ARCHIVED – Immigrant income and the family

VII. Summary

Individuals Less Than 60 Years of Age

  • Immigrants and non-immigrants less than 60 years of age rely most heavily on employment earnings, with near 90 percent of total annual income coming from this source.
  • Non-immigrants are more likely than immigrants to report employment earnings and, on average, their individual employment earnings and family employment earnings are higher than immigrants.
  • Economic principal applicants report higher employment earnings than non-immigrants but are more likely to be the sole-contributors; thus, have lower family employment earnings.
  • Married men have highest individual employment earnings and family employment earnings and are more likely than married women to be sole-contributor.
  • Lone-parents and unattached individuals have lowest family employment earnings, with immigrant lone-parents and unattached reporting the lowest of all. In 2003, lone-parents and unattached immigrants account for 20 percent of the immigrant population less than 60 years of age.

Individuals 60 Years of Age or Older

  • Non-immigrants rely most heavily on retirement income, especially C/QPP and private pensions.
  • Economic immigrants continue to show strong labour market attachment, with 60 percent of total income coming from labour market sources. Economic principal applicants are also the category most likely to report C/QPP and least likely to report OAS and GIS/Allowance.
  • Family Class immigrants, who account for 66 percent of the immigrant population aged 60 or older, show weak labour market attachment and are more reliant on non-contributory income sources, receiving more than half of their income from OAS and GIS/Allowance.
  • Refugees show stronger labour market attachment than family class but still rely heavily on provincial supplements and non-contributory income sources, receiving more than half of their income from provincial supplements, OAS, and GIS/Allowance.
  • Non-immigrants in all family types have more favourable income situations than their non-immigrant counterparts. Relative to immigrants, non-immigrants have higher average employment earnings, C/QPP, RRSP, and private pensions and a lesser reliance on OAS and GIS/Allowance.
  • Within both the immigrant and non-immigrant populations, married individuals (especially males) have more favourable income situations than the other family types.
  • Lone-parents and unattached individuals have the least favourable income situations and it is even less favourable for immigrants relative to non-immigrants. Relative to their non-immigrant counterparts, immigrant lone-parents and unattached immigrants are less likely to report employment earnings and least likely to have additional contributors to family income. They are also more likely to report provincial supplements, OAS and GIS/Allowance. In 2003, lone-parents and unattached immigrants account for 4 percent and 33 percent of the immigrant population aged 60 or older, respectively.
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