Canada-Alberta Emergency Treatment Fund Bilateral Agreement
HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF CANADA (hereinafter referred to as "Canada" as represented by the Minister of Health (herein referred to as "the federal Minister")
- and -
HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF ALBERTA (hereinafter referred to as "Alberta" as represented by the Minister of Health herein referred to as "Alberta Health Minister")
REFERRED to collectively as the "Parties", and individually as a "Party"
WHEREAS Canada and Alberta agree that Canada and Alberta are in the midst of an opioid crisis that has had a significant effect on many communities, that has claimed the lives of thousands of Canadians and hundreds of Albertans from all walks of life, and that has had a devastating impact on many families, and the Emergency Treatment Fund is designed to augment treatment services through one-time funding in response to the opioid crisis;
WHEREAS Canada and Alberta agree that immediate action and collaboration is needed among governments to help reduce harms and deaths associated with problematic substance use, including opioids;
WHEREAS the governments of Canada and Alberta have committed to work together to further address the opioid crisis, in full respect of their respective jurisdictional responsibilities, and recognizing that the Government of Alberta takes the primary responsibility for the design and delivery of substance use disorder treatment and response services in Alberta, the one-time Emergency Treatment Fund is intended to augment services and Canada will not be responsible for funding to sustain any ongoing initiatives.
WHEREAS Canada has established a transfer payment program called the Emergency Treatment Fund ("ETF") to provide one-time funding to the provincial and territorial governments for the development and delivery of treatment services for problematic substance use, including opioids;
WHEREAS Canada authorizes the federal Minister to enter into agreements with the provinces and territories, for the purpose of promptly and effectively responding to the opioid crisis and problematic substance use through the ETF;
WHEREAS The Government Organization Act authorizes the Government of Alberta, as represented by the Alberta Minister of Health to enter into agreements with the Government of Canada under which the Government of Alberta undertakes to use the funding provided by Canada under the Emergency Treatment Fund for the provision of treatment services for problematic substance use, including opioids;
AND WHEREAS Alberta is responsible for the provision of treatment services including to Indigenous Albertans accessing treatment off-reserve.
NOW THEREFORE, Canada and Alberta agree as follows:
1.1 The Parties are committed to protecting the health and safety of all Canadians through a compassionate and collaborative approach to addressing problematic substance use. The objective is to support single or multi-year projects that will improve access to evidence-based treatment services.
1.2 The purpose of this Agreement is to provide financial support from Canada to Alberta to target treatment services for problematic substance use, including opioids. This funding will support single or multi-year projects that will build on and enhance existing Alberta initiatives, capacity, and priorities.
2.0 Emergency Treatment Services
2.1.1 Canada and Alberta agree that over the period of this Agreement, with financial support from Canada, Alberta will address Alberta's local, regional, and system priorities to reduce opioid-related harms and deaths by further building on and enhancing Alberta treatment services and programs to improve the availability and accessibility of treatment for problematic substance use towards achieving the objectives of:
- a) Expanding coverage of opioid agonist therapy medication
- b) Expanding opioid agonist therapy treatment in provincial correctional facilities and facilitating transitions to community settings.
Alberta's approach to achieving these objectives is set out in its Action Plan attached as Annex 1.
2.2 Eligible Areas of Investment
2.2.1 Alberta agrees to allocate funds provided by Canada under this Agreement on initiatives and actions, identified by Alberta, which are outlined in Alberta's Action Plan as such initiatives are within one or more of the following eligible areas of investment:
- support initiatives that will establish, build on, or enhance existing treatment approaches;
- encourage further implementation of innovative treatment solutions;
- recognize the importance of broader strategies to support access to treatment services by enhancing health care providers' knowledge of best practices. (alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco are excluded).
2.2.2 The types of initiatives for which Alberta agrees to use the funds and, which are within eligible areas of investment referred to in section 2.2.1, may include: enhancements or expansion of existing treatment approaches such as opioid agonist treatments (e.g., methadone, buprenorphine/naloxone), withdrawal management products (e.g., opioid agonist taper and alpha2-adrenergic agonists), oral Naltrexone, psychosocial treatment interventions, and counseling services; innovative treatment solutions such as wrap-around care and injectable agonist therapies; and, implementation strategies to enhance health care providers' knowledge of best practices (alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco are excluded).
2.2.3 Treatment services specifically to address alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco are excluded from funding provided by Canada under this Agreement.
2.2.4 Types of eligible expenditures for investment referred to in section 2.2.1 may include:
- Operating costs;
- Capital costs;
- Training, professional development and related investments;
- Information technology and related investments; and,
- Other costs that in the opinion of the Parties are essential for the completion of the Action Plan initiatives and achievement of results.
3.0 Period of Agreement
3.1 This Agreement shall come into effect upon the last signature being affixed and will remain in effect until March 31, 2023, unless terminated in writing by Canada or Alberta, in accordance with the terms and conditions set out in section 10. Funding provided by Canada under this Agreement, in accordance with section 4, will cover the period from April 1, 2018 to March 31, 2023 ("Period of the Agreement").
3.2 Canada and Alberta concur that the purpose of this time-limited, one-time Agreement is to help Alberta more rapidly ramp up or otherwise augment treatment initiatives in light of the opioid crisis, and that Canada will not be responsible for any ongoing funding for enhanced initiatives established under this Agreement.
4.0 Financial Provisions
4.1 The funding provided by Canada under this Agreement is in addition to, and not in lieu of, that which Canada currently provides to Alberta through the Canada Health Transfer in order to support health care services within Alberta. Furthermore, the funding provided by Canada under this Agreement is in addition to and not in lieu of those funds that Canada has already provided to Alberta to address problematic substance use and the opioid crisis.
4.2 Allocation to Alberta
4.2.1 Canada has designated the following maximum one-time amount of funding to be transferred in total to all provinces and territories under this agreement: $150,000,000 for the period starting April 1, 2018 and ending on March 31, 2023.
4.2.2 The final total amount to be paid to Alberta will be calculated using the following formula:
(F -G x 500,000) x (0.33K/[N-P] + 0.33L/Q + 0.33M/R), where:
F is the total one-time funding amount available under this initiative;
G is the number of provinces and territories receiving only the minimum baseline funding (i.e., provinces and territories for which this funding allocation formula results in an allocation of less than $500,000);
K is the total population of [province/territory], as determined using the 2017 population estimates from Statistics Canada;
L is the number of apparent opioid-related deaths in [province/territory] as determined using 2016 data from the Public Health Agency of Canada's National Report on apparent Opioid-Related Deaths in Canada (based on P/T reporting);
M is the number of opioid poisoning hospitalizations in [province/territory] as determined using 2016-17 data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Annual Report on Opioid-Related Harms (based on P/T reporting);
N is the total population of Canada as determined using the 2017 population estimate from Statistics Canada;
P is the total population of province and territories receiving only the minimum baseline funding, as determined using the 2017 population estimate from Statistics Canada;
Q is the total number of apparent opioid-related deaths in Canada, as determined using 2016 data from the Public Health Agency of Canada's National Report on Apparent Opioid-Related Deaths in Canada; and,
R is the total number of opioid poisoning hospitalizations in Canada as determined using 2016-17 data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Annual Report on Opioid-Related Harms (based on P/T reporting).
4.2.3 Alberta agrees to match Canada's contribution at a 1:1 ratio, with the exception of the first $250,000 in federal funding, for which no cost-matching by Alberta is required. Canada and Alberta agree that Alberta's matching contribution shall be the equivalent to Canada's contribution less $250,000 and can include expenditures made by Alberta specifically for treatment related to problematic substance use as of January 1, 2016, as outlined in Table 2 of Annex 1. Alberta agrees to make reasonable efforts so that previous and ongoing funding from Canada under, pursuant to, or through other programs or agreements shall not be used to match Canada's contribution under this Agreement.
4.2.4 Based on the formula described in section 4.2.2, Alberta's share of the amounts identified in section 4.2.1 is:
|Amount to be paid to Alberta in 2018-19||Amount contributed by Alberta (which has been paid by Alberta as of or after January 1, 2016)|
4.3 In this Agreement, "Fiscal Year" means the period commencing on April 1 of any calendar year and terminating on March 31 of the immediately following calendar year.
4.4.1 Canada's contribution under this Agreement as set out in 4.2.4 will be paid within approximately 30 business days of both Parties' signatures being affixed to this Agreement.
4.4.2 Subject to section 4.4.4, Alberta agrees to spend the entire amount of Canada's contribution referred to in section 4.2.4 by no later than March 31, 2023.
4.4.3 Subject to section 4.4.4, Alberta agrees to spend the entire amount of Alberta's matching contribution referred to in section 4.2.4 by no later than March 31, 2023.
4.4.4 Payment of Canada's contribution referred to in section 4.2.1 is subject to an annual appropriation by the Parliament of Canada for this purpose. Alberta's contribution under this Agreement referred to in section 4.2.4 is subject to an appropriation by the Alberta Legislature for the purpose, and is also subject to payment by Canada of the total amount to Alberta referred to in section 4.2.4.
4.5 Repayment of Overpayment
4.5.1 Canada and Alberta agree that every effort has been made to ensure that the calculation of Canada's contribution installment to Alberta is accurate.
4.5.2 In the event payment made to Alberta exceeds the amount to which Alberta is entitled under this Agreement as referred to in section 4.2.4, the amount of the excess is a debt due to Canada and Alberta shall repay the amount to Canada within 90 calendar days of written notice from Canada.
4.6 Repayment of unmatched funds
4.6.1 In the event that Alberta does not clearly demonstrate that the entire amount of the funds contributed by Alberta set out in section 4.2.4 have been cost-matched to the federal funding on a 1:1 ratio less $250,000 by March 31, 2023, in accordance with section 4.2.3, including funding by Alberta announced as of January 1, 2016, Alberta agrees to repay to Canada the amount of any unmatched funds provided by Canada under this Agreement within 90 calendar days of written notice from Canada.
4.7 Use of Funds
4.7.1 Canada and Alberta agree that funds provided under this Agreement will only be used by Alberta in accordance with the areas for investment outlined in section 2.0 of this Agreement and detailed in Annex 1.
5.0 Accountability and Reporting
5.1 Action Plan
5.1.1 Alberta has completed and shared Alberta's Action Plan for the years 2018-19 to 2022-23 with Canada, as is set out in Annex 1. Upon signature of this Agreement by both Parties, Alberta will publicly release its Action Plan, which:
- a) Provides an overview of the opioid crisis and treatment for problematic substance use, focused on opioids in Alberta;
- b) Identifies Alberta's specific priority areas for investment and objectives, and which build upon the progress to date in delivering treatment services;
- c) Highlights those initiatives Alberta has made or will make in a cost-shared manner equivalent to Canada's contribution, less $250,000, and includes initiatives implemented by Alberta as of January 1, 2016; and
- d) Outlines the indicators and specific targets that Alberta will use to track progress and report on annually according to Alberta's planned investments.
5.1.2 The Action Plan may be amended by Alberta with mutual consent from Canada, not to be unreasonably withheld, in a manner consistent with the spirit and intent of this Agreement if deemed necessary by Alberta to reflect shifts in approach necessitated by changing circumstances or priorities. Such amendments will be done in accordance with section 9.1 and will be made publicly available in accordance with section 7.2.
5.2.1 Within 90 days of Canada and Alberta signing this Agreement, Alberta agrees to:
- a) Provide all available baseline data on the agreed-to indicators; and
- b) Describe any initiatives being undertaken in Fiscal Year 2018-2019 as outlined in the Action Plan.
5.2.2 Beginning in Fiscal year 2019-20 and by no later than October 1 of the subsequent Fiscal Year during the Period of the Agreement, Alberta agrees to:
- a) Report to the people of Alberta and to Canada annually on the results and expenditures of the Emergency Treatment Fund allocation until March 31, 2023. The report shall show separately the results attributable to funding provided by Canada under this Agreement, and results attributable to funding provided by Alberta under this Agreement.
- b) Provide to Canada an audited financial statement of revenues received from Canada under this Agreement during the preceding Fiscal Year.
- i. The revenue section of the statement shall show the amount received from Canada under this Agreement during the Fiscal Year.
- ii. The total amount of funding used for activities under section 2.2.
- iii. If applicable, the amount of any amount carried forward by Alberta under section 4.
- iv. If applicable, the amount of any surplus funds that are to be repaid to Canada under section 4.5 and 4.6.
The financial statement shall be prepared in accordance with Canadian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and the audit shall be performed by the Alberta Auditor General or his/her delegate, or by an independent public accounting firm registered under the laws of Alberta and shall be conducted in accordance with Canadian Generally Accepted Auditing Standards.
5.2.3 Canada, with prior written agreement from Alberta, may incorporate all or any part or parts of the financial report described into any public report that Canada may prepare for its own purposes, including any reports to the Parliament of Canada or reports that may be made public.
5.3.1 Alberta will ensure that expenditure information presented in the annual report is, in accordance with Alberta standard accounting practices, complete and accurate.
5.4.1 Alberta is responsible for evaluating its programs and services. As per established policies and processes with respect to program effectiveness, Alberta may evaluate programs and services for which funds provided under this Agreement have been received from Canada as identified in Annex 1 and may make public the results of any such evaluations.
6.0 Long-term Collaboration
6.1 Canada and Alberta agree to share and release data as available, and to share knowledge, research and information on effective and innovative practices in treatment programs, to further support the development of and reporting on outcomes, subject to applicable privacy laws of Alberta and Canada.
7.1 Canada and Alberta agree on the importance of communicating with citizens about the objectives of this Agreement in an open, transparent, effective and proactive manner through appropriate public information activities.
7.2 Canada will make publicly available up-to-date Emergency Treatment Fund bilateral agreements entered into with all provinces and territories, including any amendments, on a Government of Canada website.
7.3 Each government will receive the appropriate credit and visibility when investments financed through funds granted under this Agreement are announced to the public.
7.4 Subject to sections 5.2.3 and 7.7, Canada reserves the right to conduct public communications, announcements, events, outreach and promotional activities about the bilateral agreements.
7.5 Canada agrees to give Alberta 10 days advance notice and advance copies of public communication related to this Agreement and results of the initiatives in the Action Plan under this Agreement.
7.6 Subject to sections 5.2.3 and 7.7, Alberta reserves the right to conduct public communications, announcements, events, outreach and promotional activities related to this Agreement. Alberta agrees to give Canada 10 days advance notice and advance copies of public communications related to this Agreement, and results of the initiatives in the Action Plan under this Agreement.
7.7 If Alberta discloses any personal or health information in individually identifiable form to Canada at any time under this Agreement, Canada will not disclose that personal or health information, by way of its public communications or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Alberta.
8.0 Dispute Resolution
8.1 Canada and Alberta are committed to working together and avoiding disputes through government-to-government information exchange, advance notice, early consultation, and discussion, clarification, and resolution of issues, as they arise.
8.2 If at any time either Canada or Alberta is of the opinion that the other Party has failed to comply with any of its obligations or undertakings under this Agreement or is in breach of any term or condition of the Agreement, Canada or Alberta, as the case may be, may notify the other Party in writing of the issue, failure or breach. Upon such notice, Canada and Alberta will endeavor to resolve the issue in dispute bilaterally through the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister of the Controlled Substances and Cannabis Branch of Health Canada and the Assistant Deputy Minister, Public Health and Compliance Division of Alberta Health named in the notice section below (hereinafter "Designated Officials").
8.3 If either Designated Official concludes that the dispute cannot be resolved by the Designated Officials, then the dispute will be referred to the Deputy Ministers of Health for Canada and Alberta, and if it cannot be resolved by them, then the federal Minister and Alberta Health Minister shall endeavor to resolve the dispute.
9.0 Amendments to the Agreement
9.1 This Agreement, including the attached Annex 1, may be amended at any time by mutual consent of the Parties. To be valid, any amendments shall be in writing and signed, in the case of Canada, by the federal Minister, and in the case of Alberta, by the Alberta Health Minister.
10.1 Canada may terminate this Agreement at any time if the terms of this Agreement are not complied with by Alberta by giving at least 12 months written notice of its intention to terminate. Alberta may terminate this Agreement at any time if the terms of this Agreement are not complied with by Canada by giving at least 12 months written notice of its intention to terminate.
10.2 As of the effective date of termination of this Agreement under section 10.1, Canada shall have no obligation to make any further payments to Alberta after the date of effective termination.
10.3 As of the effective date of termination of this Agreement under section 10.1, Alberta will repay federal funds on a pro-rata basis and agrees to return any federal funding not cost-matched by Alberta consistent with sections 4.2.3 and 4.6.1, after the date of effective termination.
10.4 As of the effective date of termination of this Agreement under section 10.1, other than the obligations in section 10.3, Alberta shall have no further obligation to the commitments made to Canada as it relates to this Agreement after the date of effective termination. Section 12 of this Agreement survives the termination of this Agreement.
11.1 Any notice, information or document provided for under this Agreement will be effectively given if delivered or sent by letter, postage or other charges prepaid. Any notice that is delivered will have been received upon delivery; and, except in periods of postal disruption, any notice mailed will be deemed to have been received eight calendar days after being mailed.
The address for notice or communication to Canada shall be:
70 Colombine Drive
Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9
Attn: Minister of Health
With a copy to: Associate Assistant Deputy Minister - Controlled Substances and Cannabis Branch
The address for notice or communication to Alberta shall be:
Office of the Minister of Health
423 Legislature Building
Edmonton, AB T5K 2B6
Attn: Minister of Health
With a copy to: Assistant Deputy Minister - Public Health and Compliance
12.1 This Agreement, including the Action Plan in Annex 1, comprise the entire agreement entered into by the Parties with respect to the subject matter hereof.
12.2 This Agreement shall be governed and interpreted according to the laws of Canada and Alberta.
12.3 No member of the House of Commons or of the Senate of Canada or of the Legislature of Alberta shall be admitted to any share or part of this Agreement, or to any benefit arising therefrom.
12.4 If for any reason a provision of this Agreement that is not a fundamental term is found by a court of competent jurisdiction to be or to have become invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, it will be deemed to be severable and will be deleted from this Agreement, but all the other provisions of this Agreement will continue to be valid and enforceable.
12.5 This Agreement may be executed in counterparts, in which case (i) the counterparts together shall constitute one agreement, and (ii) communication of execution by fax transmission or emailed in PDF shall constitute good delivery.
12.6 This Agreement is drafted in English at the request of the Parties.
Signed on behalf of Canada by the Minister of Health at Ottawa, Ontario this 14th day of March, 2019.
The Honourable Ginette Petitpas Taylor, Minister of Health
Signed on behalf of Alberta by the Minister of Health at Edmonton, Alberta this 5th day of March, 2019.
The Honourable Sarah Hoffman, Minister of Health
Approved pursuant to the Government Organization Act:
Intergovernmental Relations, Executive Council, this 6th day of March, 2019.
Annex 1 - Overview of the opioid crisis and treatment in Alberta
The unprecedented rise in opioid related harms and deaths in Alberta continues to be a public health crisis. Despite the ongoing efforts, on average in the first six months of 2018, two individuals died every day in Alberta as a result of an apparent accidental opioid poisoning (overdose). This trend is a continuation from 2017, where 709 Albertans died from an apparent accidental opioid poisoning (overdose).
Since 2015, the Government of Alberta and other entities in Alberta have taken a number of actions to respond to the opioid crisis. The six strategic areas of Alberta's response activities are harm reduction initiatives, treatment, prevention, enforcement and supply control, collaboration, and surveillance and analytics. In addition, in May 2017, Alberta announced the establishment of a Commission to enhance Alberta's response. The mandate of the Minister's Opioid Emergency Response Commission is to develop recommendations for, and facilitate implementation of, urgent coordinated actions in response to the opioid crisis in Alberta.
To support Albertans with problematic substance use, and specifically opioid use disorder, the Provincial Government has taken many actions related to treatment. These interventions include, but are not limited to:
- Continued funding of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) treatment (drug costs), as part of existing Government of Alberta supplementary health benefit plans;
- Funding addiction treatment beds;
- Increasing access to opioid dependency programming by expanding existing, and opening new, opioid dependency clinics;
- Enhancing and expanding the Addiction Recovery and Community Health (ARCH) program in Edmonton and Calgary;
- Establishing new programming such as:
- initiating people with opioid use disorder on certain OAT in hospital emergency departments, starting in Edmonton and Calgary;
- injectable OAT programs in Edmonton and Calgary;
- Increasing access to supports and training for primary care providers to offer appropriate treatment, medication and care to patients and families affected by the opioid crisis; and
- Including OAT initiation and maintenance (i.e., buprenorphine-naloxone) in the scope of practice for nurse practitioners.
As the opioid crisis continues, Alberta is exploring opportunities to augment its response by: establishing, building upon or enhancing existing treatment approaches; encouraging further implementation of innovative treatment solutions; and/or recognizing the importance of broader strategies to support access to treatment services by enhancing health care providers' knowledge of best practices. For this purpose, the Government of Alberta will invest funds from the Emergency Treatment Fund (ETF) to enhance treatment initiatives to respond to the opioid crisis in Alberta. ETF investments, cost matched by Alberta in accordance with the terms of the Canada-Alberta EFT Bilateral Agreement, will support increased access to treatment services and expand existing treatment approaches in Alberta.
Expanded coverage of opioid agonist therapy medication
Opioid agonist therapy (OAT), which entails the provision of medications like buprenorphine/naloxone (e.g., Suboxone) or methadone, is a mainstay for opioid use disorder treatment. OAT medications are prescribed to be taken on a daily basis like many other medications. However, unlike many medications, OAT prescriptions are often dispensed on a daily basis, and are therefore subject to additional costs. Data has indicated that approximately 30 per cent of Albertans with opioid use disorder experience financial barriers to treatment, including paying out-of-pocket for OAT medications and associated costs.
Alberta has been working to increase accessibility of opioid use disorder treatment across the province. Alberta is implementing a program to help alleviate the financial burden related to OAT medications and associated costs by providing coverage of:
- Up to four months' costs associated with specified OAT medications for individuals in Alberta with opioid use disorder who do not currently have coverage through a supplementary health benefit plan and who are initiating OAT treatment until they are covered under a Government of Alberta supplementary health benefit plan, and
- Ongoing co-payments associated with certain OAT medications for Government of Alberta sponsored supplementary health benefit plans where co-payments currently apply.
ETF funding will be used to support the availability of this programming. This investment is anticipated to increase the number of individuals in Alberta with opioid use disorder accessing OAT, and facilitate transitions between OAT initiation and maintenance settings.
Expand OAT treatment in provincial correctional facilities; facilitate transitions to community settings:
Alberta Health Services (AHS), the Regional Health Authority for the Province, provides OAT maintenance in provincial correctional facilities. Based on data available from the United States, it is estimated that 23% of individuals within the correctional system meet criteria for opioid use disorder. For example, based on the population of Alberta's adult provincial correctional system, this may mean that approximately 7,000 people per year could benefit from opioid agonist therapy. To address the proportion of individuals entering Alberta's provincial correctional facilities who present with opioid use disorder, AHS implemented a pilot program to three adult correctional facilities to initiate high-risk patients on opioid agonist therapy.
Funds from the ETF will be used to enhance OAT initiation and maintenance for individuals who present with opioid use disorder in Alberta provincial correctional facilities by:
- Expanding the OAT initiation pilot program;
- Enhancing provision of OAT maintenance; and
- Enhancing facilitation of transitions to community OAT programs.
ETF Funds will enhance an existing treatment approach and also enhance access to treatment services in Alberta. This programming will allow for a larger proportion of individuals with opioid use disorder to access OAT within Alberta's provincial correctional facilities, as well as enable individuals to be matched with an OAT treatment provider in the community and other wrap around supports prior to discharge.
|Initiative||Expected Outcomes||Indicators||Expenditure Plan (in millions)|
|Expanded coverage of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) medication||An increase in the number of individuals being prescribed and accessing OAT medication||
# of individuals in Alberta prescribed OAT medication
% increase of individuals in Alberta on OAT medications
|Expand accessibility to OAT in provincial correctional facilities; facilitate transitions to community OAT services||
An increase in the number of individuals in provincial correctional facilities receiving OAT treatment
An increase in the number of OAT patients in provincial correctional facilities referred to community OAT providers upon discharge
# of individuals within the provincial correctional facilities being initiated on OAT
# of individuals within the provincial correctional facilities being maintained on OAT
# of people on OAT in provincial correctional facilities being referred to community OAT providers upon discharge
|Initiative||Fiscal Year||Alberta Funding (in millions)|
|Expansion of Opioid Dependency Clinics||2016/2017||8.9|
|Alberta Health Services' injectable OAT program||2017/2018||4.0|
Report a problem or mistake on this page
- Date modified: