Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Regina—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part E: Income

Sources and level of income

Sources of income vary by time in Canada

A similar share of recent immigrants and the Canadian-born reported income from employment in 2000. Seventy percent of recent immigrant and Canadian-born women and approximately 80% of recent immigrant and Canadian-born men reported employment earnings. For immigrants who landed before 1986, the proportion with earnings is lower because they tend to be older and many are retired. The relatively low share of very recent immigrants with employment income reflects lower participation in the workforce. The share of persons with employment income was similar in year 2000 in comparison to1995. The largest increase was 4 percentage points for very recent immigrant women, while other groups reported small changes.

Table E-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—sources of income, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  No income Employment income Other private income Government transfers Total
Women
Canadian-born 2,650 51,470 25,310 49,050 72,010
Immigrants 370 3,820 2,610 4,820 6,850
 Immigrated before 1986 110 2,350 2,210 3,420 4,660
 Immigrated 1986-1995 90 1,030 290 980 1,430
 Immigrated 1996-1999 60 340 90 350 520
Men
Canadian-born 2,300 51,490 20,680 38,750 65,550
Immigrants 190 4,460 2,530 4,270 6,540
 Immigrated before 1986 30 2,800 2,130 2,950 4,430
 Immigrated 1986-1995 70 1,230 270 960 1,480
 Immigrated 1996-1999 30 320 100 290 410
Total
Canadian-born 4,960 102,960 45,990 87,790 137,550
Immigrants 550 8,280 5,130 9,090 13,390
 Immigrated before 1986 150 5,140 4,330 6,360 9,070
 Immigrated 1986-1995 160 2,260 550 1,930 2,920
 Immigrated 1996-1999 80 660 200 640 930
 
Women
Canadian-born 4% 71% 35% 68% 100%
Immigrants 5% 56% 38% 70% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 50% 47% 73% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 72% 20% 68% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 11% 66% 17% 68% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 4% 79% 32% 59% 100%
Immigrants 3% 68% 39% 65% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 63% 48% 67% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 83% 18% 65% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 6% 77% 24% 71% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 4% 75% 33% 64% 100%
Immigrants 4% 62% 38% 68% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 57% 48% 70% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 77% 19% 66% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 9% 70% 21% 69% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. A person may have income from one, two or all three sources. The three sources are defined in the Glossary.

The proportion of recent immigrants with no income is higher than that of the Canadian-born. The proportion of immigrant men and women who do not have income decreases significantly with length of stay in Canada, and ultimately falls below that of the Canadian-born. Absence of income among women was less common in 2000 than in 1995, as the incidence of zero income dropped by 4 percentage points for the recent immigrant cohorts. Among men there was little change in the share with zero income in year 2000 in comparison to 1995.

The share of recent immigrants with other private income—for example, income from investments or pension plans—is well below the share of the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants with other private income. These shares decreased for recent immigrants by about 3 percentage points for women and by 8 percentage points for men since 1995.

The incidence of government transfer payment income is about the same for recent immigrant and Canadian-born women but is higher for recent immigrant men in comparison to Canadian-born men. The incidence of transfer payment income has shifted markedly from men to women since 1995 in part due to the fact that in 2000, child benefit payments were made to the mother.

Average income increases with length of stay

The average income of recent immigrants in the year 2000 was lower than that of the Canadian-born, considering only persons who reported income. For very recent immigrant men, average income was about three-quarters of that of the Canadian-born, while the average income of very recent immigrant women was less than three-fifths. The average income of persons who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period was about 85% of that of the Canadian-born. Those who immigrated before 1986 had average incomes somewhat higher than the Canadian-born.

Table E-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with income—average income and sources of average income, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Sources of average income
  Average income of persons with income Employment
income
Other private income Government transfers Total
Women
Canadian-born $24,210 74% 12% 14% 100%
Immigrants $23,670 64% 16% 20% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $25,430 58% 20% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $21,100 84% 5% 11% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $13,810 79% 3% 17% 100%
Men
Canadian-born $35,760 81% 11% 8% 100%
Immigrants $38,440 74% 16% 11% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $42,090 69% 19% 12% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $30,160 91% 3% 6% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $27,260 87% 6% 8% 100%
Total
Canadian-born $29,720 78% 11% 11% 100%
Immigrants $30,960 70% 16% 14% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $33,620 65% 19% 16% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $25,730 88% 4% 8% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $19,970 83% 5% 11% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

The average income of women is about two-thirds of that of men. Among the reasons for the difference in income between men and women are lower labour force participation and higher incidence of part-time work and of jobs requiring a lower level of skill among women than among men, as shown in Part D. In comparison to 1995, average income in 2000 was about one-fifth higher for all groups except for men who immigrated between 5 and 15 years before the census. The average income of this group changed very little.

Earnings from employment account for the bulk of income of all groups and make up a larger proportion of income of recent immigrants than of persons born in Canada. In 2000, the employment share of income remained much the same as in 1995, except for very recent immigrant women. This group derived 79% of their income from employment compared to 66% for their counterparts of five years earlier.

The share of other private income is lower for recent immigrants than for the Canadian-born, especially for men. Government transfer payments make up approximately the same share for recent immigrants and the Canadian-born.

Earnings of recent immigrants who worked mostly full-time lower

The average wages and salaries earned by recent immigrants who worked mostly full-time in 2000 are below the Regina average. By contrast, earlier immigrants had average wages and salaries almost one-fifth higher than that of the Canadian-born. Relative incomes were more or less the same in 2000 as in 1995.

Table E-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, employed mostly full-time—average earnings from wages and salaries and earnings as percentage of overall average, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Amount Percentage of overall average
Canadian-born $36,470 100%
Immigrants $38,830 106%
 Immigrated before 1986 $42,810 117%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $32,760 90%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $23,610 64%
All who worked mostly full-time $36,640 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Transfer payments a somewhat larger share of household income

In the year 2000, a large majority of households received government transfer payments. Recent immigrant households were slightly more likely to receive government transfer payments than other households. On average, the payments received were lower both in dollar terms and relative to income.

Transfer payments vary considerably with the age of the oldest person in the household, and so do differences between recent immigrant, earlier immigrant and Canadian-born households. Recent immigrant households of the very young receive lower amounts than their Canadian-born and earlier immigrant counterparts—households of persons aged 25 to 44 years and 45 to 64 years receive amounts that are somewhat larger.

Table E-4: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—percentage of households receiving transfers, average amount of government transfer payments, and transfers as a share of income, by age of older parent in family or oldest person in non-family household, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 65
years
65 years
and over
Total
Share of households receiving government transfer payments
Canadian-born households 88% 87% 80% 100% 87%
Earlier immigrant households 75% 85% 77% 100% 88%
Recent immigrant households 88% 87% 89% 100% 89%
 1986-1995 immigrants 73% 86% 90% 100% 88%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others - 85% 87% 100% 92%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 80% 91% 80% 75% 89%
Average amount of transfer per receiving household
Canadian-born households $3,050 $3,300 $3,350 $16,330 $5,910
Earlier immigrant households $1,070 $3,250 $3,320 $18,020 $9,410
Recent immigrant households $320 $3,610 $4,030 $16,200 $4,750
 1986-1995 immigrants - $4,010 $4,190 $18,110 $4,950
 1996-1999 immigrants with others - $2,310 $2,780 $11,600 $4,870
 1996-1999 immigrants only $230 $3,510 $3,870 $10,420 $3,700
Transfers as a share of income, all households
Canadian-born households 12% 5% 4% 41% 9%
Earlier immigrant households 6% 4% 3% 39% 13%
Recent immigrant households 4% 6% 5% 33% 7%
 1986-1995 immigrants - 6% 5% 33% 7%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others - 4% 6% 27% 8%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 1% 10% 4% 95% 9%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Transfer payments to households without seniors generally reflect benefits of Employment Insurance, Workers Compensation, social assistance, student assistance, or other programs. Included in these transfer payments are tax credits such as the Canada Child Benefit and GST tax credits and provincial tax credits. The somewhat greater incidence and amounts of transfer payments for recent immigrant households of persons 25 to 64 years of age in relation to earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born may have to do with the larger average number of children in families and with differences in labour market participation and unemployment reviewed in Part D.

Almost all households with persons of 65 years of age and over received government transfer payments—Old Age Security and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, and Canada or Quebec Pension Plan Benefits. Recent immigrant households of seniors received a smaller amount and this amount made up a smaller share of their income than is the case for Canadian-born and earlier immigrant households. Seniors who immigrated very recently are not entitled to Old Age Security and have not built up large credits under the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan.

The distribution of income

Personal income higher for earlier immigrants

Of very recent immigrants, one-half of women and almost one-third of men reported no income or income of less than $10,000 in 2000. Among the Canadian-born, only 30% women and 20% of men had no or very low income.

Very recent immigrants are underrepresented at the high end of the income scale. Their share in the upper income group of $50,000 and over is less than one-half of that of the Canadian-born. The proportion with incomes of $50,000 and over among immigrants who landed during the 1986 to 1995 period is close to one-half of that of the Canadian-born. In contrast, the share of earlier immigrants with incomes of $50,000 and over is larger than that of the Canadian-born.

The income distribution of immigrant men and women was more favourable in 2000 than in 1995. This is a reflection of the higher employment and better jobs and incomes that they enjoyed compared to the immediately preceding five-year immigrant cohort.

Table E-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—income levels, by gender (number and percentage distribution) and average income, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Without
income
$1 to
$9,999
$10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $49,999 $50,000 and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 2,650 17,160 30,070 15,320 6,800 72,000
Immigrants 360 1,700 3,050 1,190 570 6,860
 Immigrated before 1986 110 900 2,310 860 490 4,650
 Immigrated 1986-1995 90 470 520 300 80 1,440
 Immigrated 1996-1999 50 210 220 30 10 510
Men
Canadian-born 2,300 11,770 19,460 16,690 15,340 65,550
Immigrants 180 930 2,340 1,500 1,610 6,540
 Immigrated before 1986 40 400 1,550 1,090 1,350 4,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 70 330 550 340 200 1,480
 Immigrated 1996-1999 20 120 160 90 40 410
Total
Canadian-born 4,960 28,920 49,530 32,010 22,130 137,550
Immigrants 550 2,620 5,380 2,670 2,170 13,390
 Immigrated before 1986 140 1,290 3,870 1,930 1,830 9,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 150 810 1,060 640 270 2,920
 Immigrated 1996-1999 80 320 370 120 50 930
  Without income $1 to $9,999 $10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $49,999 $50,000 and over Total Average income
Women
Canadian-born 4% 24% 42% 21% 9% 100% $24,210
Immigrants 5% 25% 44% 17% 8% 100% $23,310
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 19% 50% 19% 10% 100% $25,470
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 33% 36% 20% 5% 100% $21,100
 Immigrated 1996-1999 10% 40% 42% 6% 2% 100% $13,810
Men
Canadian-born 4% 18% 30% 25% 23% 100% $35,760
Immigrants 3% 14% 36% 23% 25% 100% $38,250
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 9% 35% 25% 31% 100% $42,050
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 22% 37% 23% 13% 100% $30,130
 Immigrated 1996-1999 5% 28% 38% 21% 10% 100% $27,260
Total
Canadian-born 4% 21% 36% 23% 16% 100% $29,720
Immigrants 4% 20% 40% 20% 16% 100% $30,700
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 14% 43% 21% 20% 100% $33,630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 28% 36% 22% 9% 100% $25,730
 Immigrated 1996-1999 8% 35% 40% 12% 5% 100% $19,970

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Average household income higher

In 2000, recent immigrant households in Regina had average income of $58,100, more than the households of the Canadian-born, and 89% of the income of earlier immigrant households. The income of households consisting only of very recent immigrants was two-thirds of the household income of the Canadian-born.

Table E-6: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—household income levels (number and percentage distribution) and average household income, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
Households $0 to $19,999 $20,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $59,999 $60,000 to $79,999 $80,000 and over Total Average income
Canadian-born 12,660 15,640 13,950 10,570 14,810 67,630 $55,830
19% 23% 21% 16% 22% 100%
Earlier immigrants 920 1,460 1,210 1,050 1,770 6,420 $65,220
14% 23% 19% 16% 28% 100%
Recent immigrants 370 460 510 340 490 2,130 $58,120
20% 21% 22% 16% 22% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 220 280 360 280 400 1,490 $62,760
15% 18% 24% 19% 27% 100%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others 50 70 90 40 60 310 $57,300
19% 22% 21% 16% 20% 100%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 110 110 70 20 30 330 $37,610
40% 30% 14% 4% 9% 100%
All households 14,180 17,640 15,690 12,000 17,140 76,660 $56,610
18% 23% 20% 16% 22% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

The share of households that have income of less than $20,000 is smaller for recent immigrant households than for Canadian-born households. This may be influenced by the larger size of recent immigrant households and the fact that there are other members of the household who can participate in the labour market.

High incidence of low income among very recent immigrants

Recent immigrants are more likely than earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born to live in families with incomes that fall below the overall median family income, or if they do not live in families, to have income below the median for unattached individuals. They are also more likely to live in families with incomes below one-half of the median income—that is, to have low income. Two-thirds of very recent immigrants have income below the median. The share of very recent immigrants who have low income is nearly three times as large as that of the Canadian-born. The percentage of immigrants with income in the bottom half or quarter of the income distribution declines in relation to the immigrant cohort’s length of stay in Canada.

Table E-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born —family or individual income below the median, by age and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 9,260 7,140 11,940 14,540 42,870
Immigrants 100 230 940 2,230 3,500
 Immigrated before 1986 - 50 340 2,000 2,400
 Immigrated 1986-1995 70 120 360 200 710
 Immigrated 1996-1999 40 60 250 30 390
Men
Canadian-born 9,920 6,390 9,960 11,000 37,260
Immigrants 140 270 830 1,870 3,130
 Immigrated before 1986 - 80 330 1,590 2,000
 Immigrated 1986-1995 70 150 330 230 780
 Immigrated 1996-1999 80 50 170 60 350
Total
Canadian-born 19,180 13,520 21,900 25,540 80,120
Immigrants 240 500 1,770 4,100 6,620
 Immigrated before 1986 - 130 670 3,590 4,400
 Immigrated 1986-1995 130 260 690 430 1,490
 Immigrated 1996-1999 110 110 410 90 740
 
Women
Canadian-born 51% 50% 41% 67% 48%
Immigrants 37% 54% 45% 66% 51%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 56% 41% 67% 52%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 43% 47% 45% 55% 45%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 29% 75% 69% 25% 62%
Men
Canadian-born 51% 45% 37% 64% 44%
Immigrants 65% 52% 40% 64% 48%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 56% 35% 64% 45%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 65% 45% 48% 50% 50%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 65% 83% 60% 100% 66%
Total
Canadian-born 51% 47% 39% 66% 46%
Immigrants 49% 53% 42% 65% 50%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 56% 38% 66% 49%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 52% 46% 47% 53% 47%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 47% 79% 65% 67% 64%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

The proportion of individuals with income below the median varies with age, and to a lesser extent gender. In all age and gender groups, the proportion of persons with income below the overall median is much higher among very recent immigrants than among the Canadian-born.

Forty percent of very recent immigrants who landed between 1996 and 1999 have low incomes or live in low-income families. Compared to the Canadian-born, the likelihood of these very recent immigrants living in this type of situation is nearly three times as large. For all age groups, the incidence of low incomes is much greater among very recent immigrants than among the Canadian-born.

Figure E-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage with family or individual income below the median and below one-half of the median, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
Figure E-1

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all figures in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

Table E-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—family or individual income below one-half of the median, by age and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,930 3,590 4,560 3,490 15,570
Immigrants 60 70 340 680 1,160
 Immigrated before 1986 - 10 70 560 640
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20 30 120 100 280
 Immigrated 1996-1999 40 40 160 20 240
Men
Canadian-born 4,060 2,540 3,140 3,280 13,000
Immigrants 100 100 270 580 1,040
 Immigrated before 1986 - 20 80 450 560
 Immigrated 1986-1995 30 50 100 90 270
 Immigrated 1996-1999 70 30 90 40 210
Total
Canadian-born 7,980 6,130 7,690 6,770 28,570
Immigrants 150 170 610 1,260 2,200
 Immigrated before 1986 - 30 150 1,010 1,200
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50 70 210 190 550
 Immigrated 1996-1999 100 70 250 60 450
 
Women
Canadian-born 22% 25% 15% 11% 17%
Immigrants 20% 17% 17% 15% 17%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 11% 14% 14% 14%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 10% 17% 23% 18%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 29% 44% 44% 50% 38%
Men
Canadian-born 21% 18% 12% 17% 15%
Immigrants 44% 18% 13% 18% 16%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 15% 10% 17% 13%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 30% 14% 15% 33% 17%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 57% 50% 37% 40% 40%
Total
Canadian-born 21% 21% 13% 14% 16%
Immigrants 31% 18% 15% 16% 16%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 13% 12% 15% 13%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20% 12% 16% 26% 17%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 43% 46% 41% 44% 39%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

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