Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Québec—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part F: Housing

Crowded accommodations more common for recent immigrants

In Québec, the number of persons per room in households of recent immigrants is well above the overall average. One in ten recent immigrant households lives in crowded conditions (that is, there are more persons than rooms in the home). The incidence of crowding is twice as high among households consisting only of very recent immigrants. In contrast, crowding is very rare among Canadian-born households and earlier immigrant households.

Table F-1: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—persons per room, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
Households Fewer than 0.5 persons 0.5 to 0.74 persons 0.75 to 0.99 persons 1 or more persons Total
Canadian-born 182,270 81,090 13,360 5,730 282,440
Earlier immigrants 4,410 1,960 280 110 6,750
Recent immigrants 2,000 2,160 730 510 5,380
 1986-1995 immigrants 1,270 1,250 360 210 3,070
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 340 430 110 70 930
 1996-2001 immigrants only 400 480 260 250 1,370
All households 188,880 85,390 14,390 6,450 295,110
 
Canadian-born 65% 29% 5% 2% 100%
Earlier immigrants 65% 29% 4% 2% 100%
Recent immigrants 37% 40% 14% 9% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 41% 41% 12% 7% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 37% 46% 12% 8% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 29% 35% 19% 18% 100%
All households 64% 29% 5% 2% 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household, crowding and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Large households likely to have crowded accommodations

Crowding is related to size of household. The larger the household, the greater the chance that there are more persons than rooms in the dwelling. This pattern is found among households of the Canadian-born as well as immigrants, despite the fact that there is much less crowding in households of the Canadian-born than in households of recent immigrants.

As shown earlier, households of immigrants who arrived before 1986 are similar to the households of the Canadian-born in size. They also have accommodations that are similar in size to that of the Canadian-born.

Table F-2: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—persons per room by size of household, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
Size of household Fewer than 0.5 persons 0.5 to 0.74 persons 0.75 to 0.99 persons 1 or more persons Total
1 to 3 persons
Canadian-born 173,770 50,600 4,700 2,770 231,830
Earlier immigrants 4,010 1,110 80 50 5,230
Recent immigrants 1,830 1,360 290 140 3,590
4 to 5 persons
Canadian-born 8,400 29,480 7,810 2,350 48,030
Earlier immigrants 380 790 160 50 1,360
Recent immigrants 180 780 380 280 1,620
6 or more persons
Canadian-born 120 1,010 850 610 2,590
Earlier immigrants 40 70 50 30 160
Recent immigrants 10 20 60 100 180
 
1 to 3 persons
Canadian-born 75% 22% 2% 1% 100%
Earlier immigrants 77% 21% 2% 1% 100%
Recent immigrants 51% 38% 8% 4% 100%
4 to 5 persons
Canadian-born 17% 61% 16% 5% 100%
Earlier immigrants 28% 58% 11% 3% 100%
Recent immigrants 11% 48% 23% 17% 100%
6 or more persons
Canadian-born 5% 39% 33% 24% 100%
Earlier immigrants 22% 41% 28% 16% 100%
Recent immigrants 6% 9% 31% 57% 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household, crowding and related concepts, see the Glossary.

One in five recent immigrant households face high housing costs

More than one in five recent immigrant households in the Québec CMA spends more than 30% of their income on accommodations. For a little less than one-half of these households, the cost of accommodations exceeds 50% of their household income. These shares are very similar to those for the Canadian-born households. Housing costs of more than 30% of income are considered burdensome, and households facing that level of cost as a rule have low incomes.

Table F-3: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—cost of accommodations as a share of household income, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  Cost of accommodations
Households Less than 30% 30% to 50% 50% or more
Canadian-born 220,060 78% 32,480 11% 28,800 10%
Earlier immigrants 5,480 81% 640 9% 630 9%
Recent immigrants 3,720 78% 600 13% 460 10%
 1986-1995 immigrants 2,410 78% 360 12% 280 9%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others 570 86% 80 11% 30 4%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 730 71% 160 15% 150 14%
All households 229,780 78% 33,900 11% 30,160 10%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary. Totals do not add to 100% due to some non-reporting households.

Housing of very recent immigrants in similar state of repair

Recent immigrant households in the Québec CMA are more likely to live in housing that was built before 1971 in comparison to Canadian-born households. Approximately one-half of recent immigrant households and earlier immigrant households live in dwellings that were constructed prior to 1971 compared to 43 % of Canadian-born households.

Table F-4: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—period of construction of household dwelling, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Period of construction
Households Before 1971 1971-1990 1991-2001
Canadian-born 120,120 43% 121,360 43% 40,970 15%
Earlier immigrants 3,360 50% 2,730 40% 670 10%
Recent immigrants 2,830 52% 1,990 37% 580 11%
 1986-1995 immigrants 1,630 53% 1,150 37% 300 10%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 540 57% 300 31% 120 13%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 680 49% 550 40% 150 11%
All households 126,590 43% 126,280 43% 42,240 14%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Table F-5: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—quality of housing, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Quality of housing
Households Regular maintenance Minor repairs Major repairs
Canadian-born 198,340 70% 67,430 24% 16,680 6%
Earlier immigrants 4,320 64% 1,900 28% 540 8%
Recent immigrants 3,580 66% 1,490 28% 300 6%
 1986-1995 immigrants 1,960 64% 880 29% 240 8%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 590 62% 310 32% 50 5%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 1,020 74% 320 23% 30 2%
All households 206,610 70% 70,960 24% 17,540 6%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

The state of repair of the housing stock for both recent immigrant and earlier immigrant households is nearly identical to that of Canadian-born households.

Very few home owners among very recent immigrants

In the Québec CMA, only 10% of households comprised entirely of very recent immigrants own their home compared to 38% of households of very recent immigrants who live with others, 56% of Canadian-born households and 68% of earlier immigrant households.

Figure F-1: Immigrant households(by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—home ownership, by household type, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure F-1

Note: For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Home-ownership is much higher among earlier immigrants than among the Canadian-born. This probably reflects the higher average age and incomes of earlier immigrants, but it may also point to different choices.

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