Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Ottawa—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower the more recent the arrival

Very recent immigrants are not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is twenty-one percentage points for women and seven percentage points for men. Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is rather more like that of the Canadian-born. A pattern of adjustment and increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women. Men aged 45-64 who immigrated before 1996 and persons aged 15-24 of both sexes who immigrated before 1986 are more active in the labour market than Canadian-born persons of the same ages. Immigrant women have a larger gap to bridge.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 31,960 84,500 48,780 165,230
Immigrants 4,390 23,170 17,640 45,200
 Immigrated before 1986 910 8,240 13,460 22,600
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,550 9,340 3,280 15,170
 Immigrated 1996-2001 940 5,590 910 7,430
Men
Canadian-born 32,130 90,650 53,750 176,530
Immigrants 4,880 26,990 21,080 52,950
 Immigrated before 1986 900 8,870 16,270 26,030
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,960 10,820 3,590 17,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,020 7,320 1,220 9,560
Total
Canadian-born 64,090 175,150 102,530 341,760
Immigrants 9,270 50,160 38,730 98,160
 Immigrated before 1986 1,800 17,110 29,730 48,630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,510 20,150 6,870 32,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,960 12,910 2,120 16,980

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 72% 86% 69% 77% 165,230
Immigrants 56% 72% 67% 68% 45,200
 Immigrated before 1986 79% 83% 68% 73% 22,600
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 72% 65% 68% 15,170
 Immigrated 1996-2001 41% 60% 55% 56% 7,430
Men
Canadian-born 73% 94% 80% 85% 176,530
Immigrants 59% 90% 84% 83% 52,950
 Immigrated before 1986 79% 93% 85% 87% 26,030
 Immigrated 1986-1995 59% 91% 82% 81% 17,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 86% 74% 78% 9,560
Total
Canadian-born 72% 90% 74% 81% 341,760
Immigrants 57% 81% 75% 76% 98,160
 Immigrated before 1986 79% 88% 76% 80% 48,630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 81% 73% 74% 32,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 44% 73% 64% 66% 16,980

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Labour force participation was higher for most cohorts in the 2001 Census than in the 1996 Census. The young and old age cohorts showed greater gains than the middle age cohorts. Very recently landed women and men aged 45 to 64 saw gains of 11% and 10%, respectively.

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Figure D-1, Women
Figure D-1, Men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education, the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with one exception: men who immigrated after 1985 and who at the time of the 2001 Census had only attended elementary school had a higher participation rate than those with some high school.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,010 20,410 43,770 49,390 50,670 165,230
Immigrants 1,710 4,100 8,820 13,320 17,280 45,200
 Immigrated before 1986 980 1,930 4,240 7,230 8,230 22,600
 Immigrated 1986-1995 620 1,690 3,410 4,360 5,110 15,170
 Immigrated 1996-2001 110 480 1,180 1,730 3,940 7,430
Men
Canadian-born 1,810 26,080 42,820 52,110 53,700 176,530
Immigrants 1,870 4,660 9,240 12,740 24,450 52,950
 Immigrated before 1986 1,160 2,050 4,090 7,190 11,560 26,030
 Immigrated 1986-1995 590 2,100 3,890 4,180 6,640 17,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 130 520 1,260 1,390 6,250 9,560
Total
Canadian-born 2,820 46,490 86,580 101,500 104,370 341,760
Immigrants 3,570 8,760 18,050 26,050 41,730 98,160
 Immigrated before 1986 2,120 3,970 8,330 14,410 19,800 48,630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,200 3,770 7,290 8,520 11,750 32,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 250 1,000 2,440 3,130 10,180 16,980

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 31% 56% 79% 82% 86% 77%
Immigrants 40% 47% 64% 75% 78% 68%
 Immigrated before 1986 46% 57% 71% 77% 83% 73%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 38% 44% 65% 80% 81% 68%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 22% 30% 47% 61% 67% 56%
Men
Canadian-born 48% 67% 87% 91% 92% 85%
Immigrants 71% 60% 82% 88% 90% 83%
 Immigrated before 1986 72% 77% 88% 88% 90% 87%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 72% 56% 80% 90% 91% 81%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 61% 40% 69% 78% 88% 78%
Total
Canadian-born 40% 62% 83% 87% 89% 81%
Immigrants 52% 53% 72% 81% 85% 76%
 Immigrated before 1986 57% 65% 79% 82% 87% 80%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50% 50% 72% 84% 86% 74%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 34% 34% 56% 68% 78% 66%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

As well, immigrants with little schooling, even very recent immigrant men, are more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born with low education. But at all other education levels, there is a standard pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recently landed immigrants and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born for earlier cohorts.

Participation rates have increased for some cohorts and have declined for other cohorts since 1996. Overall, there was little change for the Canadian-born and immigrants who landed before 1996. An increase of seven percentage points for very recent immigrant men was due to a larger share of university graduates who participate in the labour force at a very high rate.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Figure D-2, Women
Figure D-2, Men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Knowledge of official languages important for labour force participation

Most immigrants report that they have knowledge of either English or French when they immigrate to Canada. As reported at the time of the 2001 Census, the large majority of both men and women who immigrated during the 1990s and settled in Ottawa have knowledge of at least one official language. Those who do not report having knowledge of English or French are not nearly as active in the labour market as those who do. Those who have knowledge of French only, a small share of both recent immigrants and the Canadian-born, participate at lower rates in the labour market than do those who have knowledge of English only or both official languages.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of official languages and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  English only French only French and English Neither French nor English Total
Women
Canadian-born 81,580 850 82,790 165,230
Immigrants 31,660 650 12,180 720 45,200
 Immigrated before 1986 14,950 180 7,310 170 22,600
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10,890 280 3,680 330 15,170
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5,830 190 1,200 220 7,430
Men
Canadian-born 97,440 690 78,380 176,530
Immigrants 38,920 360 12,980 700 52,950
 Immigrated before 1986 18,060 120 7,670 180 26,030
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13,190 150 3,710 300 17,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7,660 100 1,600 210 9,560
Total
Canadian-born 179,010 1,550 161,190 341,760
Immigrants 70,580 1,010 25,150 1,420 98,160
 Immigrated before 1986 33,020 280 14,970 360 48,630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 24,090 450 7,390 630 32,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13,480 290 2,800 430 16,980

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by knowledge of official languages and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  English only French only Both French and English Neither French nor English Total
Women
Canadian-born 76% 54% 79% 77%
Immigrants 67% 51% 76% 32% 68%
 Immigrated before 1986 71% 58% 81% 39% 73%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 69% 55% 72% 33% 68%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 58% 41% 65% 25% 56%
Men
Canadian-born 85% 67% 85% 85%
Immigrants 84% 59% 85% 59% 83%
 Immigrated before 1986 87% 79% 89% 63% 87%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 83% 64% 79% 62% 81%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 79% 43% 81% 52% 78%
Total
Canadian-born 81% 60% 82% 81%
Immigrants 76% 54% 80% 41% 76%
 Immigrated before 1986 79% 62% 85% 50% 80%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 76% 60% 76% 43% 74%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 68% 42% 73% 34% 66%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment not uncommon during initial years

Immigrants who are in their initial years in Ottawa are more likely to experience unemployment than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, very recently immigrated men in Ottawa aged 25 to 44 and 45 to 64 experienced unemployment rates of 10% and 14%, respectively, and women in the same age groups experienced rates of 18% and 15%, respectively. Unemployment is significantly lower among persons in the same age group who immigrated before 1996, but it is still higher than for the Canadian-born.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,540 3,360 1,170 8,070
Immigrants 830 2,540 920 4,290
 Immigrated before 1986 110 460 520 1,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 490 1,050 270 1,810
 Immigrated 1996-2001 230 1,020 140 1,380
Men
Canadian-born 4,060 3,230 1,460 8,750
Immigrants 860 1,760 1,110 3,720
 Immigrated before 1986 140 280 570 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 560 740 370 1,660
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 750 180 1,080
Total
Canadian-born 7,610 6,580 2,630 16,810
Immigrants 1,690 4,300 2,030 8,020
 Immigrated before 1986 250 760 1,100 2,100
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,050 1,790 620 3,460
 Immigrated 1996-2001 390 1,760 310 2,460

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 11% 4% 2% 5% 8,070
Immigrants 19% 11% 5% 9% 4,290
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 6% 4% 5% 1,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 11% 8% 12% 1,810
 Immigrated 1996-2001 25% 18% 15% 19% 1,380
Men
Canadian-born 13% 4% 3% 5% 8,750
Immigrants 18% 7% 5% 7% 3,720
 Immigrated before 1986 16% 3% 4% 4% 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 7% 10% 10% 1,660
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 10% 14% 11% 1,080
Total
Canadian-born 12% 4% 3% 5% 16,810
Immigrants 18% 9% 5% 8% 8,020
 Immigrated before 1986 14% 4% 4% 4% 2,100
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 9% 9% 11% 3,460
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20% 14% 15% 14% 2,460

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The unemployment rate for all age and gender cohorts shown in Table D-8 was lower in 2001 than in 1996. The decline was significantly greater for very recent immigrants in all three age cohorts (seven to seventeen percentage points) than for other immigrants and the Canadian-born (one to seven percentage points).

Earlier cohorts have lower unemployment rates than more recent cohorts at all levels of education. For instance, women who immigrated after 1995 and who have a high school diploma have an unemployment rate of 22%. The rate drops to 15% for female immigrants who landed between 1986 and 1995.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,730 2,700 1,930 1,730 8,070
Immigrants 800 1,020 1,080 1,400 4,290
 Immigrated before 1986 240 260 320 300 1,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 460 510 460 400 1,810
 Immigrated 1996-2001 120 270 310 700 1,380
Men
Canadian-born 2,510 2,790 1,930 1,520 8,750
Immigrants 680 930 770 1,350 3,720
 Immigrated before 1986 180 230 290 300 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 360 500 310 460 1,660
 Immigrated 1996-2001 110 200 190 580 1,080
Total
Canadian-born 4,240 5,470 3,860 3,240 16,810
Immigrants 1,470 1,940 1,850 2,750 8,020
 Immigrated before 1986 410 490 590 600 2,100
 Immigrated 1986-1995 810 1,000 770 880 3,460
 Immigrated 1996-2001 230 460 490 1,290 2,460

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Recent immigrant women experience more unemployment than recent immigrant men, irrespective of their education level. The gap between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is also larger for women than for men at any level of education.

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 8% 6% 4% 3% 5%
Immigrants 14% 12% 8% 8% 9%
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 6% 4% 4% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20% 15% 10% 8% 12%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 19% 22% 18% 18% 19%
Men
Canadian-born 9% 7% 4% 3% 5%
Immigrants 10% 10% 6% 6% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 6% 6% 4% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 13% 7% 7% 10%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17% 15% 13% 9% 11%
Total
Canadian-born 9% 6% 4% 3% 5%
Immigrants 12% 11% 7% 7% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 7% 6% 4% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16% 14% 9% 7% 11%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 18% 19% 16% 13% 14%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Almost all immigrant cohorts experienced a lower unemployment rate in 2001 than in 1996. The unemployment rate declined more for the very recent immigrant cohort than for the 1986-1995 immigrant cohort and the Canadian-born. In the case of very recent immigrant women, the lower the level of education was of the cohort, the greater the decrease in unemployment rates was for that cohort.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of official languages and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  English only French only French and English Neither French nor English Total
Women
Canadian-born 4,180 40 3,850 8,070
Immigrants 2,950 200 1,000 170 4,290
 Immigrated before 1986 710 30 340 20 1,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,170 100 430 110 1,810
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,060 70 230 40 1,380
Men
Canadian-born 4,870 30 3,830 8,750
Immigrants 2,700 60 880 100 3,720
 Immigrated before 1986 720 0 250 20 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,200 30 410 40 1,660
 Immigrated 1996-2001 800 20 220 40 1,080
Total
Canadian-born 9,050 80 7,690 16,810
Immigrants 5,650 250 1,870 250 8,020
 Immigrated before 1986 1,430 40 600 60 2,100
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,370 120 840 140 3,460
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,850 90 450 70 2,460

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Recent immigrants who speak neither English nor French are more likely to be unemployed than those who speak English or both official languages. The difference in unemployment rates between those who speak at least one official language and those who do not varies widely depending on which other language or languages are spoken, gender and period of immigration. Recent immigrant women who speak only French experience unemployment rates higher than those who do not speak either of Canada’s official languages.

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by knowledge of official languages and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  English only French only French and English Neither French nor English Total
Women
Canadian-born 5% 5% 5% 5%
Immigrants 9% 30% 8% 23% 9%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 17% 5% 12% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 36% 12% 32% 12%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 18% 34% 19% 16% 19%
Men
Canadian-born 5% 4% 5% 5%
Immigrants 7% 17% 7% 14% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 0% 3% 11% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9% 17% 11% 12% 10%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 16% 14% 17% 11%
Total
Canadian-born 5% 5% 5% 5%
Immigrants 8% 25% 7% 18% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 13% 4% 15% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 27% 11% 22% 11%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 14% 30% 16% 16% 14%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

A large majority of recent immigrants speak English or both English and French. Thus, the effect of higher unemployment among recent immigrants who speak neither English nor French or only French on the overall unemployment rate of recent immigrants is small. For men, the differences in unemployment rates between language skill groups are small compared to the difference in labour force participation.

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

Less than one-half of very recent immigrant women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to three-quarters of Canadian-born women. For men the difference is smaller: seven in ten very recent immigrants are employed compared to eight in ten Canadian-born men. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates reflect differences in labour force participation rates and also, but to a lesser extent, differences in unemployment rates.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 28,420 81,150 47,610 157,170
Immigrants 3,560 20,640 16,720 40,920
 Immigrated before 1986 800 7,780 12,940 21,520
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,060 8,290 3,020 13,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 710 4,580 770 6,050
Men
Canadian-born 28,070 87,430 52,290 167,790
Immigrants 4,020 25,230 19,970 49,220
 Immigrated before 1986 760 8,580 15,700 25,030
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,400 10,090 3,230 15,710
 Immigrated 1996-2001 860 6,580 1,050 8,480
Total
Canadian-born 56,480 168,570 99,890 324,940
Immigrants 7,580 45,870 36,690 90,140
 Immigrated before 1986 1,560 16,350 28,640 46,550
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,460 18,370 6,250 29,080
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,570 11,150 1,810 14,520

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 64% 83% 67% 74% 157,170
Immigrants 45% 64% 63% 61% 40,920
 Immigrated before 1986 69% 78% 66% 70% 21,520
 Immigrated 1986-1995 47% 64% 60% 60% 13,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 31% 49% 46% 45% 6,050
Men
Canadian-born 63% 91% 78% 81% 167,790
Immigrants 48% 84% 79% 78% 49,220
 Immigrated before 1986 66% 90% 82% 84% 25,030
 Immigrated 1986-1995 48% 85% 74% 74% 15,710
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40% 78% 64% 69% 8,480
Total
Canadian-born 64% 87% 72% 77% 324,940
Immigrants 47% 74% 71% 69% 90,140
 Immigrated before 1986 68% 84% 74% 77% 46,550
 Immigrated 1986-1995 47% 74% 66% 66% 29,080
 Immigrated 1996-2001 35% 63% 55% 57% 14,520

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is more common than among the more recently landed. For immigrant men and women, the employment rate of those who landed before 1986 is comparable to the employment rate of the Canadian-born.

In 2001, the incidence of employment was higher among all cohorts than in 1996. The very recent immigrant cohort showed the greatest rise in employment rates, followed by the cohort of immigrants who landed in the ten years previous.

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrant men aged 25 to 64

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. More than half of employed young adults work part-time. Seventeen to 24% of employed women aged 25 to 64 work part-time, varying by cohort, while 4% to 16% of employed men aged 25 to 64 work part-time, again varying by cohort.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 20,660 15,090 10,810 46,560
Immigrants 2,560 4,180 4,010 10,740
 Immigrated before 1986 520 1,500 3,090 5,100
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,630 1,860 770 4,260
 Immigrated 1996-1999 410 820 160 1,390
Men
Canadian-born 18,710 4,880 4,310 27,890
Immigrants 2,610 1,770 1,820 6,190
 Immigrated before 1986 420 380 1,320 2,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,730 840 350 2,920
 Immigrated 1996-1999 470 550 160 1,170
Total
Canadian-born 39,370 19,960 15,110 74,430
Immigrants 5,160 5,950 5,820 16,920
 Immigrated before 1986 930 1,890 4,400 7,210
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,350 2,700 1,110 7,160
 Immigrated 1996-1999 880 1,370 310 2,550

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 60% 17% 21% 27%
Immigrants 60% 19% 22% 24%
 Immigrated before 1986 55% 18% 22% 22%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 20% 24% 28%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 59% 20% 22% 25%
Men
Canadian-born 55% 5% 8% 15%
Immigrants 55% 7% 9% 12%
 Immigrated before 1986 43% 4% 8% 8%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 8% 10% 17%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 59% 10% 16% 16%
Total
Canadian-born 57% 11% 14% 21%
Immigrants 57% 13% 15% 18%
 Immigrated before 1986 49% 11% 14% 14%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 60% 13% 17% 22%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 59% 14% 18% 20%

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Part-time employment is more common for very recent immigrant men aged 25 to 44 or 45 to 64 than for other men, particularly the Canadian-born. Recent immigrant women are only slightly more likely than other women, including the Canadian-born, to work part-time.

The prevalence of part-time employment was generally lower for the various cohorts in 2001 than in 1996, with recent immigrant cohorts experiencing greater declines than earlier immigrant cohorts and the Canadian-born cohort. The very recent young male immigrant cohort was an exception, with part-time employment higher among this cohort in 2001 than in 1996.

Many recent immigrants in health and science occupations

Employed recent immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in health, science and processing jobs. Well over four in ten employed very recently landed immigrants are employed in health and science occupations, compared to two in ten Canadian-born persons. By contrast, management and social occupations, which are favoured by the Canadian-born, account for a smaller share of the jobs of recent immigrants.

Table D-17: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Mana-
gement and social sciences
Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 18,830 1,570 42,510 44,550 1,680 19,630 128,760
Immigrants 7,990 2,610 8,510 9,900 410 7,940 37,360
 Immigrated
 before 1986
3,890 810 5,690 6,550 230 3,530 20,730
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
3,000 1,200 1,940 2,330 130 2,710 11,320
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
1,100 600 890 1,030 50 1,690 5,340
Men
Canadian-born 19,860 4,780 18,650 44,180 20,600 31,670 139,720
Immigrants 6,190 2,730 3,630 12,450 5,440 14,790 45,200
 Immigrated
 before 1986
2,940 940 2,270 8,540 3,160 6,460 24,270
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
2,410 1,180 980 2,620 1,790 4,350 13,320
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
840 630 380 1,300 490 3,980 7,630
Total
Canadian-born 38,680 6,350 61,150 88,720 22,280 51,300 268,460
Immigrants 14,170 5,330 12,140 22,370 5,840 22,710 82,560
 Immigrated
 before 1986
6,830 1,740 7,960 15,080 3,400 9,980 44,980
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
5,420 2,380 2,920 4,950 1,910 7,060 24,620
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
1,940 1,230 1,270 2,330 540 5,670 12,960
 
Women
Canadian-born 15% 1% 33% 35% 1% 15% 100%
Immigrants 21% 7% 23% 26% 1% 21% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
19% 4% 27% 32% 1% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
27% 11% 17% 21% 1% 24% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
21% 11% 17% 19% 1% 32% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 14% 3% 13% 32% 15% 23% 100%
Immigrants 14% 6% 8% 28% 12% 33% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
12% 4% 9% 35% 13% 27% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
18% 9% 7% 20% 13% 33% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
11% 8% 5% 17% 6% 52% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 14% 2% 23% 33% 8% 19% 100%
Immigrants 17% 6% 15% 27% 7% 28% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
15% 4% 18% 34% 8% 22% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
22% 10% 12% 20% 8% 29% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
15% 9% 10% 18% 4% 44% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants is quite different from that of earlier cohorts. In particular, a higher proportion of very recent immigrants than earlier immigrants work in health and science fields, especially among male immigrants. This is something specific to the latest cohort, as five years earlier in the 1996 Census the prevalence of health and science occupations among employed immigrants was quite similar across all cohorts, including very recent immigrants.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)
Figure D-3, Women
Figure D-3, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Many very recent immigrants in manufacturing and business services

In Ottawa, relative to the Canadian-born, a large proportion of employed recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 work in manufacturing industries and business services industries. By contrast, the construction and transportation industries and the public sector account for a smaller share of jobs of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)
Figure D-4, Women
Figure D-4, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Table D-18: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Con-
struction and Trans-
portation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 6,540 7,040 11,410 24,540 67,140 12,110 128,750
Immigrants 4,420 1,020 3,430 7,020 15,580 5,900 37,350
 Immigrated
 before 1986
1,560 650 1,990 3,580 9,970 2,980 20,710
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
1,710 280 1,030 2,040 4,110 2,120 11,310
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
1,140 80 430 1,410 1,490 810 5,340
Men
Canadian-born 14,810 23,530 16,870 31,960 42,670 9,870 139,710
Immigrants 7,880 5,270 4,530 11,570 10,510 5,440 45,200
 Immigrated
 before 1986
3,020 3,350 2,440 5,410 7,260 2,800 24,270
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
2,830 1,490 1,500 3,290 2,200 2,020 13,310
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
2,030 450 600 2,890 1,040 610 7,620
Total
Canadian-born 21,330 30,560 28,270 56,520 109,820 21,980 268,470
Immigrants 12,300 6,290 7,960 18,590 26,080 11,340 82,560
 Immigrated
 before 1986
4,580 4,040 4,410 8,960 17,240 5,780 44,990
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
4,580 1,750 2,520 5,330 6,330 4,140 24,620
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
3,170 530 1,030 4,290 2,530 1,410 12,960
 
Women
Canadian-born 5% 5% 9% 19% 52% 9% 100%
Immigrants 12% 3% 9% 19% 42% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
8% 3% 10% 17% 48% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
15% 2% 9% 18% 36% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
21% 1% 8% 26% 28% 15% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 11% 17% 12% 23% 31% 7% 100%
Immigrants 17% 12% 10% 26% 23% 12% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
12% 14% 10% 22% 30% 12% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
21% 11% 11% 25% 16% 15% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
27% 6% 8% 38% 14% 8% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 11% 11% 21% 41% 8% 100%
Immigrants 15% 8% 10% 23% 32% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
10% 9% 10% 20% 38% 13% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
19% 7% 10% 22% 26% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
24% 4% 8% 33% 20% 11% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

 

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrant men higher

The jobs of recent immigrant men require significantly higher skills than the jobs of the Canadian-born. Less than one-half of jobs of Canadian-born men require the highest level of skill: a university education. For men who landed after 1996, nearly two-thirds of jobs require a university education. Very recent immigrant women trail the Canadian-born in the skill requirements of their jobs. Immigrants who landed between 1986 and 1995 have jobs that on average require less skill than the jobs of very recent immigrants.

Table D-19: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 4,890 32,740 34,210 56,920 128,760
Immigrants 2,990 11,070 8,230 15,070 37,360
 Immigrated before 1986 1,240 5,630 4,920 8,940 20,700
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,210 3,970 2,260 3,880 11,320
 Immigrated 1996-2001 540 1,480 1,060 2,250 5,340
Men
Canadian-born 8,160 25,060 37,780 68,730 139,710
Immigrants 2,950 7,290 10,540 24,450 45,200
 Immigrated before 1986 1,110 3,240 6,160 13,770 24,280
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,310 2,880 3,210 5,900 13,310
 Immigrated 1996-2001 520 1,170 1,170 4,770 7,620
Total
Canadian-born 13,040 57,800 71,990 125,640 268,470
Immigrants 5,930 18,350 18,760 39,520 82,560
 Immigrated before 1986 2,360 8,860 11,080 22,700 45,000
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,530 6,860 5,460 9,790 24,620
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,060 2,650 2,230 7,030 12,960
 
Women
Canadian-born 4% 25% 27% 44% 100%
Immigrants 8% 30% 22% 40% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 6% 27% 24% 43% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 35% 20% 34% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 28% 20% 42% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 6% 18% 27% 49% 100%
Immigrants 7% 16% 23% 54% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 13% 25% 57% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 22% 24% 44% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 15% 15% 63% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 5% 22% 27% 47% 100%
Immigrants 7% 22% 23% 48% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 20% 25% 50% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 28% 22% 40% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 20% 17% 54% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons from 25 to 64 years old. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and are less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults.

The information presented in Table D-19 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of employed recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-20 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)
Figure D-5, Women
Figure D-5, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrants not fully utilized

The jobs of recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of Canadian-born persons with a university degree. Three-quarters of employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree. But only six in ten employed women wih university degrees who immigrated after 1995 have a job that requires a university degree. For men in jobs requiring university degrees, the gap between immigrants and the Canadian-born is less pronounced.

The skill requirements of jobs of university graduates were higher in 2001 than in 1996. For the very recent immigrant cohort the share of jobs requiring a university degree increased by ten percentage points for both men and women, a larger shift than for any other cohort.

Table D-20: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 370 4,330 7,180 33,470 45,340
Immigrants 350 2,450 2,320 10,200 15,300
 Immigrated before 1986 70 1,020 1,140 5,520 7,760
 Immigrated 1986-1995 120 830 710 2,760 4,410
 Immigrated 1996-2001 150 600 460 1,930 3,140
Men
Canadian-born 460 3,040 6,160 40,160 49,820
Immigrants 430 1,730 2,470 18,060 22,680
 Immigrated before 1986 70 500 1,170 9,390 11,120
 Immigrated 1986-1995 160 690 760 4,370 5,980
 Immigrated 1996-2001 210 530 550 4,310 5,600
Total
Canadian-born 830 7,370 13,330 73,630 95,160
Immigrants 780 4,160 4,790 28,270 37,990
 Immigrated before 1986 130 1,500 2,300 14,910 18,850
 Immigrated 1986-1995 270 1,520 1,480 7,130 10,400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 370 1,130 1,010 6,230 8,730
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 10% 16% 74% 100%
Immigrants 2% 16% 15% 67% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 13% 15% 71% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 19% 16% 62% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 19% 15% 61% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 1% 6% 12% 81% 100%
Immigrants 2% 8% 11% 80% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 4% 10% 84% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 12% 13% 73% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4% 9% 10% 77% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 1% 8% 14% 77% 100%
Immigrants 2% 11% 13% 74% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 8% 12% 79% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 15% 14% 69% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4% 13% 12% 71% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with job requiring university education, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)
Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

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