Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Calgary—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part B: Who Are the Recent Immigrants?

Origin, immigration category and religion

Asian countries of birth are predominant

Calgary’s immigrants come from all over the world and represent a diversity of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Over the past several decades there has been a considerable change in the source countries of immigrants. In 2001, for example, there were 36,400 residents of Calgary who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001. The most common country of birth for these immigrants was China, accounting for 11% of these new permanent residents to Canada (15% if persons born in Hong Kong are included), followed by India, which supplied 10%. The ten most common countries of birth—China, India, the Philippines, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, South Korea, the United States, Hong Kong, Afghanistan and the Russian Federation—accounted for 57% of very recent immigrants to Calgary.

Table B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration—top ten countries of birth, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
All immigrants
Rank Country Number Share
1 United Kingdom 25,420 13%
2 China, People’s Republic of 14,760 7%
3 India 12,950 7%
4 Philippines 12,210 6%
5 Viet Nam 11,770 6%
6 Hong Kong 10,720 5%
7 United States 10,210 5%
8 Germany 7,270 4%
9 Poland 6,730 3%
10 Yugoslavia, Former 5,200 3%
Top ten countries 117,240 59%
All other countries 80,170 41%
Total 197,410 100%
Immigrated before 1986
1 United Kingdom 21,190 20%
2 United States 6,680 6%
3 Germany 6,480 6%
4 Viet Nam 6,240 6%
5 China, People’s Republic of 5,840 6%
6 Italy 4,570 4%
7 India 4,490 4%
8 Hong Kong 4,260 4%
9 Netherlands 4,010 4%
10 Philippines 3,370 3%
Top ten countries 67,130 64%
All other countries 38,350 36%
Total 105,480 100%
Immigrated 1986-1995
1 Philippines 5,530 10%
2 Hong Kong 5,210 9%
3 India 4,860 9%
4 China, People’s Republic of 4,850 9%
5 Viet Nam 4,850 9%
6 Poland 3,310 6%
7 United Kingdom 2,640 5%
8 United States 1,970 4%
9 Lebanon 1,300 2%
10 El Salvador 1,240 2%
Top ten countries 35,760 64%
All other countries 19,790 36%
Total 55,550 100%
Immigrated 1996-2001
1 China, People’s Republic of 4,070 11%
2 India 3,600 10%
3 Philippines 3,310 9%
4 Pakistan 1,780 5%
5 United Kingdom 1,610 4%
6 South Korea 1,590 4%
7 United States 1,550 4%
8 Hong Kong 1,280 4%
9 Afghanistan 920 3%
10 Russian Federation 890 2%
Top ten countries 20,600 57%
All other countries 15,790 43%
Total 36,390 100%

Among Calgary’s earlier immigrants—those arriving in Canada before 1986—the United Kingdom and the United States were the most common countries of birth, accounting for 26% of this group.

In general, the birth origins of Calgary’s immigrant population vary in relation to the period of immigration. European birth origins are predominant among those who immigrated in the 1950s, the 1960s and, to a lesser extent, the 1970s, and Asian birth origins are predominant among those who immigrated in the 1980s and 1990s. Seven of the top ten countries of birth of very recent immigrants are in Asia, and for immigrants who landed before 1986, five of the top ten countries of birth are in Asia.

Calgary’s share of Canada’s recent immigrants varies by country of birth

For some immigrant groups, Calgary is a preferred destination. For example, of the 11,100 Fiji-born individuals who immigrated since 1986 and were living in Canada in 2001, 900 or 8.1% were living in Calgary. Calgary is also home to a large share of recent immigrants from Vietnam, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom. On average, 3.7% of recent immigrants chose Calgary as their place of residence. Calgary is home to approximately the same share of all immigrants and a somewhat smaller share of the Canadian-born population of Canada.

Table B-2: Recent immigrants in Canada by country of birth and percentage residing in Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Country of Birth Total recent
immigrants to
Canada
Share
residing in
Calgary
Fiji 11,100 8.1%
Viet Nam 72,300 7.6%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 23,200 6.5%
United Kingdom 69,700 6.1%
South Africa, Republic of 19,900 6.0%
Afghanistan 20,700 5.6%
Philippines 161,100 5.5%
Colombia 10,200 5.1%
Croatia 11,400 5.0%
Ethiopia 12,100 4.9%
United States 73,900 4.8%
El Salvador 29,700 4.6%
South Korea 51,000 4.5%
Malaysia 12,300 4.4%
India 197,700 4.3%
Pakistan 64,000 4.3%
Poland 91,100 4.0%
Iraq 22,300 4.0%
Russian Federation 35,900 3.9%
Hong Kong 168,800 3.8%
China, People’s Republic of 236,900 3.8%
Egypt 17,000 3.7%
Lebanon 43,900 3.7%
All recent immigrants 2,491,900 3.7%
All immigrants 5,448,500 3.6%
Guatemala 10,600 3.5%
Yugoslavia 35,900 3.5%
Germany 22,800 3.5%
Romania 43,200 3.2%
Total population 29,639,000 3.2%
All Canadian-born 23,991,900 3.1%
Ghana 13,400 2.5%
Ukraine 25,500 2.3%
Peru 12,600 2.2%
Mexico 24,600 2.2%
Syria 10,300 2.1%
Bangladesh 19,900 2.1%
Iran 61,600 2.0%
Taiwan 60,500 1.9%
Somalia 18,200 1.8%
Jamaica 48,800 1.6%
Trinidad and Tobago 28,800 1.3%

Note: Table B-2 lists all countries that are the place of birth of at least 10,000 recent immigrants living in Canada in 2001, with Calgary’s share being 1% or more.

High share of economic immigrants among very recent landings

Statistics published by Citizenship and Immigration Canada show that the number of immigrants who reported Calgary as their destination when they landed in Canada increased by 8,600 between the second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s and decreased by 3,300 in the second half of the 1990s. The decline was concentrated in the family and refugee classes, whereas the number of economic immigrants increased. Three-fifths of very recent immigrants destined for Calgary entered through the economic category.

Within the family class, the number of spouses increased slightly over the three five-year periods and now amounts to more than one-half of this category. The number of other relatives—parents and grandparents, sons and daughters, fiancés—fell sharply from about 10,900 during the 1991-1995 period to 4,700 during the 1996-2000 period.

As for refugees, both government-assisted and privately-sponsored refugees declined in number. More than three thousand government-sponsored refugees went to Calgary during the 1986-1990 period, and only one-half of that number in each of the following two periods. Five hundred privately-sponsored refugees entered in the second half of the 1990s, a small fraction of the 2,800 who entered in the second half of the 1980s. The other refugee categories, refugees landed in Canada and refugee dependants, increased from negligible amounts to about the same level as privately-sponsored refugees.

Skilled workers and their dependants account for the lion’s share of economic immigrants, and the flow of these new entrants destined for Calgary increased steadily throughout the 15-year period 1986-2000.

Table B-3: Recent immigrants by period of immigration—landings by immigration category, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 1986-2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000
Family class 12,000 40% 17,000 43% 10,700 30%
Economic immigrants 11,600 38% 17,100 43% 20,900 59%
Refugees 6,300 21% 4,400 11% 3,600 10%
Other immigrants 300 1% 1,000 3% 100 0%
Total 30,200 100% 39,600 100% 35,300 100%

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2002 (data set).

Note: The 2001 Census did not ask immigrants about the immigration categories through which they were admitted to Canada. The information in Table B-3 was obtained from records at Citizenship and Immigration Canada and pertains to the time of landing. Immigration categories are described in the Glossary.

Religions changing with countries of origin

While nearly one in two very recent immigrants is a Christian, Muslims and Sikhs account for larger shares among recent immigrants than among earlier immigrants. Buddhists and Hindus combined make up 7% of very recent immigrants, the same share as among earlier immigrants. Among the Canadian-born, none of these four religions claims the affiliation of more than 1% of the population.

One in four Canadian-born are Roman Catholic, whereas over 20% of recent immigrants are of the Roman Catholic faith. The share of very recent immigrants who are Roman Catholics has decreased by 7% compared to those who immigrated before 1986, and that of Protestants fell by more than one-half to 12%.

Table B-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—religious affiliation, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-
born
Immigrants Immigrated before 1986 Immigrated 1986-1995 Immigrated 1996-2001
Roman Catholic 187,050 54,400 30,160 16,180 8,070
Protestant 291,710 41,440 30,120 6,800 4,500
Orthodox Christian 5,440 5,680 1,840 1,500 2,310
Other Christian 33,270 9,380 3,980 2,980 2,410
Muslim 7,380 17,710 6,060 5,390 6,270
Buddhist 5,210 11,210 5,560 4,510 1,150
Hindu 1,870 5,130 1,880 1,890 1,370
Sikh 4,480 8,660 2,660 3,760 2,240
Other 12,530 3,360 1,880 900 550
No religion 189,400 40,490 21,290 11,650 7,560
Total 738,310 197,410 105,470 55,550 36,390
 
Roman Catholic 25% 28% 29% 29% 22%
Protestant 40% 21% 29% 12% 12%
Orthodox Christian 1% 3% 2% 3% 6%
Other Christian 5% 5% 4% 5% 7%
Muslim 1% 9% 6% 10% 17%
Buddhist 1% 6% 5% 8% 3%
Hindu 0% 3% 2% 3% 4%
Sikh 1% 4% 3% 7% 6%
Other 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%
No religion 26% 21% 20% 21% 21%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Note: Religions are listed in order of their share of the population of Canada, from highest to lowest, with Christian religions grouped together.

Age and gender

Nearly one-half of very recent immigrants are working-age adults 25 to 44

The age distribution of the very recent immigrant population (those landing between 1996 and 2001) is markedly different from that of the Canadian-born population in Calgary, with a larger proportion of persons aged 25 to 44 and proportionally fewer adults 45 years of age and over. In 2001, nearly one-half of Calgary’s very recent immigrant population were between the ages of 25 and 44, compared to one-third of the Canadian-born. Adults aged 45 and over accounted for 17% of the very recent immigrant population compared with 27% for the Canadian-born. One-fifth of Calgary’s very recent immigrants were children under 15 years of age.

Table B-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Under 15
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total
Women
Canadian-born 85,230 56,480 124,580 72,080 28,150 366,510
Immigrants 5,550 8,670 38,130 32,720 16,280 101,340
 Immigrated before 1986 0 1,480 14,550 23,870 13,070 52,960
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,810 4,380 14,350 6,430 2,530 29,490
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,740 2,810 9,240 2,430 670 18,890
Men
Canadian-born 89,430 59,940 128,700 71,920 21,830 371,810
Immigrants 5,670 9,130 35,020 32,750 13,520 96,080
 Immigrated before 1986 0 1,520 15,030 24,670 11,290 52,510
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,690 4,950 12,180 5,470 1,790 26,070
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,980 2,670 7,810 2,610 440 17,510
Total
Canadian-born 174,650 116,420 253,280 144,000 49,980 738,310
Immigrants 11,210 17,800 73,150 65,460 29,790 197,410
 Immigrated before 1986 0 3,000 29,580 48,530 24,360 105,480
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,500 9,320 26,530 11,890 4,330 55,550
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7,720 5,480 17,050 5,040 1,110 36,390
 
Canadian-born 24% 16% 34% 20% 7% 100%
Immigrants 6% 9% 37% 33% 15% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 3% 28% 46% 23% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 17% 48% 21% 8% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 21% 15% 47% 14% 3% 100%
Total population 20% 14% 35% 22% 9% 100%

These differences in age structure are to some degree a result of how we define immigrants and the Canadian-born. The immigrant population grows older like the Canadian population but does not renew itself in the same way, as children born in Canada to immigrants are not considered immigrants. Thus, there are no persons under 15 years of age among immigrants who landed before 1986, and the older age groups are over-represented among these earlier immigrants. By the same token, the share of children among the Canadian-born is large as it includes children born in Canada to immigrant parents.

The age structure of very recent immigrants closely resembles age at landing. Immigrants tend to arrive in Canada during their prime working-age years. This was the case among immigrants who landed more than 30 years ago, and it is still the case today. It is therefore not surprising that a large share of very recent immigrants were in the 25 to 44 age group.

Many of the characteristics and circumstances described in this profile vary with age. Differences between immigrants or groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born often are at least in part a reflection of differences in the age structure.

Figure B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, by age, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)
Figure B-1

More women than men

The proportion of women in the recent immigrant population in Calgary is similar to but, at 52% to 53%, slightly higher than that of the Canadian-born population.

Table B-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage of women, by age, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Under 15
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Canadian-born 49% 49% 49% 50% 56% 50%
Immigrants 49% 49% 52% 50% 55% 51%
 Immigrated before 1986 49% 49% 49% 54% 50%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 52% 47% 54% 54% 58% 53%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 51% 54% 48% 61% 52%

There are 4,800 more women than men among the 92,000 recent immigrants in Calgary. The number of women is particularly high among recent immigrants from the Philippines (2,200 more women than men out of 8,800 recent immigrants) and Japan (130 more women than men out of 260 recent immigrants).

As women on average live longer than men, they make up a large share of persons 65 years of age and over. But the higher proportion of women among recent immigrants is not related to age. For instance, two-thirds of recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 from the Philippines are women. Many of them have obtained permanent resident status after a period of employment as live-in caregivers.

At the opposite end of the spectrum of the gender mix are Ghana, Italy and Afghanistan. Fifty-seven percent or more of recent immigrants from these countries are men. Men outnumber women by 130 among the 340 recent immigrants from Ghana, and by 160 among the 1,170 recent immigrants from Afghanistan.

The gender balance, by country of origin, has not changed greatly since 1996.

Language and education

Nine in ten very recent immigrants speak English or French

A large majority of Calgary’s immigrants 15 years of age and over reported being able to carry on a conversation in at least one of Canada’s two official languages. Even among very recent immigrants, who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001, nine in ten (93% of men and 87% of women) reported being able to speak an official language in May 2001. Only one in ten of these very recent immigrants could not speak either official language. Knowledge of official languages was somewhat greater among earlier immigrants—96% of those who immigrated before 1986 indicated they were able to speak an official language.

Table B-7: Very recent immigrants (immigrated 1996-2001)—15 years of age and over—knowledge of official languages by age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  English only French only English
and
French
Neither
English
nor
French
Total
Women
15 to 24 years 2,540 30 90 170 2,820
25 to 44 years 8,020 30 510 690 9,240
45 to 64 years 1,640 80 710 2,430
65 years and over 320 10 350 670
15 years and over 12,510 50 680 1,910 15,150
Men
15 to 24 years 2,430 10 130 110 2,670
25 to 44 years 7,000 20 570 230 7,810
45 to 64 years 2,100 130 370 2,600
65 years and over 190 10 250 440
15 years and over 11,720 30 840 950 13,530
Total
15 to 24 years 4,970 30 220 270 5,480
25 to 44 years 15,020 50 1,080 920 17,050
45 to 64 years 3,750 10 200 1,090 5,040
65 years and over 510 20 590 1,120
15 years and over 24,220 90 1,520 2,860 28,680
 
Women
15 to 24 years 90% 1% 3% 6% 100%
25 to 44 years 87% 0% 5% 7% 100%
45 to 64 years 68% 0% 3% 29% 100%
65 years and over 47% 0% 1% 52% 100%
15 years and over 83% 0% 4% 13% 100%
Men
15 to 24 years 91% 0% 5% 4% 100%
25 to 44 years 90% 0% 7% 3% 100%
45 to 64 years 81% 0% 5% 14% 100%
65 years and over 42% 0% 2% 57% 100%
15 years and over 87% 0% 6% 7% 100%
Total
15 to 24 years 91% 1% 4% 5% 100%
25 to 44 years 88% 0% 6% 5% 100%
45 to 64 years 74% 0% 4% 22% 100%
65 years and over 46% 0% 2% 53% 100%
15 years and over 84% 0% 5% 10% 100%

The proportion of Calgary’s immigrants able to carry on a conversation in English or French decreases with age. Among immigrants under age 45 who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001, almost all are able to speak an official language, and there is little difference between men and women in this regard. Among those aged 45 to 64, however, the percentage that can speak English or French is lower, and more so for women than men. For seniors aged 65 and over, having conversational ability in English or French is least likely, with the percentage being lower for men than for women.

Ability to converse in either or both official languages has improved with the very recent immigrant cohort: 5% more men and 5% more women had this ability in 2001 compared to a similar cohort (those who landed within the five years prior to the census) in 1996. This may reflect changes in countries of origin, the increase in the number of economic immigrants and perhaps also greater awareness among immigrants before and after arrival of the need to speak Canada’s languages.

Nearly two in three very recent immigrants speak a foreign language at home

For the majority of Calgary’s recent immigrants, the language spoken most often at home is one other than English or French. Nearly two in three immigrants who landed between 1996 and 2001 most often speak a foreign language in their homes.

The use of a foreign language is also high among other immigrant cohorts. About six in ten of those who immigrated between 1986 and 1995 and one-quarter of those who immigrated prior to 1986 most often speak a foreign language at home.

Figure B-2: Immigrants by period of immigration 15 years of age and over—use of a foreign language at home, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)
Figure B-2

The use of foreign languages in the home among very recent immigrants was not as high in 2001 as in 1996, when 67% of immigrants who landed in the previous five-year period reported use of a foreign language in the home. Among those who had lived in Canada from 5 to 15 years, 57% commonly used a foreign language in 2001, compared to 52% of the comparable cohort in 1996.

High level of education among very recent immigrants

The share of immigrants with a minimal education is at least twice as large as the share of the Canadian-born with a minimal education. The latter are more likely than immigrants to have some high school and more likely than recent immigrants to have a college or trade diploma. Very recent immigrants, however, boast a significant number of university graduates. This high proportion of university graduates is most likely a result of immigrant selection policy. A large proportion of very recent immigrants have entered as economic immigrants, and for them, education is an important admission criterion.

When education levels are compared among age groups, the younger generation has a much higher level of education than older groups, whether born inside or outside Canada. Over six in ten Canadian-born persons under 45 years of age have a post-secondary diploma or degree (62% of men and 63% of women), compared to less than one-half of men age 65 and over and one-third of women age 65 and over. A similar difference in educational qualifications is observed among immigrants.

Fully three-quarters of men aged 25 to 44 who immigrated during the 1996-2001 period have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to three in five Canadian-born men. The shares of women with a post-secondary diploma or degree are similar.

As for persons of 45 to 64 years of age, the education level of very recently immigrated men is the same as that of Canadian-born men, while women in the very recent immigrant cohort have less schooling than their Canadian-born counterparts.

Table B-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian born—15 years of age and over—highest level of education, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 5,590 66,940 67,840 87,100 53,820 281,280
Immigrants 12,360 18,060 19,820 25,510 20,050 95,790
 Immigrated before 1986 7,330 10,260 10,210 15,690 9,490 52,970
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,760 5,480 6,550 6,590 5,310 27,690
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,280 2,330 3,060 3,240 5,260 15,150
Men
Canadian-born 6,590 68,260 63,040 85,100 59,400 282,390
Immigrants 7,360 16,610 16,000 26,280 24,160 90,410
 Immigrated before 1986 4,480 8,540 7,960 18,110 13,410 52,510
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,160 5,570 5,700 5,710 5,260 24,380
 Immigrated 1996-2001 720 2,510 2,350 2,460 5,500 13,530
Total
Canadian-born 12,180 135,200 130,880 172,190 113,220 563,670
Immigrants 19,730 34,670 35,820 51,780 44,210 186,200
 Immigrated before 1986 11,810 18,790 18,170 33,810 22,900 105,460
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,910 11,050 12,250 12,290 10,560 52,060
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,000 4,830 5,410 5,690 10,750 28,680
 
Women
Canadian-born 2% 24% 24% 31% 19% 100%
Immigrants 13% 19% 21% 27% 21% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 14% 19% 19% 30% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 20% 24% 24% 19% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 15% 20% 21% 35% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 2% 24% 22% 30% 21% 100%
Immigrants 8% 18% 18% 29% 27% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 16% 15% 34% 26% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9% 23% 23% 23% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 19% 17% 18% 41% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 2% 24% 23% 31% 20% 100%
Immigrants 11% 19% 19% 28% 24% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 18% 17% 32% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 21% 24% 24% 20% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 17% 19% 20% 37% 100%
Table B-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 years of age and over, with no high school diploma or with post-secondary diploma or degree—by age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  No high school diploma With post-secondary diploma or degree
  25 to 44 years 45 to 65 years 65 years and over 25 to 44 years 45 to 65 years 65 years and over
Women
Canadian-born 18,290 16,420 13,840 78,840 40,540 9,740
Immigrants 7,460 9,780 10,300 23,130 16,730 3,680
 Immigrated before 1986 2,780 6,570 8,010 8,600 12,720 3,210
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,510 2,330 1,900 7,880 2,900 290
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,170 880 390 6,650 1,120 190
Men
Canadian-born 22,680 15,260 9,340 80,020 44,980 9,560
Immigrants 7,180 6,690 6,140 21,600 21,490 5,920
 Immigrated before 1986 3,220 4,740 4,800 8,950 16,790 5,350
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,060 1,350 1,160 6,810 3,060 400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 920 620 190 5,850 1,650 170
Total
Canadian-born 40,980 31,670 23,160 158,860 85,520 19,300
Immigrants 14,650 16,460 16,440 44,730 38,210 9,600
 Immigrated before 1986 5,990 11,300 12,810 17,550 29,490 8,570
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6,580 3,680 3,050 14,680 5,960 680
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,080 1,500 580 12,500 2,770 360
 
Women
Canadian-born 15% 23% 49% 63% 56% 35%
Immigrants 20% 30% 63% 61% 51% 23%
 Immigrated before 1986 19% 28% 61% 59% 53% 25%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 24% 36% 75% 55% 45% 11%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 36% 58% 72% 46% 28%
Men
Canadian-born 18% 21% 43% 62% 63% 44%
Immigrants 21% 20% 45% 62% 66% 44%
 Immigrated before 1986 21% 19% 42% 60% 68% 47%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 25% 25% 65% 56% 56% 22%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 12% 24% 44% 75% 63% 39%
Total
Canadian-born 16% 22% 46% 63% 59% 39%
Immigrants 20% 25% 55% 61% 58% 32%
 Immigrated before 1986 20% 23% 53% 59% 61% 35%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 25% 31% 71% 55% 50% 16%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 12% 30% 52% 73% 55% 32%

Recent immigrants add to Calgary’s pool of scientists and engineers

Seven out of every ten men who immigrated after 1986 and have a post-secondary diploma or degree majored in physical sciences, engineering or trades. This compares to between five and six in ten Canadian-born men. Among women with a post-secondary diploma or degree, more than one in four very recent immigrants has studied some physical science, engineering and trades, twice as large a share as of Canadian-born women with similar education levels.

Table B-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with post-secondary diploma or degree—major field of study, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Physical sciences, engineering and trades Social sciences, education and arts Commerce, manage-
ment and
business administration
Health professions and related technologies Total
Women
Canadian-born 18,910 55,510 41,650 24,360 140,420
Immigrants 8,850 16,430 12,690 7,470 45,430
 Immigrated before 1986 2,480 4,170 3,450 1,760 11,850
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,950 9,180 7,570 4,400 25,090
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,410 3,080 1,670 1,310 8,460
Men
Canadian-born 80,810 31,690 26,510 5,190 144,180
Immigrants 32,420 8,410 7,340 2,110 50,270
 Immigrated before 1986 6,890 1,860 1,720 480 10,940
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20,050 5,430 4,690 1,270 31,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5,480 1,150 930 370 7,920
Total
Canadian-born 99,720 87,200 68,150 29,550 284,610
Immigrants 41,270 24,850 20,020 9,580 95,710
 Immigrated before 1986 9,360 6,020 5,160 2,240 22,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 24,010 14,600 12,260 5,660 56,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7,890 4,220 2,600 1,680 16,380
 
Women
Canadian-born 13% 40% 30% 17% 100%
Immigrants 19% 36% 28% 16% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 21% 35% 29% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16% 37% 30% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 28% 36% 20% 15% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 56% 22% 18% 4% 100%
Immigrants 64% 17% 15% 4% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 63% 17% 16% 4% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 64% 17% 15% 4% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 69% 15% 12% 5% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 35% 31% 24% 10% 100%
Immigrants 43% 26% 21% 10% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 41% 26% 23% 10% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 42% 26% 22% 10% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 26% 16% 10% 100%

By contrast, recent immigrants are represented in smaller proportions than the Canadian-born in the social sciences, education and arts (measured as a group) and commerce, management and business administration (measured as a group). The several immigrant cohorts and the Canadian-born are more alike with respect to the proportions that specialized in health professions and technologies. The educational choices of very recent immigrants are much the same as in 1996.

Recent immigrants more likely to attend school

Very recent immigrants are relatively likely to be in school. School attendance is about twice as high for this group as for the Canadian-born in both the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups.

School attendance, of course, is much higher in the youngest age group, persons of 15 to 24 years of age, than in older age groups. Here we find a higher rate for men who immigrated very recently than for the Canadian-born and about the same rate for very recent immigrant women and Canadian-born women. The latter is just as noteworthy as the former, as educational participation of young Canadian-born women is very high by international standards. School attendance is also high among young earlier immigrants.

By and large, school attendance rates were similar to those in 1996.

Table B-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, attending school—by age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
Women
Canadian-born 33,710 17,390 3,840 60% 14% 5%
Immigrants 5,660 6,300 1,770 65% 17% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 880 1,850 1,130 59% 13% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,090 2,120 360 71% 15% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,690 2,340 280 60% 25% 11%
Men
Canadian-born 32,800 15,510 2,600 55% 12% 4%
Immigrants 6,060 5,440 1,290 66% 16% 4%
 Immigrated before 1986 880 1,930 800 58% 13% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,380 1,610 290 68% 13% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,810 1,910 200 68% 24% 8%
Total
Canadian-born 66,510 32,890 6,440 57% 13% 4%
Immigrants 11,720 11,740 3,070 66% 16% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1,760 3,770 1,930 59% 13% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6,460 3,720 650 69% 14% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,510 4,250 480 64% 25% 9%
Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Privacy statement

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: