ARCHIVED – An Examination of the Canadian Language Benchmark Data from the Citizenship Language Survey

References

Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., & Thomson, R. I. (2007). A longitudinal study of ESL learners’ fluency and comprehensibility development. Applied Linguistics, 29, 359-380.

Gardner, S. Polyzoi, E. & Rampaul, Y. (1996). Individual variables, literacy history, and ESL progress among Kurdish and Bosnian immigrants. TESL Canada Journal, 14 (1), 1-20.

Long, M. (1990). Maturational constraints on language development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 251-285.

Krahn, H., Derwing, T. M., Mulder, M. & Wilkinson, L. (2000). Educated and Underemployed: Refugee integration into the Canadian Labour Market, Journal of International Migration and Integration, 1, 59-84.

Oyama, S. (1976). A sensitive period for the acquisition of a nonnative phonological system. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 5, 261-283.

Appendix A: Number of cases by country

Country N
China 737
India 386
Philippines 320
Iran 149
Hong Kong 148
Pakistan 136
Taiwan 121
Afghanistan 100
Sri Lanka 93
Romanic 82
Vietnam 66
United Kingdom 65
Iraq 62
Russia 60
North Korea 57
Lebanon 56
Poland 55
Ukraine 53
Somalia 53
Bangladesh 52
Fiji 48
Mexico 41
South Korea 40
Bosnia & Herzegovina 34
Yugoslavia Serbia & Montenegro 32
Ethiopia 32
El Salvador 30
Israel 29
Colombia 29
Bulgaria 28
Kuwait 26
Croatia 25
Turkey 24
Ghana 22
Egypt 21
Albania 21
Japan 20
Netherlands 19
Germany 18
Syria 17
Nigeria 16
Cuba 16
Slovakia 15
Malaysia 15
Bolivia 15
Singapore 14
Sudan 13
South Africa 13
Jordan 13
Hungary 12
Chile 12
Kenya 11
Czech Republic 11
Switzerland 10
Peru 10
Myanmar (Burma) 9
Guatemala 9
Venezuela 8
Portugal 8
Morocco 8
Kazakhstan 8
Ecuador 8
Argentina 8
Palestine 7
Belarus 7
Tanzania 6
Sierra Leone 6
Saudi Arabia 6
Greece 6
Honduras 5
Finland 5
Zimbabwe 4
United States 4
Sweden 4
Malta 4
Macau 4
Eritrea 4
Congo 4
Cambodia/Kampuchea 4
Uzbekistan 3
Uganda 3
Rwanda 3
Nicaragua 3
Nepal 3
Libya 3
Georgia 3
Estonia 3
Costa Rica 3
Austria 3
Algeria 3
Yemen 2
United Arab Emirates 2
Tunisia 2
Thailand 2
Mauritania 2
Haiti 2
Dominica 2
Azores 2
Zambia 1
Swaziland 1
Seychelles 1
Senegal 1
Panama 1
Norway 1
Mongolia 1
Moldova 1
Malawi 1
Madagascar 1
Luxembourg 1
Lithuania 1
Liberia 1
Laos 1
Italy 1
France 1
Djibouti 1
Cyprus 1
Brunei 1
Belgium 1
Azerbaijan 1
Australia 1
Armenia 1

Appendix B: Coding of countries in which English is an official language

Countries where English is an official language include:

  • Australia
  • Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Bermuda
  • Canada
  • Jamaica
  • New Zealand
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • United States of America
  • United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales

Appendix C: Coding of countries by geographic region

South Asia includes:
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, North Korea. Pakistan, Sri Lanka

East Asia includes:
Brunei, Cambodia/Kampuchea, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar/Burma, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, East Timor, Vietnam, Macau, Taiwan

Middle East includes:
Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Palestine

Africa includes:
Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somali Republic, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Central/South America and the Caribbean includes:
Belize (although English is the official language of Belize, most people native to that country speak Spanish as their mother tongue), Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Antigua and Barbuda, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela

South Pacific includes:
Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

Europe includes:
Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, USSR/Russia, San Marino,Yugoslavia, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Vatican City, Northern Ireland, Azores

Appendix D: Coding of languages as originally reported

East Asian includes:
Cantonese, Chinese, Fukinese, Hakka, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin

Southeast Asian includes:
Bengali, Bijaiya, Gujarati, Hindi, Hindko, Kankani, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu

Indo-European includes:
Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Aramaic, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Cambodian, Cebuano, Chaldean, Croatian, Czech, Dari, Dutch, Estonian, Farsi, Filipino, Finnish, Flemish, French, Frysan, German, Greek, Hebrew, Kiligayon, Hungarian, Ilongo, Indonesian-Bahasa, Italian, Khmer, Kirdish, Lebanese(Arabic), Lithuanian, Macedonian, Malay, Maltese, Other European, Pampango, Pashto, Polish, Persian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Sri Lankan, Swedish, “Swiss”, Tagalog, Tigrinya, Ukrainian, Vietnamese, Visayan, Yiddish, Yugoslavian

African includes:
Aemavic, Akan, Alba, Bemba (Chibemba) Bini (Edo), Chichiwa, Efik, Ewe, Fanti-Fante (Akan) Foulla-Fula (Fulani) Ga, Ibo, Kikongo (Kongo), Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Lingala, Oromo, Somali, Sukuma, Swahili, Swazai, Twi, Uhrobo, Wolof, Yoruba

Other languages includes:
Azeri (Azerbaijani), Burmese, Creole (Krio), Gad (Gaddang), Ilican (Turkic), Kakwa, Frio, Laotian,Taiwanese, Turkish, “other”

Appendix E: Classification of occupations into three levels of job skills

1. Senior Management, Professional and Highly Skilled Occupations:
Legislators and Senior Management; Professional Occupations in Business and Finance; Professional Occupations in Natural and Applied Science; Professional Occupations in Health; Professional Occupations in Social Science, Education, Government Services and Religion; Professional Occupations in Art and Culture, Trades and Skilled Transport and Equipment Operators; Skilled Occupations in Primary Industry; Processing, Manufacturing and Utilities Supervisors and Skilled Operators

2. Middle Management and Skilled Occupations:
Skilled Administrative and Business Occupations; Technical Occupations Related to Natural and Applied Sciences; Technical and Skilled Occupations in Health; Paraprofessional Occupations in Law, Social Services, Education and Religion; Technical and Skilled Occupations in Art, Culture, Recreation and Sport; Skilled Sales and Service Occupations; Intermediate Sales and Service Occupations; Intermediate Occupations in Transport, Equipment Operation, Installation and Maintenance; Intermediate Occupations in Primary Industry

3. Assisting, Low/Unskilled Occupations:
Occupations; Assisting Occupations in Support of Health Services; Elemental Sales and Service Occupations; Trades Helpers, Construction Labourers and Related Occupations; Labourers in Primary Industry; Labourers in Processing, Manufacturing and Utilities

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