair mercury levels presented in the CMSAR ranged from 0.23 µg/g to 2.8 µg/g for various groups in the Canadian adult population. The highest concentrations were reported for James Bay sport fishermen (Bélanger et al., 2008). In Northern Canada, a biomonitoring project was carried out among Dene/Métis communities of the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories from 2016 to 2018 (Ratelle et al., 2018). The geometric mean concentration for mercury in hair was 0.39 μg/g based upon measures from 279 participants (aged six years and older).

Health Canada has established a methylmercury hair guidance value of 6 µg/g for the general adult population; levels below this value are considered within the normal acceptable range (Health Canada, 2004). For individuals under 18 years of age, pregnant women, and women of childbearing age (under 50 years of age), Health Canada has proposed a provisional methylmercury blood guidance value of 8 µg/L for the protection of the developing nervous system, which is equivalent to a methylmercury hair guidance value of 2 µg/g (Legrand et al., 2010).

Studies measuring levels of arsenic, manganese, selenium, uranium, or zinc in hair have been conducted in various locations and subpopulations in Canada since 1990. Studies examining arsenic in hair reported average, geometric mean, or median levels ranging from 0.018 to 0.15 µg/g in adults (Spallholz et al., 2005; Nieboer et al., 2017; Normandin et al., 2014). Studies measuring levels of manganese in hair have focused on children (6 to 13 years of age) and reported geometric mean levels ranging from 0.29 to 0.70 µg/g (Bouchard et al., 2011; Dion et al., 2018; Ntihabose et al., 2018). Selenium in hair was reported to have a mean concentration of 0.546 µg/g in adults (Spallholz et al., 2005). Levels of uranium measured in hair from a small sample of active and retired Canadian Forces personnel were reported to range from 0.0018 µg/g to 0.354 µg/g (Ough et al., 2002). A potential exposure source in this study may be depleted uranium munitions resulting from active duty overseas. Lastly, a mean level of zinc in hair of 115 µg/g was reported in children two to six years old (Vaghri et al., 2008).

Data Analysis

Tables D-2 to D-26 present each metal and trace element measured in hair in cycle 5. The data tables include the sample size (n), detection frequency, geometric mean (GM), and the 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles, with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For each chemical, results are presented for the total population as well as by sex and age group. While the numbers of male and female respondents were similar, the minimum requirement of 2 cm of natural hair length resulted in a greatly reduced final male sample size. Measurements that fell below the LOD for the laboratory analytical method were assigned a value equal to half the LOD. If the proportion of results below the LOD was greater than 40%, GMs were not calculated. Percentile estimates that are less than the LOD are reported as <LOD. LOD values for each chemical are provided alongside their respective data tables and in Appendix A. Conversion factors to assist in the comparison of data from other studies that report different units are provided in Appendix B. Finding a measurable amount of a chemical in hair is an indicator of exposure to that chemical and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table D-2: Aluminum — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 1207 100 5.3
(4.5–6.2)
2.2
(1.7–2.7)
5.2
(4.2–6.2)
12
(8.2–16)
18Table D-2 footnote E
(11–26)
Males, 20-59 years
5 291 100 6.9
(5.4–8.9)
2.7
(1.8–3.7)
6.5
(4.3–8.8)
23Table D-2 footnote E
(13–32)
29
(20–37)
Females, 20-59 years
5 916 100 4.8
(4.0–5.8)
2.1
(1.6–2.7)
4.6
(3.6–5.6)
11
(8.7–13)
16
(11–22)
20-39 years
5 608 100 5.2
(4.5–6.1)
2.3
(1.8–2.9)
5.0
(4.1–5.9)
11
(8.7–14)
15
(11–19)
40-59 years
5 599 100 5.3
(4.3–6.6)
2.0
(1.6–2.5)
5.3
(3.9–6.7)
15Table D-2 footnote E
(7.6–23)
24Table D-2 footnote E
(14–33)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.10 μg/g.

Table D-3: Antimony — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1204 100 0.041
(0.029–0.058)
0.011Table D-3 footnote E
(0.0058–0.016)
0.039Table D-3 footnote E
(0.024–0.054)
0.13Table D-3 footnote E
(0.052–0.20)
0.24Table D-3 footnote E
(0.089–0.39)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 290 100 0.060
(0.042–0.085)
0.020Table D-3 footnote E
(0.011–0.029)
0.052Table D-3 footnote E
(0.030–0.073)
0.18Table D-3 footnote E
(0.080–0.28)
Table footnote F
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 914 100 0.037Table D-3 footnote E
(0.025–0.053)
0.010Table D-3 footnote E
(0.0061–0.014)
0.035Table D-3 footnote E
(0.020–0.050)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 606 100 0.039
(0.027–0.056)
0.011Table D-3 footnote E
(0.0059–0.016)
0.040Table D-3 footnote E
(0.021–0.060)
0.10
(0.070–0.13)
0.15Table D-3 footnote E
(0.047–0.26)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 598 100 0.043
(0.030–0.062)
0.011Table D-3 footnote E
(0.0054–0.017)
0.038Table D-3 footnote E
(0.024–0.053)
Table footnote F 0.30Table D-3 footnote E
(0.087–0.51)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0020 μg/g.

Table D-4: Arsenic — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1206 89.9
(81.8–94.6)
0.019
(0.016–0.023)
<LOD 0.020
(0.018–0.023)
0.053
(0.044–0.062)
0.069
(0.056–0.082)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 98.6
(89.1–99.8)
0.037
(0.028–0.047)
0.014Table D-4 footnote E
(0.0082–0.019)
0.033
(0.026–0.040)
0.097Table D-4 footnote E
(0.060–0.13)
0.15Table D-4 footnote E
(0.060–0.24)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 915 87.1
(77.6–92.9)
0.016
(0.014–0.018)
<LOD 0.018
(0.017–0.020)
0.038
(0.033–0.044)
0.052
(0.045–0.059)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 608 95.5
(92.4–97.4)
0.023
(0.020–0.026)
0.0090
(0.0064–0.012)
0.023
(0.019–0.027)
0.053
(0.045–0.060)
0.063
(0.052–0.073)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 598 84.4
(70.3–92.5)
0.017
(0.012–0.022)
<LOD 0.018
(0.015–0.021)
0.058Table D-4 footnote E
(0.037–0.079)
0.072Table D-4 footnote E
(0.036–0.11)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0050 μg/g.

Table D-5: Barium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-5 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 98.9
(91.7–99.9)
0.53
(0.41–0.69)
0.12Table D-5 footnote E
(0.052–0.19)
0.56
(0.42–0.69)
1.9Table D-5 footnote E
(1.1–2.7)
3.5Table D-5 footnote E
(1.7–5.4)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 98.9
(94.3–99.8)
0.39
(0.30–0.51)
0.10Table D-5 footnote E
(0.045–0.16)
0.39
(0.30–0.49)
1.3Table D-5 footnote E
(0.80–1.9)
1.6Table D-5 footnote E
(0.97–2.2)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 98.9
(89.5–99.9)
0.59
(0.44–0.79)
0.14Table D-5 footnote E
(0.061–0.22)
0.60
(0.45–0.74)
2.2Table D-5 footnote E
(1.0–3.4)
4.0Table D-5 footnote E
(1.4–6.5)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 98.2
(82.6–99.8)
0.47
(0.33–0.67)
0.12Table D-5 footnote E
(0.043–0.19)
0.47Table D-5 footnote E
(0.27–0.67)
1.6Table D-5 footnote E
(0.47–2.8)
Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 99.5
(97.4–99.9)
0.60
(0.48–0.76)
0.14Table D-5 footnote E
(0.064–0.21)
0.58
(0.47–0.70)
2.2
(1.4–2.9)
4.1Table D-5 footnote E
(2.4–5.7)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.030 μg/g.

Table D-6: Beryllium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-6 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.030 μg/g.

Table D-7: Bismuth — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-7 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 44.8
(36.3–53.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.12Table D-7 footnote E
(0.038–0.20)
0.26Table D-7 footnote E
(0.14–0.38)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 36.8Table D-7 footnote E
(22.5–53.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.031Table D-7 footnote E
(0.016–0.045)
0.046Table D-7 footnote E
(0.018–0.074)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 47.4
(39.3–55.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.17Table D-7 footnote E
(0.072–0.27)
0.33Table D-7 footnote E
(0.16–0.51)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 42.5
(29.9–56.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.11Table D-7 footnote E
(0.040–0.19)
Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 47.0
(35.2–59.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.27Table D-7 footnote E
(0.081–0.45)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.010 μg/g.

Table D-8: Cadmium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-8 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 26.0
(18.6–35.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.028Table D-8 footnote E
(0.016–0.040)
Table footnote F
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 54.9
(39.1–69.7)
<LOD 0.010Table D-8 footnote E
(<LOD–0.017)
Table footnote F 0.24Table D-8 footnote E
(0.085–0.39)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 16.7
(11.8–23.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.017
(0.013–0.021)
0.024
(0.018–0.030)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 25.0Table D-8 footnote E
(16.3–36.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.028Table D-8 footnote E
(0.014–0.043)
Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 26.9Table D-8 footnote E
(17.5–39.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.027Table D-8 footnote E
(<LOD–0.045)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.010 μg/g.

Table D-9: Chromium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-9 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1207 99.6
(97.8–99.9)
0.12
(0.098–0.15)
0.047
(0.036–0.058)
0.10
(0.080–0.13)
0.34
(0.25–0.43)
0.54
(0.40–0.68)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 100 0.16
(0.12–0.22)
0.055Table D-9 footnote E
(0.035–0.076)
0.14Table D-9 footnote E
(0.083–0.20)
0.42Table D-9 footnote E
(0.12–0.71)
0.80Table D-9 footnote E
(0.22–1.4)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 916 99.4
(97.0–99.9)
0.11
(0.090–0.14)
0.046
(0.036–0.056)
0.10
(0.080–0.12)
0.30
(0.21–0.40)
0.52
(0.35–0.70)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 608 99.9
(97.7–100)
0.11
(0.094–0.14)
0.045
(0.039–0.052)
0.10
(0.078–0.13)
0.30
(0.23–0.37)
0.40
(0.32–0.47)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 599 99.2
(96.4–99.8)
0.13
(0.10–0.17)
0.053
(0.040–0.066)
0.11
(0.077–0.14)
0.44Table D-9 footnote E
(0.27–0.61)
0.65Table D-9 footnote E
(0.39–0.90)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.020 μg/g.

Table D-10: Cobalt — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-10 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 95.6
(75.6–99.3)
0.014Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0094–0.022)
Table footnote F 0.014Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0082–0.019)
0.070Table D-10 footnote E
(0.038–0.10)
0.11Table D-10 footnote E
(0.066–0.16)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 97.4
(85.1–99.6)
0.014
(0.0095–0.019)
0.0041Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0020–0.0063)
0.014Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0071–0.020)
Table footnote F 0.071Table D-10 footnote E
(0.033–0.11)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 95.0
(73.1–99.3)
0.015Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0089–0.024)
Table footnote F 0.014Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0076–0.020)
0.088Table D-10 footnote E
(0.049–0.13)
0.14Table D-10 footnote E
(0.076–0.21)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 95.6
(64.6–99.6)
0.013Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0070–0.023)
Table footnote F 0.010Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0035–0.017)
0.060Table D-10 footnote E
(0.030–0.090)
0.11Table D-10 footnote E
(0.033–0.20)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 95.5
(79.9–99.1)
0.016
(0.012–0.023)
0.0036Table D-10 footnote E
(0.0012–0.0059)
0.016
(0.011–0.021)
0.090Table D-10 footnote E
(0.055–0.13)
0.11Table D-10 footnote E
(0.064–0.17)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0010 μg/g.

Table D-11: Copper — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-11 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1208 100 19
(16–22)
9.9
(9.6–10)
16
(14–18)
42
(32–53)
69Table D-11 footnote E
(38–100)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 290 100 19
(17–22)
9.6
(8.7–10)
16
(14–19)
40
(32–47)
64Table D-11 footnote E
(31–98)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 100 19
(16–22)
10
(9.5–10)
16
(13–18)
43Table D-11 footnote E
(25–61)
70Table D-11 footnote E
(27–110)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 608 100 18
(15–21)
9.8
(9.5–10)
15
(12–18)
40
(27–52)
67Table D-11 footnote E
(29–100)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 100 20
(17–23)
10
(9.4–11)
16
(14–18)
43Table D-11 footnote E
(26–60)
70Table D-11 footnote E
(27–110)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.10 μg/g.

Table D-12: Lead — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-12 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 96.6
(83.5–99.4)
0.15Table D-12 footnote E
(0.099–0.23)
Table footnote F 0.16
(0.10–0.21)
0.75
(0.54–0.95)
1.3Table D-12 footnote E
(0.46–2.2)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 100 0.44
(0.31–0.63)
0.094
(0.061–0.13)
0.35Table D-12 footnote E
(0.19–0.51)
2.8Table D-12 footnote E
(1.1–4.4)
Table footnote F
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 95.5
(79.2–99.2)
0.11Table D-12 footnote E
(0.071–0.16)
Table footnote F 0.12
(0.092–0.15)
0.44
(0.34–0.55)
0.70Table D-12 footnote E
(0.43–0.96)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 95.7
(76.9–99.3)
0.14Table D-12 footnote E
(0.080–0.24)
Table footnote F 0.13Table D-12 footnote E
(0.070–0.19)
0.64Table D-12 footnote E
(0.29–0.98)
Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 97.5
(89.2–99.5)
0.17Table D-12 footnote E
(0.11–0.24)
Table footnote F 0.17
(0.12–0.22)
0.79
(0.51–1.1)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0050 μg/g.

Table D-13: Lithium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-13 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 61.7
(51.4–71.0)
<LOD 0.012
(0.010–0.015)
0.055
(0.036–0.073)
0.082Table D-13 footnote E
(0.048–0.12)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 61.1
(42.1–77.2)
<LOD 0.013Table D-13 footnote E
(<LOD–0.018)
0.059Table D-13 footnote E
(0.032–0.086)
Table footnote F
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 61.9
(52.2–70.8)
<LOD 0.012
(0.010–0.015)
0.053Table D-13 footnote E
(0.033–0.072)
0.081Table D-13 footnote E
(0.047–0.11)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 62.4
(48.6–74.5)
<LOD 0.012
(<LOD–0.015)
0.053
(0.035–0.070)
Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 61.0
(49.9–71.1)
<LOD 0.013
(<LOD–0.016)
0.059Table D-13 footnote E
(0.032–0.086)
0.083
(0.062–0.11)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.010 μg/g.

Table D-14: Manganese — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-14 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 100 0.18Table D-14 footnote E
(0.12–0.30)
0.063
(0.040–0.085)
0.15
(0.094–0.20)
Table footnote F 1.4Table D-14 footnote E
(0.38–2.4)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 100 0.27Table D-14 footnote E
(0.15–0.47)
0.076
(0.060–0.092)
Table footnote F 1.5Table D-14 footnote E
(0.54–2.5)
1.9Table D-14 footnote E
(0.81–2.9)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 100 0.16Table D-14 footnote E
(0.10–0.26)
0.058Table D-14 footnote E
(0.032–0.083)
0.13
(0.088–0.18)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 100 0.18Table D-14 footnote E
(0.11–0.29)
0.060Table D-14 footnote E
(0.034–0.086)
0.14
(0.087–0.19)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 100 0.19Table D-14 footnote E
(0.12–0.31)
0.063
(0.041–0.086)
0.16Table D-14 footnote E
(0.097–0.23)
0.80Table D-14 footnote E
(0.27–1.3)
1.3Table D-14 footnote E
(0.46–2.2)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.020 μg/g.

Table D-15: Mercury (total) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-15 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 97.5
(94.8–98.8)
0.19
(0.14–0.25)
0.028Table D-15 footnote E
(0.014–0.043)
0.23
(0.18–0.28)
0.97
(0.65–1.3)
1.4Table D-15 footnote E
(0.81–1.9)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 98.1
(91.6–99.6)
0.19Table D-15 footnote E
(0.12–0.29)
Table footnote F 0.21Table D-15 footnote E
(0.12–0.30)
0.97Table D-15 footnote E
(0.59–1.3)
1.4Table D-15 footnote E
(0.78–1.9)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 97.2
(93.0–98.9)
0.19
(0.14–0.26)
0.029Table D-15 footnote E
(0.0080–0.051)
0.24
(0.17–0.30)
0.96Table D-15 footnote E
(0.60–1.3)
1.3Table D-15 footnote E
(0.76–1.9)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 98.3
(92.8–99.6)
0.15
(0.12–0.19)
Table footnote F 0.17
(0.11–0.23)
0.79Table D-15 footnote E
(0.30–1.3)
1.1Table D-15 footnote E
(0.64–1.6)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 96.7
(91.7–98.7)
0.23
(0.16–0.33)
Table footnote F 0.28
(0.19–0.38)
1.0
(0.69–1.3)
1.6Table D-15 footnote E
(0.86–2.3)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0050 μg/g.

Table D-16: Molybdenum — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-16 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1208 100
(99.8–100)
0.034
(0.029–0.040)
0.019
(0.015–0.023)
0.032
(0.026–0.037)
0.055
(0.044–0.065)
0.076Table D-16 footnote E
(0.039–0.11)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 100 0.041
(0.032–0.052)
0.022
(0.016–0.027)
0.035
(0.027–0.043)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 917 100
(99.8–100)
0.032
(0.028–0.037)
0.018
(0.014–0.022)
0.030
(0.025–0.036)
0.050
(0.041–0.059)
0.069
(0.044–0.094)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 608 100 0.035
(0.031–0.040)
0.024
(0.021–0.026)
0.033
(0.028–0.038)
0.052
(0.045–0.059)
0.068
(0.046–0.090)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 100
(99.7–100)
0.033
(0.027–0.041)
0.017
(0.014–0.019)
0.030
(0.023–0.037)
0.061
(0.041–0.080)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0020 μg/g.

Table D-17: Nickel — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-17 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1207 100 0.31
(0.25–0.39)
0.11
(0.083–0.14)
0.31
(0.24–0.38)
0.86
(0.67–1.1)
1.2
(0.80–1.5)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 290 100 0.34
(0.27–0.43)
0.11Table D-17 footnote E
(0.059–0.16)
0.36
(0.24–0.47)
0.88
(0.71–1.0)
1.3Table D-17 footnote E
(0.79–1.8)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 917 100 0.30
(0.24–0.38)
0.11
(0.084–0.13)
0.30
(0.22–0.38)
0.84
(0.60–1.1)
1.2Table D-17 footnote E
(0.52–1.8)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 607 100 0.27
(0.21–0.35)
0.10
(0.068–0.13)
0.24
(0.16–0.31)
0.73Table D-17 footnote E
(0.46–1.0)
1.1Table D-17 footnote E
(0.39–1.9)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 100 0.36
(0.30–0.44)
0.12
(0.081–0.15)
0.37
(0.27–0.46)
0.91
(0.76–1.1)
1.2
(0.91–1.5)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.020 μg/g.

Table D-18: Platinum — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-18 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 32.6
(23.0–44.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.0024
(0.0019–0.0029)
0.0040Table D-18 footnote E
(0.0021–0.0060)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 32.8Table D-18 footnote E
(19.5–49.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.0021Table D-18 footnote E
(0.0011–0.0030)
Table footnote F
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 32.6
(23.1–43.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.0026
(0.0021–0.0031)
0.0040Table D-18 footnote E
(0.0021–0.0060)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 34.8Table D-18 footnote E
(21.5–51.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.0027
(0.0019–0.0036)
Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 30.6
(22.2–40.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.0022
(0.0018–0.0026)
0.0031Table D-18 footnote E
(0.0019–0.0043)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0010 μg/g.

Table D-19: Selenium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-19 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 100 0.64
(0.61–0.68)
0.49
(0.46–0.52)
0.63
(0.61–0.65)
0.77
(0.72–0.83)
0.83
(0.76–0.90)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 100 0.66
(0.64–0.69)
0.55
(0.53–0.58)
0.65
(0.62–0.68)
0.78
(0.73–0.84)
0.81
(0.76–0.86)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 100 0.63
(0.59–0.68)
0.48
(0.44–0.51)
0.63
(0.61–0.65)
0.77
(0.71–0.82)
0.84
(0.75–0.92)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 100 0.69
(0.62–0.75)
0.53
(0.49–0.57)
0.65
(0.62–0.67)
0.82
(0.74–0.90)
0.87
(0.78–0.96)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 100 0.60
(0.58–0.62)
0.46
(0.42–0.50)
0.61
(0.59–0.64)
0.73
(0.68–0.78)
0.78
(0.74–0.83)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.010 μg/g.

Table D-20: Silver — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-20 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1208 92.3
(86.0–95.9)
0.035
(0.029–0.042)
0.011Table D-20 footnote E
(<LOD–0.015)
0.032
(0.025–0.039)
0.13
(0.099–0.16)
0.23
(0.14–0.31)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 90.8
(77.2–96.6)
0.037
(0.026–0.053)
Table footnote F 0.033
(0.023–0.043)
0.17Table D-20 footnote E
(0.086–0.26)
Table footnote F
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 917 92.8
(86.2–96.3)
0.034
(0.028–0.042)
0.011
(<LOD–0.015)
0.029
(0.022–0.037)
0.12
(0.088–0.15)
0.20Table D-20 footnote E
(0.097–0.30)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 608 90.4
(80.1–95.7)
0.030
(0.023–0.039)
<LOD 0.025
(0.019–0.032)
0.10
(0.070–0.14)
0.17Table D-20 footnote E
(0.065–0.28)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 94.0
(87.2–97.3)
0.041
(0.033–0.050)
0.012
(<LOD–0.015)
0.036
(0.026–0.045)
0.16Table D-20 footnote E
(0.099–0.22)
0.28
(0.20–0.36)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.010 μg/g.

Table D-21: Tellurium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-21 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 13.3Table D-21 footnote E
(7.4–22.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.0023Table D-21 footnote E
(<LOD–0.0032)
0.0032Table D-21 footnote E
(0.0020–0.0045)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 13.9Table D-21 footnote E
(6.5–27.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.0025Table D-21 footnote E
(<LOD–0.0037)
0.0038Table D-21 footnote E
(<LOD–0.0061)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 13.2Table D-21 footnote E
(6.8–23.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.0023Table D-21 footnote E
(<LOD–0.0032)
0.0030Table D-21 footnote E
(<LOD–0.0041)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 13.1Table D-21 footnote E
(6.5–24.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.0022Table D-21 footnote E
(<LOD–0.0032)
0.0029Table D-21 footnote E
(<LOD–0.0045)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 13.6Table D-21 footnote E
(6.9–25.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.0024Table D-21 footnote E
(<LOD–0.0033)
0.0034Table D-21 footnote E
(0.0021–0.0047)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0020 μg/g.

Table D-22: Thallium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 74.2
(58.6–85.4)
0.00043Table D-22 footnote E
(0.00028–0.00067)
<LOD 0.00040Table D-22 footnote E
(0.00024–0.00056)
Table footnote F 0.0041Table D-22 footnote E
(0.0016–0.0067)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 79.5
(64.5–89.3)
0.00052Table D-22 footnote E
(0.00034–0.00078)
<LOD 0.00056
(0.00036–0.00076)
Table footnote F 0.0040Table D-22 footnote E
(0.0018–0.0061)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 72.5
(55.7–84.6)
0.00041Table D-22 footnote E
(0.00025–0.00065)
<LOD 0.00039
(0.00025–0.00054)
Table footnote F 0.0041Table D-22 footnote E
(0.0014–0.0069)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 82.2
(69.5–90.4)
0.00050
(0.00035–0.00070)
<LOD 0.00043Table D-22 footnote E
(0.00026–0.00059)
Table footnote F 0.0043Table D-22 footnote E
(0.0017–0.0069)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 66.5
(46.3–82.1)
0.00038Table D-22 footnote E
(0.00020–0.00070)
<LOD 0.00039Table D-22 footnote E
(<LOD–0.00062)
Table footnote F 0.0039Table D-22 footnote E
(0.0012–0.0065)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.00020 μg/g.

Table D-23: Thorium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-23 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1208 3.7Table D-23 footnote E
(2.0–6.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 917 3.3Table D-23 footnote E
(1.9–5.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 608 5.2Table D-23 footnote E
(2.7–9.9)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.10 μg/g

Table D-24: Uranium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-24 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1207 95.0
(83.9–98.6)
0.020Table D-24 footnote E
(0.012–0.034)
Table footnote F 0.024Table D-24 footnote E
(0.014–0.034)
0.088
(0.063–0.11)
0.14
(0.10–0.18)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 290 98.3
(92.4–99.7)
0.024Table D-24 footnote E
(0.014–0.040)
Table footnote F 0.028Table D-24 footnote E
(0.012–0.044)
Table footnote F 0.15Table D-24 footnote E
(0.094–0.21)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 917 94.0
(81.3–98.2)
0.019Table D-24 footnote E
(0.011–0.033)
Table footnote F 0.024Table D-24 footnote E
(0.014–0.033)
0.079
(0.056–0.10)
0.13
(0.10–0.15)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 608 96.4
(82.3–99.3)
0.023Table D-24 footnote E
(0.013–0.039)
Table footnote F 0.027Table D-24 footnote E
(0.015–0.039)
0.093Table D-24 footnote E
(0.058–0.13)
0.14
(0.10–0.18)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 599 93.7
(82.6–97.9)
0.018Table D-24 footnote E
(0.010–0.032)
Table footnote F 0.022Table D-24 footnote E
(0.012–0.032)
0.081
(0.052–0.11)
0.15Table D-24 footnote E
(0.082–0.21)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0015 μg/g.

Table D-25: Vanadium — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-25 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1209 97.2
(86.2–99.5)
0.0092
(0.0066–0.013)
0.0038Table D-25 footnote E
(0.0013–0.0062)
0.0092
(0.0069–0.012)
0.026
(0.017–0.035)
0.038Table D-25 footnote E
(0.023–0.052)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 291 99.0
(89.9–99.9)
0.012
(0.0083–0.017)
0.0048Table D-25 footnote E
(0.0024–0.0072)
0.010Table D-25 footnote E
(0.0058–0.014)
0.033Table D-25 footnote E
(0.019–0.048)
0.048Table D-25 footnote E
(0.026–0.071)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 96.6
(84.7–99.3)
0.0085
(0.0060–0.012)
Table footnote F 0.0085
(0.0062–0.011)
0.023Table D-25 footnote E
(0.014–0.031)
0.031Table D-25 footnote E
(0.017–0.045)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 609 98.5
(56.5–100)
0.0099
(0.0069–0.014)
0.0043Table D-25 footnote E
(0.0021–0.0066)
0.0099
(0.0070–0.013)
0.025Table D-25 footnote E
(0.015–0.035)
0.033Table D-25 footnote E
(0.020–0.047)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 95.9
(87.2–98.8)
0.0087Table D-25 footnote E
(0.0060–0.013)
Table footnote F 0.0086
(0.0063–0.011)
0.028
(0.018–0.038)
0.047Table D-25 footnote E
(0.023–0.071)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.0010 μg/g.

Table D-26: Zinc — Geometric means and selected percentiles of hair concentrations (μg/g) for the Canadian population aged 20–59 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable D-26 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 1208 100 210
(200–230)
150
(140–150)
190
(180–210)
320
(290–340)
390
(350–440)
Males, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 290 100 210
(190–230)
140
(130–160)
190
(170–210)
330
(270–380)
440
(290–600)
Females, 20-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 918 100 210
(190–230)
150
(140–160)
190
(180–210)
310
(270–340)
390
(350–440)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 608 100 210
(200–230)
150
(140–160)
190
(170–210)
330
(280–380)
430
(370–500)
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 600 100 210
(190–220)
140
(130–150)
190
(180–210)
310
(280–340)
380
(340–420)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 5.0 μg/g.

References

Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: