Evaluation of the Welcoming Communities Initiative

Appendix A: Program profile

Background

Canada is facing increasing diversity. According to the 2006 Census, visible minorities accounted for 16.2% of the total population in Canada, with more than 200 different ethnic groups reported. The visible minority population increased by 27.2% between 2001 and 2006 – five times faster than the rate of growth for the overall population (5.4%). Immigration was a key factor in this growth. Three-quarters (75.0%) of the immigrants who arrived during this period belonged to a visible minority groupFootnote 61. Immigrants also contribute significantly to overall population levels, representing more than two-thirds (69.3%) of population growthFootnote 62.

Recent surveys indicate that racism and discrimination exist in Canada. In the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey, about one-fifth (20%) of visible minority respondents reported that they had sometimes or often experienced discrimination or unfair treatment in the past five years because of their ethno-cultural characteristics. (Another 15% indicated that they had rarely experienced this treatmentFootnote 63.) In the 2004 General Social Survey, more visible minority respondents than non-visible minority respondents felt that they had experienced discrimination (28% versus 13%). Eighty-one percent of the visible minority respondents who felt this way attributed it to their race or ethnic originFootnote 64.

The Welcoming Communities Initiative (WCI) is Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s (CIC) contribution to the Government of Canada’s larger effort to leverage the benefits of Canada’s diversity by reducing discriminatory barriers. The larger effort, referred to as Canada’s Action Plan Against Racism (CAPAR), was launched in 2005 and includes a series of initiatives and strategies within a number of federal departments and agencies. At that time, the Department of Canadian Heritage (PCH) was the lead department for CAPAR. Lead responsibility for CAPAR was transferred to CIC in November 2008 with the move of the Multiculturalism Program from PCH to CIC.

The long-term and ultimate goals of CAPAR are to strengthen social cohesion and economic inclusion, enhance Canada’s legal frameworks and demonstrate federal leadership in the areas of diversity, human rights and the elimination of racism.

Program overview

Settlement policies and programs, developed through CIC’s Integration Program, play a key role in setting the stage for newcomers’ contribution to Canada. One of CIC’s overall strategic objectives is the successful integration of newcomers to Canada in order to maximize the economic, social and cultural benefits of immigration. In reaching this strategic objective, the Department has expressed a commitment to develop programs and initiatives that encourage Canadians’ support for and participation in integration, including contributions to anti-racism strategies.

WCI is a three-pronged approach that focuses on creating connections between newcomers and Canadians, eliminating barriers to integration by creating welcoming communities, and educating against racism.

The long-term outcomes for WCI are:

  • Strengthened participation of newcomers in Canadian communities
  • More inclusive and welcoming communities for newcomers in Canada

The Initiative supports on-going anti-racism activities including awareness-raising, outreach, tools and resource development and direct services aimed at newcomers, youth and communities in CIC regions, as well as anti-racism strategies and projects in provinces with Alternative Funding Agreements (BC and Manitoba) and at the national level.

The Logic Model in Section 2.0 depicts the WCI program theory and delineates the activities, outputs and expected outcomes of the Initiative in a graphical representation.

Roles and Responsibilities

The ultimate beneficiaries of WCI are newcomers to Canada. However, in aiming to meet the project’s long-term objective of fostering more inclusive and welcoming communities, non-newcomers are also targeted clients of the Initiative. Delivery partners include CIC local offices, regional offices, the provinces and SPOs.

Management responsibility for WCI lies with CIC’s Integration Branch, in the Information, Language and Community Policy Division. The Division is responsible for planning, guidance and support to the regions and provinces, as well as the completion of periodic and annual reports on the Initiative. The Division also participates in an interdepartmental working group for CAPAR.

The delivery of WCI activities follows established CIC models of settlement program delivery. Service Provider Organisations (SPOs) are funded through contribution agreements administered by local CIC offices in the regions to undertake activities related to the Initiative. Projects funded under WCI must meet the terms and conditions for CIC settlement contribution programs, as well as aim to meet one of the Initiative’s long-term outcomes.

SPOs receive functional guidance regarding the delivery of project activities by CIC local offices. Local offices, in turn, receive input regarding expected outcomes and performance measures from regional offices in consultation with CIC national headquarters (NHQ).

British Columbia and Manitoba receive WCI funding from CIC through existing immigration agreements between these provinces and the federal government. Like the regions, these provinces receive input regarding expected outcomes and performance measures for the Initiative from CIC NHQ. However, they are responsible for the design, administration and delivery of settlement services to newcomers within their respective jurisdictions. Settlement services in the province of Quebec are governed by the Canada-Quebec Accord, under which Quebec receives an annual federal grant and has the sole responsibility for selecting immigrants and providing settlement services to newcomersFootnote 65.

Though the vast majority of WCI funding is allocated to the regions/provinces directly, a small portion is retained at CIC NHQ to undertake national projects. For national projects, contribution agreements are administered by CIC NHQ in the Operations Management and Coordination Branch.

Program Accountability

A Horizontal Results-based Management and Accountability Framework (RMAF) was developed for CAPAR in 2005, and a RMAF specific to WCI was developed in 2006. Like the other settlement programs, WCI is managed in accordance with the Contribution Accountability Framework (CAF), and is monitored indirectly by the Contribution Accountability Monitoring System (CAMs) through the tracking of contributions for the Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program and the Host Program. However, unlike the other programs, information on the Initiative is not captured by the Immigration-Contribution Accountability Measurement System (iCAMS).

Resources

The total funding allocation for CAPAR is $56.8 million over five years (2005-2006 to 2009-2010), and $12.7 million in ongoing funding. Of this amount, $17.6 million (including $12.7 million in contribution funding) with ongoing funding of $4.4 million is allocated to CIC for WCI.

In 2004-2005, there was one-year funding of $717,980 for the design and development of WCI. Funds were not received for WCI in 2005-2006; however, WCI projects were funded under existing budgets in an effort to move the Initiative forward and lay the groundwork for activities in 2006-2007. Approximately $3.05 million and $2.75 million in contribution funding were allocated to WCI projects in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 respectively.

Ontario did not begin receiving funding until 2007/08. The province declined funding in 2006-2007 to permit the development of the required infrastructure to start the Initiative.

Logic Model

Copy of the logic model is available upon request to Research-Recherche@cic.gc.ca

Evaluation Issues

The evaluation of WCI will focus on issues related to relevance, design and delivery and early program performance. To the extent possible and where appropriate, data collection and analysis will allow for the comparison of client outcomes by immigration categories, age, gender, language, country of origin and region of destination. With this in mind, the evaluation will address the following questions:

Relevance

  1. Is WCI aligned with the objectives and priorities of GoC, CIC and CAPAR?
  2. Is there a continuing need for WCI or a similar initiative?
  3. Is WCI consistent with federal roles and responsibilities?

Performance

  1. Has Host and school-based settlement service delivery been enhanced by WCI?
  2. Do the anti-racism activities funded by WCI help the settlement sector and receiving communities to understand and address issues of racism and discrimination?
  3. Has CIC contributed to the horizontal, federal policy approach to combat racism and discrimination? To the extent possible, the evaluation will also address the following two questions pertaining to Program Performance:
  4. Do the services funded by WCI help clients to deal with racism and discrimination?
  5. Have the settlement sector and receiving communities taken action to reduce racism and discrimination?

Design and Delivery

  1. Is the program guided by a clear mandate with specific roles, responsibilities and objectives for WCI?
  2. Are communications, relationships and information-sharing among program stakeholders effective?
  3. Is the management of WCI coordinated and supported by the tools, resources (human and financial) and mechanisms needed to effectively deliver the program?
  4. Are the performance measurement, monitoring and reporting for WCI sufficient to ensure program accountability?
  5. Recognizing that the WCI design encompasses a variety of activities in its program delivery, which activities have been the most useful/effective? Could these activities be organized to develop a more strategic/focused approach to WCI.

Evaluation matrix

Categories Evaluation issues Indicators Methods Data sources
Profile The Consultant will be asked to provide a profile of the program in order to contextualize the indicators below, including SPO and project descriptions and community profiles
Relevance 1. Is there a continuing need for WCI or a similar initiative? Evidence base for CAPAR and WCI:
  • Number/percentage/trends of people belonging to a visible minority in total population of Canada
  • Number/percentage/trends of people belonging to a visible minority in newcomer population
  • Incidence/prevalence of racism and racially-based discrimination
  • Evidence on benefits of social inclusion/participation/engagement/ capital
Literature Review/ Review of Census data 2006 Census and other Statistics Canada data/research

Research on racism/discrimination and social inclusion/participation/engagement/ capital

Perceptions of CIC and PCH Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Strategic Policy and Priorities, Regions/Local), PCH
Perceptions of SPOs Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (ISAP and Host)
Perceptions and experiences of clients (welcoming communities and racism/discrimination) Survey/Focus Groups Clients (ISAP and Host)
2. Is WCI aligned with the priorities and objectives of GoC, CIC and CAPAR? Degree of alignment to objectives and priorities of:
  • GoC
  • CIC (incl. role within settlement agenda)
  • CAPAR
Document Review DPR, RPP, WCI and CAPAR documentation, CAs (WCI-funded activities), Budget, Throne Speech, political platform documents
Perceptions of CIC and PCH Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Strategic Policy and Priorities), PCH
3. Is WCI consistent with federal roles and responsibilities? Alignment with legislative obligations

Comparison of the funding arrangements for settlement programming in Canada

Profile/existence of alternative programs with similar outcomes delivered by other levels of government

Document Review Constitution, IRPA, Regulations and other legislative documents, documentation on settlement programming in other provinces
Perceptions of CIC and other stakeholders Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Strategic Policy and Priorities, Regions/local offices), provincial representatives, PCH, SPOs
Performance 4. Has Host and school-based settlement service delivery been enhanced by WCI?

Expansion of Host and ISAP school-based settlement services:

  • Changes in availability and accessibility (incl. changes to waiting lists/times)

Incorporation of anti-racism components:

  • Extent of new anti-racism components in services
  • Evidence of clients obtaining services to assist them in dealing with racism and discrimination
  • Extent of WCI-funded anti-racism activities with main intention to support settlement sector (SPOs)
  • Evidence of settlement sector using products of WCI-funded anti-racism activities
  • Evidence of impacts of WCI-funded anti-racism activities on SPO service delivery (incl. anti-racism spin-off activities)
Document Review CAs and project reports (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services)
Perceptions of CIC Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Regions/Local)
Perceptions of SPOs

Changes in availability and accessibility (incl. changes to waiting lists/times)

Evidence of settlement sector using products of WCI-funded anti-racism activities

Evidence of impacts of WCI-funded anti-racism activities on SPO service delivery (incl. anti-racism spin-off activities)

Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (ISAP and Host)
Evidence of impacts of WCI-funded anti-racism activities on Host volunteers Survey/Focus Groups Host volunteers
Evidence of clients obtaining services to assist them in dealing with racism and discrimination Survey/Focus Groups Clients (WCI-funded SPOs)
5. Do the anti-racism activities funded by WCI help the settlement sector and receiving communities to understand and address issues of racism and discrimination? Extent/scope/reach of WCI-funded anti-racism activities:
  • Information and outreach activities
  • Development of resources and tools
  • Training and mentoring activities
  • Research activities

Evidence of impacts of WCI-funded anti-racism activities on the capacity of target audience

Document Review CAs and project reports (WCI-funded anti-racism activities)
Evidence of usefulness/appropriateness/quality of products of WCI-funded anti-racism activities Expert Review of WCI products Products from WCI-funded anti-racism activities
Perceptions of CIC Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Regions/Local)
Perceptions of SPOs

Evidence of settlement sector using products of WCI-funded anti-racism activities

Evidence of impacts of WCI-funded anti-racism activities on the capacity of target audience

Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (ISAP and Host)
Perceptions of Host volunteers Survey/Focus Groups Host volunteers
6. Has CIC contributed to the horizontal, federal policy approach to combat racism and discrimination? Extent/scope/reach of WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services
 
Evidence of other CIC activities (program and policy) addressing anti-racism objectives not funded by WCI
Document Review CAs (ISAP and Host), project reports from (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services), WCI documentation, other Integration Branch program/policy documentation
Level of engagement of CIC in CAPAR horizontal work Document Review WCI and CAPAR documentation (CAPAR WG agendas and minutes, WCI and CAPAR reports, such as Action Plan, H-RMAF, Evaluation Assessment, Baseline Study and Management Review)
Perceptions of CIC and PCH Interviews CIC (Integration), PCH
To the extent possible: 7. Are clients able to deal with racism and discrimination? Evidence of WCI contribution to clients’ ability to deal with racism and discrimination:
  • Application of knowledge to deal with racism and discrimination
  • Changes in level of ability to cope
Document Review Project reports (WCI-funded direct services)
Perceptions and examples provided by SPOs Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (WCI-funded direct services)
Perceptions and examples provided by clients Survey/Focus Groups Clients (WCI-funded SPOs)
8. Have the settlement sector and receiving communities taken action to reduce racism and discrimination? Evidence of settlement sector and receiving communities using products of WCI-funded anti-racism activities

Evidence of WCI contribution to changes in discriminatory practices and behaviours or the elimination of barriers

Document Review Project reports (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services)
Perceptions and examples provided by SPOs

Evidence of settlement sector using products of WCI-funded anti-racism activities

Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (ISAP and Host)
Perceptions and examples provided by Host volunteers Survey/Focus Groups Host volunteers
Design and Delivery 9. Is the program guided by a clear mandate with specific roles, responsibilities and objectives for WCI? Clear mandate with specific WCI objectives, roles and responsibilities:
  • Nature of WCI mandate, objectives, roles and responsibilities
  • Changes to WCI mandate, objectives, roles and responsibilities over time (level of consistency)
Document Review WCI and CAPAR documentation, CAs and project reports (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services)
Perceptions of CIC and PCH Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Regions/Local), PCH
Degree of common understanding of mandate, roles, responsibilities and objectives for WCI:
  • within CIC
  • between CIC and PCH, and
  • between CIC and SPOs
Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services)
10. Are communications, relationships and information-sharing among program stakeholders effective? Extent/quality/appropriateness of communications:
  • within CIC,
  • between CIC and PCH, and
  • between CIC and SPOs

Extent/quality/appropriateness of relationships:

  • within CIC,
  • between CIC and PCH, and
  • between CIC and SPOs

Extent/quality/appropriateness of information-sharing (including sharing of products of WCI-funded anti-racism activities):

  • within CIC,
  • between CIC and PCH,
  • among SPOs (WCI and non-WCI), and
  • between CIC and SPOs
Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Regions/Local), PCH
Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services) and SPOs (without WCI funding)
11. Is the management of WCI coordinated and supported by the tools, resources (human and financial) and mechanisms needed to effectively deliver the program? Extent/appropriateness of WCI management tools, resources (human and financial) and mechanisms

Extent/quality of management coordination
(direction/processes/instructions/CFPs/
reporting/timelines)

  • within CIC
  • with PCH

Extent/appropriateness of training and professional development opportunities

Perceptions of CIC and PCH

Document Review WCI and CAPAR documentation (policy documents, guidelines, operational manuals, communications, workplans), CAs (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services)
Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Regions/Local), PCH
12. Are the performance measurement, monitoring and reporting for WCI sufficient to ensure program accountability?

Extent/appropriateness of WCI performance measurement, monitoring and reporting practices

Quality of performance measurement, monitoring and reporting tools (e.g. framework, data collection tools) and data

Extent/appropriateness of training and professional development opportunities

Document Review WCI and CAPAR performance measurement and monitoring documentation, information and tools, reports to PCH, project reports (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services)
Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Regions/Local), PCH
Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services)
13. Recognizing that the WCI design encompasses a variety of activities in its program delivery, which activities have been the most useful/effective? Could these activities be organized to develop a more strategic/focused approach to WCI? Evidence of impacts of WCI-funded anti-racism activities and direct services Document Review CAs and reports from WCI-funded projects
Perceptions of CIC Interviews CIC (Integration, OMC, Regions/Local)
Perceptions of SPOs Survey/Focus Groups SPOs (ISAP and Host)
Evidence of usefulness/appropriateness/quality of products of WCI-funded anti-racism activities Expert Review of WCI products Products from Products from WCI-funded anti-racism activities
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