ARCHIVED – Socioeconomic Profiles of Immigrants in the Four Atlantic Provinces — Phase II: Focus on Vibrant Communities

Immigrant profiles: Halifax, Saint John’s, Charlottetown, Colchester, Carleton and Florenceville

In this section, socioeconomic and demographic profiles of immigrants resident in the six Atlantic communities are presented. Factors that make them vibrant communities for immigrant attraction are discussed first. Immigrant profiles are based on 2001 and 2006 censuses. Separate profiles of the overall immigrant population and of recent immigrants, defined as those arriving within five years of a census, are provided. These profiles are also compared with the profiles of the total population of each community resident at the time of each census.

Immigrants in Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax is home to the largest immigrant population in the Atlantic provinces– 27,400-- according to the Canadian population census of 2006. Immigrants in Halifax represent six in ten of all Nova Scotians who were born outside of Canada and include diverse ethnic communities. More than half (51.4 percent) come from Asia and the Middle East. During the period of 2001-2006, Halifax became home to 5,060 new immigrants. Most of them are employed in the service industries. Agriculture, fishing, mining, forestry and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), which also offer opportunities for both unskilled and skilled immigrant workers. The majority of agriculture and forestry activity in the Halifax Regional Municipality is in the Musquodoboit Valley.

Source countries of immigrants: Halifax

While listing the top five source countries of immigrants destined for Halifax during 1991-2006, Table 3 also shows that the source country mix of immigrants in Halifax changed over the period. As noted during Phase I of the project, the change in source country mix of immigrants in Canada began in 1970s, a major reason being the1967 abolishment of the “preferred country” clause of 1910 Immigration Act, that gave preference to immigrants originating in Europe (a more detailed discussion was provided in the report on Atlantic Canada written in Phase I of this project).[ Note 2 ]  Atlantic Canada began to experience this change only since early 1990s when there was a sudden rise in inflows destined to the province of Nova Scotia (as discussed earlier in the context of Halifax). Most immigrants in Halifax now come from China, which is also the source of most immigrants to Canada nationally.

Table 3: Top five source countries of immigrants destined for Halifax, by year, 1991-2006
Rank 1991-95 1996-00 2001-06
Country Count Country Count Country Count
1 Egypt 1512 Kuwait 1469 China 682
2 Kuwait 1218 Jordan 784 Kuwait 493
3 Saudi Arabia 820 Korea 698 Saudi Arabia 374
4 Hong Kong 595 Saudi Arabia 481 U.A.E 292
5 Jordan 527 Pakistan 281 U.K 210

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations.

Age distribution among new immigrants: Halifax

Most immigrants come to Canada during their prime working age (25-44).  Halifax experienced a slight increase in the percentage of immigrants in this age group who arrived during 2001-2006, while the percentage of total population in this age group declined during this period (Chart 6). About 15 percent of the city’s total population was aged 65 and older in 2006, which was higher than in 2001. Chart 5 clearly shows 1) an aging trend in the total population of Halifax, 2) that immigrants are generally younger than the total population at the time of arrival, and 3) that immigrants who arrived during 2001-2006 were generally younger than those who had arrived during the previous five-year period. That immigrants are younger than the resident population at the time of arrival is consistent with predictions of immigration economists, who view migration as a human capital investment and argue that it is the young who gain the most from migration decisions over their lifetime.

Chart 6: Age distribution among recent immigrants and the total resident population of Halifax, 2001 and 2006
Chart 6: Age distribution among recent immigrants and the total resident population of Halifax, 2001 and 2006
Age Group Sample
1996-00 2001 2001-06 2006
15-24 9.5 16.9 10.3 16.8
25-44 69.0 40.4 69.7 35.8
45-64 20.3 29.2 18.8 33.0
65+ 1.1 13.5 1.3 14.4

Source: Immigrant arrivals data are from: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. Total population data are from the Canadian population censuses of 2001 and 2006 and are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada. Recent immigrants are those who arrived within the past five years of a census year.

Immigrants by category: Halifax

Most immigrants come to Halifax as economic class immigrants. However, during 2001-2006, their percentage arriving in economic class fell, but increased in family class (Chart 7). While deliberate attempts to attract and retain immigrants aim at attracting economic class immigrants, the increased inflow of family class immigrants is a natural outcome of the presence of an immigrant community whose members arrived in the past. The city is also receiving increasing numbers of refugees, but their percentage in total inflows has remained low. We do not have data on source countries of refugees, but anecdotal evidence suggests that most recent refugees are arriving from Afghanistan, where economic and political environments are in a state of flux.

Chart 7: Immigrants destined to Halifax by category, 1991-2006
Chart 7: Immigrants destined to Halifax by category, 1991-2006
Immigrants category Periods
1991-95 1996-00 2001-06
Family 26.2 23 34.6
Economic 61.7 63.1 45.7
Refugees 11.5 13.6 14.7
Other 0.5 0.1 4.9

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations.

Education distribution among new arrivals: Halifax

As Chart 8 shows, the percentage of immigrants who arrived  in Halifax during 2001-2006 with only high school or less education was lower (25.9 percent) than that for the total population resident at that time (42.9 percent). However, both populations had higher percentages in this education category than they had during the previous period (24.5 and 30.7 percent, respectively).

Chart 8: Immigrants destined to, and total population in, Halifax with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006
Chart 8: Immigrants destined to, and total population in, Halifax with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006
Level of Education 2001 census in Numbers 2006 census in Numbers
Resident population Immi. Recent Immi. Resident population Immi. Recent Immi.
High School or Less 90128 6070 805 132840 7775 1005
University Degree 63890 7990 1330 74110 10400 2000
Total 293180 22755 3285 309270 25740 3885

Level of Education 2001 census in Percentage 2006 census in Percentage
Resident population Immi. Recent Immi. Resident population Immi. Recent Immi.
High School or Less 30.74 26.68 24.51 42.95 30.21 25.87
University Degree 21.79 35.11 40.49 23.96 40.40 51.48

Source: Recent immigrant data are from:  Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. Total population data are from: Canadian population censuses of 2001 and 2006 and are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.  While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

Chart 9 shows that a greater percentage of immigrants arrived in Halifax with a university degree during 2001-2006 than did during the previous five-year period. Their percentage was also higher (more than 51.5 percent) than that among the total population of Halifax (23.5 percent) at the time of arrival.

In sum, immigrants arrive in Halifax with higher educational levels than those of Canadian-born population at the time of their arrival. Education is one of predictors of economic performance. Therefore, based on the above results, one may predict that immigrants are likely to perform better in the labour market than the total population. In the next section, we analyze labour market performance of immigrants resident in Halifax to see whether this prediction is true.

Chart 9: Immigrants destined to, and total population in, Halifax with a university degree, 2001 and 2006
Chart 9: Immigrants destined to, and total population in, Halifax with a university degree, 2001 and 2006
  High School or Less University Degree
2001 census 2006 census 2001 census 2006 census
Total population 30.74 42.95 21.79 23.96
Immigrants 26.68 30.21 35.11 40.40
Recent immigrants 24.51 25.87 40.49 51.48

Source: Recent immigrant data are from:  Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. Total population data are from: Canadian population censuses of 2001 and 2006 and are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.  While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

Immigrants in the labour force: Halifax

Chart 3 showed a steep rise in the flow of immigrants destined to the labour force of Halifax since 2003. We now discuss labour market characteristics and performance both of immigrants and of the total population resident in Halifax.

Labour force participation rates

The labour force participation rate provides, for each demographic group, the percentage of the total population, aged 15 and above, which is either working or seeking work. It is an indicator of the economically active component of the population.

Chart 10 shows the labour force participation rates among all immigrants and recent immigrants and compares them with the total population of Halifax in 2001 and 2006. It is observed that the labour force participation rates 1) were the highest for total population in both years, 2) rose for all three groups between the two years, and 3) rose the most for recent immigrants between the two years (from 54.6 to 66.2 percent).

Chart 10: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total population of Halifax, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 10: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total population of Halifax, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Total population 67.8 68.9
Immigrants  61 62.8
Recent immigrants  54.6 66.2

Source: Census of Canada 2001 and 2006. Total population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Unemployment rates

The unemployment rate measures what percentage of the labour force in a group was without employment but was seeking it.

Chart 11 shows that in Halifax, the unemployment rate among the total population fell during 2001-2006 but rose among the two immigrant groups. Recent immigrants had higher unemployment rates in both censuses, possibly because 1) many of them had been in the country for a short time (some less than a year), 2) of a lack of recognition of their credentials in the local labour market, and 3) a mismatch of their field of specialization and labour market requirements which may specially be true in case of family class immigrants who are not selected on the basis of potential labour market performance. A detailed investigation of these possibilities can be undertaken in a future research.

Chart 11: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Halifax, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 11: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Halifax, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 7.2 6.3
Immigrants  6.5 6.6
Recent immigrants  13.1 12.6

Source: Census of Canada 2001 and 2006. Total population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Skill classifications of new immigrants in the labour force 

Chart 12 shows trends in skill classifications of immigrants destined to the labour force in Halifax over the period 1991-2006. These immigrants are selected on the basis of the National Occupational Classifications (NOC) as used by Human Resources and Social Development Canada. [ Note 3 ]

Throughout the period, most immigrants came as highly skilled workers (professionals and managers), and their numbers have risen significantly since 2003, probably reflecting the attempts of provincial and city governments to use immigration as a tool for meeting skill shortages in the province.

Chart 12: Immigrants destined to the labour force of Halifax by skill classification, 1991-2006
Chart 12: Immigrants destined to the labour force of Halifax by skill classification, 1991-2006
  High Skilled Medium Skilled Low Skilled
1991 124 89 87
1992 154 79 51
1993 209 135 70
1994 285 120 68
1995 366 149 62
1996 346 148 54
1997 358 119 54
1998 225 93 35
1999 221 82 37
2000 218 69 36
2001 273 87 29
2002 225 47 12
2003 221 56 20
2004 262 61 17
2005 336 58 18
2006 423 92 16

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. National Occupational Classifications (NOC) were further classified as highly skilled = “O” and “A”; medium skilled = “B”, low skilled = “C” and “D”. Detailed definitions of NOC are provided in Akbari, A, S. Lynch, T. McDonald and W. Rankaduwa (2007) Socioeconomic and Demographic Profiles of Immigrants in Atlantic Canada (Table A20).

The above trends are captured in Table 4, which provides an occupational distribution of resident immigrants and the total population. The percentage representation of immigrants in management and other professional occupations such as sciences, health, and education, is higher than it is for the total resident population of Halifax. Sales and service occupations are the most common among all groups, employing about one-quarter of the total resident population and over one-fifth of all and recent immigrants.

Table 4: Occupational distribution of the total population, immigrants and recent immigrants, in the labour force of Halifax, 2006 (%)
Occupation Total population  Immigrants  Recent immigrants 
   A  Management occupations 10.86 12.59 7.98
   B  Business; finance and administration occupations 19.94 15.74 15.76
   C  Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 7.01 11.38 14.59
   D  Health occupations 6.98 9.21 7
   E  Occupations in social science; education; government service & religion 9.44 14.47 14.4
   F  Occupations in art; culture; recreation and sport 3.61 4.3 4.09
   G  Sales and service occupations 26.8 20.22 21.79
   H  Trades; transport and equipment operators and related occupations 11.83 7.11 6.03
   I  Occupations unique to primary industry 1.42 0.74 0.58
   J  Occupations unique to processing; manufacturing and utilities 2.1 1.98 2.14
Total 100 97.74 94.36

Source: Census of Canada 2006. Total population data are based on Statistics Canada Community Profiles, 2006, available on the agency’s web site. Immigrant and recent immigrant data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Table 5 reports data on the industry of employment of Halifax residents. These data are available only for about half of the population in each group and, therefore, could vary if data on entire populations were available. For this segment of the population in each group, it is observed that the distribution of employment across major industry groups is about the same. The service industry has the highest concentration of workers, employing more than 40 percent of each population in the labour force. Within the service industry, however, most immigrants tend to be concentrated in the educational, health care and social services sectors. While employment in health care and social services is also common among the total population, a larger percentage of them is also found in the retail trade, finance and real estate. Immigrant employment in educational services stands out the most when compared with employment among the total population.

Table 5: Industrial distribution of the total population, immigrants and recent immigrants, in the labour force of Halifax, 2006 (%)
Industry Total population Immigrants  Recent immigrants
Agriculture and other resource-based   industries 1.66 0.98 0.62
Construction industries 5.52 3.48 4.55
Manufacturing industries 5.24 5.41 4.96
Wholesale trade 4.11 3.17 1.86
Retail trade 11.92 8.8 9.09
Finance and real estate 6.44 4.94 4.75
Health care and social services 11.65 13.17 10.54
Educational services 7.78 13.43 15.5
All other 45.68 46.61 48.14
Total 100 100 100

Source: Census of Canada, 2006. Total population data are based on Statistics Canada Community Profiles, 2006, available on the agency’s web site. Immigrant data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Labour market earnings

Chart 13 shows that labour market earnings of Halifax immigrants are higher than those of the total population resident there. The earnings advantage of immigrants over that of the total population increased during 2001-2006. In 2001, an average immigrant earned 16.4 percent more than did an average resident of Halifax. In 2006, this earnings advantage rose to about 42 percent. An average recent immigrant earns a lower income, perhaps because of lack of Canadian experience. However, the gap between his / her earnings and those of an average resident of Halifax narrowed in 2006 (from 29 percent in 2001 to 9 percent in 2006). This narrowing of the earnings gap can be attributed partially to the higher educational attainment of recent immigrant cohorts and also to the decline in average income among resident population. However, a systematic research should also analyze the effects of other possible factors, such as greater acceptance of immigrants in the labour force and faster settlement, which may have helped to narrow this gap.

Chart 13: Average employment income of immigrants and the total resident population of Halifax, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 13: Average employment income of immigrants and the total resident population of Halifax, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 30614 27219
Immigrants  35633 38643
Recent immigrants 21598 24895
Ratio (3/1)  0.71 0.91

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Total population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Immigrants in Saint John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador

The early settlers in Saint John's came from the southeast of Ireland, primarily Waterford, Wexford and Kilkenny. These origins can still be detected in similarities between accents from that part of Ireland and the traditional Saint John's’ accent. More recently, however, there has been an increase in the cultural diversity of the city’s population. A substantial portion of recent Canadian immigrants who settled in Saint John's came from Asia and the Middle East (33 percent) and Africa (22 percent). During the period from 2001- 2006, Saint John’s became home to 1,025 new Canadian immigrants. In recent years, expanding offshore oil and gas explorations have given a boost to the city’s economy, which, in turn, has attracted many workers from the rest of Canada, as well as from abroad. Saint John’s has been identified as having one of the highest proportions of scientists and engineers per capita of any city with a population under one million in North America. Economic forecasts suggest that the city will continue its strong economic growth in the coming years not only in offshore oil and gas industries but also in tourism and new home construction as population continues to grow. This growing economy therefore offers many opportunities for business class and skilled worker class immigrants.

Source countries of immigrants: Saint John’s

Table 6 lists the top five source countries of immigrants who arrived in Saint John’s over the three periods. The list has changed significantly over time, but China figured prominently in all three periods. During the last two, China accounted for about half of all immigrants in the top five source countries list and remained the top source country of immigrants for Saint John’s. None of the other countries on the list for the first period remained on the list for the last period. Two western countries, the United Kingdom and the United States, which were not on list for the first period, appeared among the top five source countries in the last period.

Table 6: Top five source countries of immigrants destined for Saint John’s by year, 1991-2006
Rank 1991-95 1996-00 2001-06
Country Count Country Count Country Count
1 Bulgaria 238 China 383 China 384
2 China 227 Bosnia 200 Colombia 123
3 Cuba 187 U.K 85 Sudan 113
4 USSR 159 India 69 U.S.A 72
5 Bosnia 93 Russia 38 U.K 59

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations.

Age distribution among new immigrants: Saint John’s

Most new immigrants who arrived in Saint John’s during the periods 1996-2000 and 2001-2006 were aged 25-44. However, the percentage belonging to this age group declined from 80 percent to 70 percent between the two periods.

Further, the proportion of immigrants belonging to the age group 45-64 years more than doubled, from 8 percent to 17 percent, between the same two periods. Broadly, these changes are similar to those observed in the age distribution of the total resident population in the city during 2001- 2006. The proportion of total residents in the 25-44 age group decreased from 39 percent to 36 percent, while their share in the 45-64 age group increased from 30 percent to 33 percent. The proportion in the oldest age category (65+) remained about the same. Chart 14 plots all these details.

Chart 14: Age distribution among recent immigrants and the total resident population in Saint John’s, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 14: Age distribution among recent immigrants and the total resident population in Saint John’s, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Age Group Sample
1996-00 2001 2001-06 2006
15-24 12.9 18.7 12.3 17.3
25-44 79.6 38.6 70.9 36.0
45-64 7.5 29.7 16.7 33.0
65+ 0.0 13.0 0.0 13.7

Source: Immigrant arrival data are from Facts and Figures, 2006, special tabulations (CIC). Resident population data are from the Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006, and are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Immigrants by category: Saint John’s

As shown in Chart 15, nearly half of immigrants who arrived in Saint John’s during 1991-1995 came as refugees. The share of immigrants in economic class was the lowest in that period. During 1996-2006, their percentage decreased (from 49 percent to 35 percent) while that of economic immigrants increased (from 22 percent to 35 percent). The percentage of immigrants in family class also decreased (from 29 percent to 24 percent). Immigration in economic and refugee classes was about the same during 2001-2006 and was higher than in family class.

Chart 15: Immigrants destined to Saint John’s by category, 1991-2006
Chart 15: Immigrants destined to Saint John’s by category, 1991-2006
  Periods
1991-95 1996-00 2001-06
Family  28.8 21.5 25.4
Economic  22.6 41.4 34.8
Refugees 47.8 36.1 34.7
Other 0 0 4.9

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations.

Education distribution among new arrivals: Saint John’s

Chart 16 shows that the proportion of immigrants who arrived with only high school or less education increased from 20 percent to 35 percent between 2001 and 2006. However, these percentages were lower than those among the total population (32 percent in 2001 and 45 percent in 2006).

Chart 16: Immigrants destined to, and the total resident population in, Saint John’s with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 16: Immigrants destined to, and the total resident population in, Saint John’s with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  High School or Less
2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 32.14 45.34
Immigrants  19.24 23.31
Recent immigrants  20.33 35.29

Source: Recent immigrants data are from: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. Resident population data are from the Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006, and are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada. While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

Chart 17 shows that the percentage of immigrants who arrived in Saint John’s with a university degree increased from 36 to 43 percent between 2001and 2006.  These percentages are significantly higher than those observed among total residents (18 and 19 percent in the two years). 

As an average immigrant has a relatively higher level of education than an average original resident, one might expect him / her to perform better in labour markets than the average resident. The next section examines the labour market performance of immigrants.

Chart 17: Immigrants destined to, and the total resident population in, Saint John’s with a university degree, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 17: Immigrants destined to, and the total resident population in, Saint John’s with a university degree, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  University Degree
2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 17.74 18.79
Immigrants  47.39 50.41
Recent immigrants  35.77 42.48

Source: Recent immigrants data are from: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. Resident population data are from the Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006, and are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada. While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

Immigrants in the labour force: Saint John’s

Chart 3, presented in Section 2 of this report, showed that the numbers of immigrants destined to the labour force in Saint John’s rose slowly at the start of the present century but have remained stagnant since 2004. This trend is expected to change as a result of the launching of a new immigration strategy in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. In this section, labour market characteristics and performance of present immigrants and the total population resident in Saint John’s are discussed.

Labour force participation rates

Chart 18 displays the labour force participation rates for all immigrants, recent immigrants and the total resident population in Saint John’s in 2001 and 2006.  The labour force participation rate of the total resident population was always higher than the rates for recent immigrants and all immigrants. Between the two years, participation rates of all the three groups (recent immigrants, all immigrants and resident population) increased: from 64 percent to 65 percent for the total population, from 63 percent to 65 percent for all immigrants, and from 60 percent to 64 percent for recent immigrants.

Chart 18: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total resident population in Saint John's, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 18: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total resident population in Saint John's, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 64.3 65.3
Immigrants  63 64.8
Recent immigrants 60.2 64.3

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Unemployment rates

The unemployment rate is an indicator of labour market performance and of the economic well-being of a population. As indicated in Chart 19, the unemployment rate was the highest among recent immigrants and the lowest among all immigrants in both census years. Unemployment rates among all three groups decreased between the two years: from 11 percent to 10 percent for the total population, from 9 percent to 8 percent for all immigrants, and from 18 percent to 15 percent for recent immigrants.

That recent immigrants have higher unemployment rates may partly be explained by factors such as the shortness of the time they have lived in the city (less than a year) and lack of recognition of their credentials in the local labour market.  

Chart 19: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population in Saint John's, 1996 and 2001 censuses
Chart 19: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population in Saint John's, 1996 and 2001 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 11.3 10
Immigrants  8.8 7.9
Recent immigrants 17.6 15.2

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Total resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Skill classifications of new immigrants in the labour force

Chart 20 shows the number of immigrants who arrived annually in Saint John’s by their skill classifications during the period 1991-2006, and all three show downward trends.  Since 2003, there has been a slight reversal of the long-term trend in the case of highly skilled immigrants (professionals and managers). During the entire period, most incoming immigrants destined to the labour force were highly skilled. In fact, the share of highly skilled immigrants exceeded the joint share of immigrants in the low- and medium-skilled categories throughout this period.

Chart 20: Immigrants destined to the labour force in Saint John's by skill classification, 1991-2006
Chart 20: Immigrants destined to the labour force in Saint John's by skill classification, 1991-2006
  High Skilled Medium Skilled Low Skilled New Workers Sub Total in %(st/t)*100 Total
1991 91 55 27 132 305 66.74 457
1992 123 57 44 132 356 63.23 563
1993 105 50 30 92 277 57.83 479
1994 75 49 13 62 199 53.64 371
1995 104 45 31 92 272 60.58 449
1996 105 53 25 100 283 61.79 458
1997 68 37 16 55 176 60.07 293
1998 60 24 8 52 144 47.52 303
1999 76 26 14 52 168 53.00 317
2000 66 13 10 72 161 54.21 297
2001 47 20 7 70 144 48.16 299
2002 54 15 -- 86 155 52.36 296
2003 38 6 -- 101 145 56.64 256
2004 73 5 6 114 198 46.70 424
2005 51 15 8 120 194 48.62 399
2006 62 10 -- 128 200 52.77 379

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. National Occupational Classifications (NOC) were further classified as Highly skilled = “O” and “A”; medium skilled = “B”, low skilled = “C” and “D”. Detailed definitions of NOC are provided in Akbari, A, S. Lynch, T. McDonald and W. Rankaduwa 2007.  Socioeconomic and demographic profiles of immigrants in Atlantic Canada (Table A20).

Occupational distributions of both immigrants and the total population resident in Saint John’s are summarized in Table 7, which shows clear differences between total residents and immigrants. The highest percentage of the total population that  participates in the labour force is in sales and service occupations (25 percent), followed by business, finance and administration occupations (21 percent) and trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (12 percent). On the other hand, occupations in social science, education, government service and religion are the most common among total immigrants (22 percent of the total immigrant labour force participants are represented in these occupations). This is followed by occupations in management and in the category of sales and service, each of which accounts for about 15 percent of all immigrants participating in the labour force. “Health occupations” is the third ranking category of occupations for all immigrants. Among recent immigrants, however, a different distribution is observed. The top ranking two occupational categories among recent immigrants, in order of importance, are sales and service occupations (21 percent) and business finance and administration occupations (17 percent). More research is needed to investigate reasons for this new occupational distribution pattern among recent immigrants.

Table 7: Occupational distribution of the total resident population, immigrants and recent immigrants in the labour force of Saint John’s, 2006 (%)
Occupation Total residents Immigrants  Recent immigrants
   A  Management occupations 9.76 15.14 8.08
   B  Business; finance and administration occupations 20.51 11.36 17.17
   C  Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 8 11.51 16.16
   D  Health occupations 7.58 12.93 10.1
   E  Occupations in social science; education; government service and religion 9.98 21.77 16.16
   F  Occupations in art; culture; recreation and sport 2.91 3.94 3.03
   G  Sales and service occupations 25.31 14.51 21.21
   H  Trades; transport and equipment operators and related occupations 12.02 4.57 3.03
   I  Occupations unique to primary industry 1.86 1.26 0
   J  Occupations unique to processing; manufacturing and utilities 2.06 0.63 0
Total 99.99 97.63 94.95

Source: Census of Canada, 2006. Resident population data are based on Statistics Canada Community Profiles, 2006, available on the agency’s web site. Immigrant and recent immigrant data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada

Industrial composition of employment

Table 8 summarizes the data on the industrial distribution of employment among total and immigrant populations in Saint John’s in 2006.

Table 8: Industrial distribution of the total resident population, immigrants and recent immigrants in the labour force of Saint John’s, 2006 (%)
Industry Total Residents Immigrants Recent immigrants
   Agriculture and other resource-based industries 4.43 4.21 4.17
   Construction industries 5.5 2.76 2.08
   Manufacturing industries 4.55 2.27 2.08
   Wholesale trade 3.4 1.62 2.08
   Retail trade 12.77 8.1 7.29
   Finance and real estate 4.43 2.92 2.08
   Health care and social services 13.5 20.26 13.54
   Educational services 8.12 20.75 16.67
   All other services 43.29 37.12 50
Total 99.99 100 100

Source: Census of Canada 2006. Resident population data are based on Statistics Canada Community Profiles, 2006, available on the agency’s web site. Immigrant and recent immigrant data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Service industries, which include health care and social services, educational services and all other services as reported in the table, account for the highest proportions of employment among both resident and immigrant populations. The proportions of employment in the service industries are 65 percent, 78 percent and 80 percent for the total population, all immigrants and recent immigrants, respectively. All other services, which include a variety of services other than health care services, social services, and educational services, account for the highest proportion of immigrants and resident populations employed in all service industries. Educational services, health care and social services, and retail trade are the next three high ranking industries for both resident and immigrant populations. However, the order of their ranking for the total population is different from the ranking for immigrants. Health care and social services rank first among total population, while educational services rank third. For both immigrant groups, educational services rank first, while retail trade ranks third. The share of employment in agriculture and other-resource based industries is almost identical for total residents and immigrants.

Labour market earnings

At the time of the 2001 census, immigrants in general received an average employment income higher than that of total residents and recent immigrants in Saint John’s. Recent immigrants earned the lowest average employment income in that year.  At the time of the 2006 census, the average employment income of both immigrant groups had increased, while the average employment income of total residents had declined by about 10 percent compared to that in 2001.  Recent immigrants reported the highest rate of increase (28 percent) compared to all immigrants, who reported an increase of 17 percent. As a result, recent immigrants, who earned only about 90 percent of the average employment income of residents in 2001, were able to make 127 percent of residents’ average employment income in 2006. The average employment income of all immigrants, who received 166 percent of residents’ incomes in 2001, had increased to 216 percent of the average employment income of residents in 2006. Thus, the employment income gap between each of the immigrant populations and the total resident population widened between 2001 and 2006. These facts are also revealed in Chart 21.

Given the decline of highly skilled immigrants in total inflows, the above result appears puzzling. More insights can be obtained by investigating the distribution of income within each group.

Chart 21: Average employment income of immigrants and total resident population in Saint John's, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 21: Average employment income of immigrants and total resident population in Saint John's, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 28872 26022
Immigrants  47849 56084
Recent immigrants  25846 33078
Ratio (3/1)  0.90 1.27

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Total resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Immigrants in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island

During the period 2001-2006, Charlottetown became home to 510 new immigrants. About 41 percent of them came from Asia, the Middle East and Africa. The city’s economy is dominated by the public sector, where many skilled immigrant workers find employment.  In addition, technology companies, including a large number of call centres looking for more employees, have also been increasing their share of the city's workforce in the past decade. Other significant economic activities include light manufacturing, such as chemicals, biotechnology, and machining.

Source countries of immigrants: Charlottetown

Table 9 lists the top five source countries of immigrants who arrived in Charlottetown during the three sub-periods: 1991-1995, 1996-2000, and 2001-2006.  The list completely changed between the first and third periods. During the first two periods, the numbers reflect an increase in refugees and displaced persons from Bosnia and Herzegovina, due to the civil war in the region which ended in 1995. In the third period, when immigration levels were the highest of all periods, China became the largest source country of immigrants accounting for about 42 percent of immigrants originating in the top five listed countries, followed by Korea which accounted for 37 percent. As will be shown in Chart 23, about a quarter of immigrants who arrived in Charlottetown during 2001-2006, came as refugees, probably accounting  for the appearance of Afghanistan on the list of top five source countries. Finally, the United Kingdom, which occupied fifth place among the top five source countries, was the only non-Asian country that appeared on the list for this period.

Table 9: Top five source countries of immigrants destined for Atlantic Canada, Charlottetown by year, 1991-2006
Rank 1991-95 1996-00 2001-06
Country Count Country Count Country Count
1 Bosnia 75 Bosnia 99 China 244
2 U.S.A 74 Taiwan 33 Korea 215
3 Hong Kong 51 U.S.A 26 Taiwan 45
4 El Salvador 44 China 24 Afghanistan 42
5 Iraq 34 Croatia 23 U.K 38

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations.

Age distribution among new immigrants: Charlottetown

The majority of new immigrants who arrived in Charlottetown during the periods 1996-2000 and 2001-2006 belonged to the 25- 44 age group (Chart 22).  Noticeable changes in the age structure of immigrants occurred between these two periods. The proportion of immigrants belonging to this age group decreased from 78 percent to 67 percent, while the proportion belonging to the 45-64 age group increased from 7 percent to 27 percent. The proportion of immigrants in the younger age group, 15-24, also decreased, from 15 percent to 6 percent, between the same two periods. Changes observed in the age structure of the resident population are not as pronounced as the changes observed in the age structure of immigrants. The proportion of total residents in the age group 25-44 decreased from 35 percent to 32 percent, while that in the age group 45-64 increased from 31 percent to 34 percent between the 2001 and 2006 census years.  The proportion in the oldest age category (65+) remained almost the same: 16 percent in 2001 and 17 percent in 2006.

The larger flow of recent immigrants in the 45-64 age group may be explained by their rising numbers in economic class, and many may have come after obtaining a job offer in the city, which currently faces labour shortages. The rise among the 65 and over age group could be due to an inflow of refugees, whose migration decision is not based on economic reasons. We review arrivals by immigrant class in the next section.

Chart 22: Age distribution among new immigrants and the total population in Charlottetown, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 22: Age distribution among new immigrants and the total population in Charlottetown, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Age Group Sample
1996-00 2001 2001-06 2006
15-24 14.8 18.2 5.9 17.3
25-44 78.2 34.9 67.0 31.8
45-64 7.0 30.7 27.0 33.8
65+ 0.0 16.2 0.0 17.1

Source: Immigrant arrival data are from Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. Resident population data are from Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006, based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Immigrants by category: Charlottetown

During 1991-1996, an equal percentage (34 percent) of immigrants arrived in family and economic classes. Refugee class immigrants accounted for about 31 percent of arrivals during the same period.  Over the three periods considered in Chart 23, the inflow of immigrants who arrived in family class decreased continuously from 34 percent during 1991-1996 to 21 percent during 2001-2006. The inflow of refugees increased to 46 percent during the second period, when the percentages of economic and family class immigrants both decreased. However, economic class immigrants rose to 51 percent, while the percentage of refugee immigrants decreased to 26 percent in the last five-year period. To sum up, economic class has become the dominant class of immigrants in Charlottetown in recent years.  The inflow of refugees remains high compared to that in Halifax but below that in Saint John’s.

That more immigrants arrived in the 45-64 age group and that the percentage of those arriving in the 25-64 age group has declined (see previous section) could mean that those coming in economic class are being selected to meet shortages in specific jobs.

Chart 23: Immigrants destined to Charlottetown by category, 1991-2006
Chart 23: Immigrants destined to Charlottetown by category, 1991-2006
  Periods
1991-95 1996-00 2001-06
Family  33.8 25.7 21.4
Economic  33.8 28.1 51.2
Refugees 30.8 45.5 25.8
Other 0 0 0

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations.

Education distribution among recent arrivals: Charlottetown

Compared to the resident population, a higher percentage of recent immigrants (51 percent as opposed to 31 percent for resident population) had only a high school or lower education at the time of the 2001 census (Chart 24). At the time of the 2006 census, however, this percentage for total residents had increased (to 45 percent) while decreased for recent immigrants (to 43 percent). The decrease in the share of recent immigrants who had this lower level of education is associated with a clear increase in the percentage of those who arrived with a university degree, as shown in Chart 25 (next page). This change appears to be consistent with the rising inflow of economic class immigrants, who also appear to be arriving with job offers as their larger percentage representation in the 45-64 age group showed in Chart 22.

Chart 24: Immigrants destined to and total population in, Charlottetown with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 24: Immigrants destined to and total population in, Charlottetown with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 31.33 44.45
Immigrants  33.41 37.89
Recent immigrants  50.85 43.24

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. Resident population data are from Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006, based on data purchased from Statistics Canada. While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

Chart 25: Immigrants destined to, and total population in, Charlottetown with a university degree, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 25: Immigrants destined to, and total population in, Charlottetown with a university degree, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 17.13 19.50
Immigrants  27.64 30.11
Recent immigrants  23.73 37.84

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. Resident population data are from Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006, based on data purchased from Statistics Canada. While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

The percentage of immigrants who arrived in Charlottetown with a university degree has been higher than that of the resident population in both census years. As shown in Chart 25, the percentage of immigrants who arrived in Charlottetown with a university degree increased from 24 to 39 percent between 2001and 2006, which was a significantly higher increase than that among total residents, whose percentages rose from 17 to 20 percent between the two years. These data suggest that on average, an immigrant arriving in the city had a relatively higher level of education than a non-immigrant resident in recent years.

Immigrants in the labour force: Charlottetown

In this section, immigrants’ labour market performance is analyzed in comparison to total residents of Charlottetown with a view to determine whether the higher education levels of immigrants meant better labour market outcomes.  

Labour force participation rates

Labour force participation rates based on census data for all immigrants, recent immigrants and the resident population in Charlottetown in 2001 and 2006 are shown in Chart 26.  These data indicate that labour force participation rates of all immigrants and recent immigrants were always higher than the rates among the total population resident in Charlottetown. Although the participation rates for the two immigrant populations changed significantly, the rate for the resident population did not change much between the two years. The rate for all immigrants declined from 55 percent to 48 percent, while for recent immigrants, it increased from 50 to 62 percent between 2001 and 2006. Corresponding rates for total residents were 63 and 62 percent, respectively, in the same two years. It is worth noting that in 2006, labour force participation rates were the same for recent immigrants and total residents.

Chart 26: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total resident population in Charlottetown, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 26: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total resident population in Charlottetown, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 69.5 68.8
Immigrants  58.3 55.4
Recent immigrants  61 47.3

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Unemployment rates

In Charlottetown, the unemployment rate of resident population was found to be the highest among compared population groups (all residents, all immigrants and recent immigrants) in both census years (Chart 27). Recent immigrants had the lowest unemployment rate among all groups in 2001, but all groups actually experienced a decline in unemployment rates between the two censuses. The declines were from 10 to 8 percent for the resident population, from 7 to 6 percent for all immigrants, and from 8 to 6 percent for recent immigrants.

Chart 27: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population in Charlottetown, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 27: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population in Charlottetown, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 10.1 8.4
Immigrants  7 6.1
Recent immigrants  8.3 5.7

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Skill classifications of new immigrants in the labour force

Chart 28 shows the annual inflow of immigrants during the period 1991-2006 in the three categories of skill classification: high skilled, medium skilled, and low skilled. Until 2002, none of the immigrant categories displayed a clear long-term trend, either upward or downward. Since then, however, the inflow of high-skilled immigrants has increased sharply, while there is a lack of clear trend in immigrant inflows in other skill categories. In general, the number of immigrants in the high skilled category exceeded the number in each of the other two categories during the entire period. In fact, the dominance of high-skilled immigrants since 2002 has been unprecedented. In 2006, this category accounted for over 90 percent of the immigrants classified in the three categories.

Chart 28: Immigrants destined to labour force in Charlottetown by skill classification, 1991-2006
Chart 28: Immigrants destined to labour force in Charlottetown by skill classification, 1991-2006
  High skilled Medium skilled Low skilled New workers Sub total In %(st/t)*100 Total
1991 22 13 6 13 54 46.55 116
1992 9 11 11 8 39 45.88 85
1993 24 11 11 10 56 47.46 118
1994 18 8 6 17 49 39.20 125
1995 28 15 10 15 68 56.67 120
1996 15 13 12 14 54 43.90 123
1997 22 15 5 17 59 49.58 119
1998 13 17 6 18 54 46.15 117
1999 11 -- -- 37 48 48.48 99
2000 12 10 5 44 71 53.38 133
2001 15 10 -- 28 53 51.46 103
2002 -- -- -- 33 33 47.14 70
2003 15 5 -- 37 57 52.29 109
2004 33 9 -- 46 88 39.29 224
2005 39 7 -- 43 89 38.20 233
2006 108 11 -- 97 216 46.65 463

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2006 database, special tabulations. National Occupational Classifications (NOC) were further classified as highly skilled = “O” and “A”; medium skilled = “B”, low skilled = “C” and “D”. Detailed definitions of NOC are provided in  Akbari, A, S. Lynch, T. McDonald and W. Rankaduwa 2007.  Socioeconomic and Demographic Profiles of Immigrants in Atlantic Canada (Table A20).

Data on occupations practiced by all residents and immigrants in Charlottetown are summarized in Table 10, which shows some differences in the occupational distributions by population groups. Sales and service occupations accounted for the highest percentage (over 20 percent) in each of the resident groups participating in the labour force. This is followed, for the total resident population, by the category of business, finance and administration occupations (19 percent) and the category of trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (13 percent). After sales and services, the next highest ranking occupational category for all immigrants is that of occupations in the social sciences, education, government service and religion (16 percent), followed by the category of business, finance and administration occupations. The top ranking occupational categories for recent immigrants in order of importance are as follows: sales and service occupations (20 percent); management occupations (17 percent); and natural and applied sciences and related occupations (14 percent).

Table 10: Occupational distribution of the total resident population, immigrants and recent immigrants in the labour force of Charlottetown, 2006 (%)
Occupation Total Residents  Immigrants  Recent immigrants
   A  Management occupations 9.24 9.89 17.14
   B  Business; finance and administration occupations 18.2 11.41 11.43
   C  Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 6.74 8.75 14.29
   D  Health occupations 7.17 7.22 8.57
   E  Occupations in social science; education; government service and religion 9.88 16.35 8.57
   F  Occupations in art; culture; recreation and sport 2.96 4.94 0
   G  Sales and service occupations 25.41 20.91 20
   H  Trades; transport and equipment operators and related occupations 12.86 9.13 8.57
   I  Occupations unique to primary industry 5.19 7.98 11.43
   J  Occupations unique to processing; manufacturing and utilities 2.35 2.28 0
Total 100 98.86 100

Source: Census of Canada, 2006. Resident population data are based on Statistics Canada Community Profiles, 2006, available on the agency’s web site. Immigrant and recent immigrant data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Industrial Composition of Employment

Table 11 summarizes data on the industrial distribution of employment among total resident and immigrant populations in Charlottetown in 2006. Service industries (including health care and social services, educational services and all other services together) account for the highest proportion of employment among total and immigrant populations. The employment proportions in service industries are 64 percent, 70 percent and 76 percent for the total residents, all immigrants and recent immigrants, respectively. All other services, which include a variety of services other than health care services, social services, and educational services, account for the highest percentage of employment in services among immigrants and total residents. Educational services, health care and social services, and retail trade are the next three high ranking industries for the total residents and all immigrants. However, the orders of their ranking for the total population and immigrants are different. For the total residents, retail trade ranks first, while educational services rank third. For the all immigrant group, educational services rank first, while the retail trade ranks third. The proportions of employment in agriculture and other resource-based industries are almost the same for all residents and all immigrants. It is interesting to note that the percentage of recent immigrants employed in agriculture and other resource-based industries (12 percent) is much higher than that of all residents (5 percent) and all immigrants (5 percent) and is identical to that in health care and other social services.

Table 11: Industrial distribution of the total resident population, immigrants and recent immigrants in the labour force of Charlottetown, 2006 (%)
Industry Total Residents Immigrants  Recent  immigrants
Agriculture and other resource-based industries 5.13 5.38 12.12
 Construction industries 6.35 3.46 6.06
   Manufacturing industries 4.91 8.08 6.06
   Wholesale trade 2.49 0.77 0
   Retail trade 12.65 8.46 0
   Finance and real estate 4.47 4.23 0
   Health care and social services 10.8 10 12.12
   Educational services 7.58 13.08 9.09
   All other services 45.66 46.54 54.55
Total 100.03 100 100

Source: Census of Canada, 2006. Total resident population data are based on Statistics Canada Community Profiles, 2006, available on the agency’s web site. Immigrant and recent immigrant data are based on data obtained from Statistics Canada through special request.

Labour market earnings

In both census years, overall immigrants earned a higher average employment income than did either of the other groups (Chart 29). Recent immigrants earned the lowest average employment income.  At the time of the 2006 census, the average employment income of both immigrant populations was higher than in 2001, but total population experienced a decline of about 10 percent between the two census years. Recent immigrants reported the highest rate of increase (10 percent) compared to all immigrants, who reported an increase of 1 percent only. While they earned only about 79 percent of the average employment income earned by the resident population in 2001, they earned almost the same as did total residents in 2006. For all immigrants, the average employment income was 18 percent higher than that of the resident population in 2001. In 2006, this percentage difference increased to 37 percent. In summary, the income advantage of immigrants, all and recent, over the total population increased between 2001 and 2006.

Chart 29: Average employment income of immigrants and the total resident population in Charlottetown, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 29: Average employment income of immigrants and the total resident population in Charlottetown, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 25257 21946
Immigrants  29678 30048
Recent immigrants  19992 21928
Ratio (3/1)  0.79 1.00

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Immigrants in Colchester, Nova Scotia

Colchester is home to about 1,915 immigrants, out of which 195 (about 10 percent) settled in the county during 2001-2006. About 75 percent of these recent immigrants were evenly divided among three main sources of origin, namely, the United States, Europe, and China. Although South Asians form the largest visible minority group, the 2006 census reported no new immigrants arriving from that region.  The Chinese are the second largest visible minority group in Colchester.

The manufacturing sector is the largest employer of county residents, followed by business, the retail trade, and health and social welfare industries. Together, these industries employ about half the county’s labour force. According to the Colchester Regional Development Agency (CORDA), business is expanding in Colchester, which experienced an increase of registered or incorporated companies from 326 in 2002 to 348 in 2006. In 2007, about 251 companies that had registered in 2004 were still in business. Only about 6 percent of employment is found in farming, forestry and fishing. The county has a world-renowned agricultural college, a community college, a hospital, and an international airport, all of which are also major sources of employment in the county. Truro’s Nova Scotia Agricultural College and the Truro General Hospital attract international students and medical graduates from abroad. During 2001-2006, Colchester’s population grew by 1.5 percent, faster than the growth in the provincial population, which stood at 0.6 percent.

As mentioned earlier in the report, detailed immigrant inflow data are not available for Colchester County, so all immigrant data reported in this section are based on the population censuses of 2001 and 2006 and represent only those who were resident in the county at the time of each census. 

Age distribution among new immigrants: Colchester

About half of the new immigrants who arrived in Colchester during 1996-2000 and 2001-2006 and stayed there at the time of the census, belonged to the 25-44 age group (Chart 30). Since these individuals are in their prime working age, their arrival may reflect deliberate attempts to attract immigrants to the county. There has been a significant decrease in the proportion of immigrants who belonged to the 15-24 age group: from 38 percent to 14 percent between the two periods. Noticeable changes in the percentages arriving in the 45-64 and 65 and above (65+) groups are also noted. The proportion of immigrants who belonged to the age group 45-64 decreased from 19 percent to 14 percent, while the proportion belonging to the 65+ age group decreased from 13 percent to 7 percent. Changes observed in the age structure of the total population are not as pronounced as those observed in the age structure of immigrants, but they too are worth noting. The percentage of total residents in the age group 15-24 decreased from 16 percent to 15 percent, while that  in the 45-64 age group increased from 32 percent to 35 percent between 2001 and 2006 census years.  The proportion in the oldest age category (65+) also increased, from 18 percent in 2001 to 20 percent in 2006. It is clear from these data that Colchester’s population is aging. The increased inflow of immigrants in the younger age groups, such as 25-44, may help overcome some of the problems associated with an aging population, as noted earlier.

Chart 30: Age distribution among resident immigrants and the total resident population in Colchester, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 30: Age distribution among resident immigrants and the total resident population in Colchester, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Colchester 2001 census 2006 census
Total population Recent immigrants Total population Recent immigrants
15-24 15.49 37.50 14.77 13.79
25-44 34.71 50.00 30.46 51.72
45-64 31.57 18.75 35.22 13.79
65+ 18.23 12.50 19.56 6.90

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Immigrant data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Education distribution among new arrivals: Colchester

Chart 31 shows the percentages of immigrants and residents with a high school level of education or less in 2001 and 2006. As immigrant data are for those who were resident in the county at the time of the census, they may represent education acquired after arrival.

In general, a greater percentage of recent immigrants in Colchester had a higher level of education than the total population in 2001 and 2006. Individuals with high school or less education represented 25 percent and 37 percent of recent immigrants and total residents, respectively, in 2001. At the time of the 2006 census, this percentage for residents had increased to 54 percent while for recent immigrants had decreased to 21 percent. The decrease in the percentage of recent immigrants is consistent with a clear increase in the percentage of immigrants holding a university degree, as depicted in Chart 32.

Chart 31: Recent immigrants and total resident population of Colchester county with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006 Censuses
Chart 31: Recent immigrants and total resident population of Colchester county with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006 Censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 36.80 53.67
Immigrants  27.88 38.11
Recent immigrants  25.00 20.69

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada. While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

The percentage of recent immigrants living in Colchester who held a university degree was higher than that of the resident population in both census years (Chart 32) and increased from 25 percent to 35 percent between the two censuses. This increase was significantly higher than that experienced by total residents, in which case the increase was only from 12 percent to 13 percent.

The above data indicate that an average recent immigrant living in the county has a higher level of education than does a non-immigrant resident.

Chart 32: Recent immigrants and the total residents of Colchester County with a university degree, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 32: Recent immigrants and the total residents of Colchester County with a university degree, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 11.67 12.09
Immigrants  22.76 24.59
Recent immigrants  25.00 34.48

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada. While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

Immigrants in the labour force: Colchester

In this section, immigrants’ labour market performance is analyzed in comparison to the total resident population in Colchester. The analysis will also help determine whether the higher education levels of immigrants as observed above are associated with better labour market outcomes than of the resident population.

Labour force participation rates

Labour force participation rates based on census data for all immigrants, recent immigrants, and the resident population in Colchester are provided in Chart 33. These data indicate that the labour force participation rates for the resident population, all immigrants and recent immigrants were 63 percent, 55 percent and 50 percent, respectively, in 2001. Between the two census years, participation rates for the two immigrant populations have changed significantly, declining from 55 percent to 48 percent in the case of all immigrants while increasing from 50 percent to 62 percent in the case of recent immigrants. The labour force participation rates for the total population were 63 percent and 62 percent, respectively, in the two census years. It is interesting to note that in 2006 the participation rates are the same for recent immigrants and total residents.

Chart 33: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Colchester County, 2001 and 2006
Chart 33: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Colchester County, 2001 and 2006
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 62.7 62.1
Immigrants  55.3 47.8
Recent immigrants  50 62.1

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Unemployment rates

Chart 34 provides data on unemployment rates for all residents and all immigrants who were resident in Colchester in 2001 and 2006. Data on the unemployment rate for recent immigrants were not available for Colchester. (Statistics Canada data showed a zero unemployment rate for these immigrants, which could be a result of suppression of data due to their small numbers.) The unemployment rate for the resident population was higher than for the total immigrant population. The rate for total residents in the county decreased from 10 percent to 8 percent between the two years, while it remained constant at 6 percent for immigrants.

Chart 34: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Colchester County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 34:	Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Colchester County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 9.9 7.9
Immigrants  6.4 5.6
Recent immigrants  0 0

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Data on occupational distributions of total residents and immigrants in Colchester are summarized in Table 12. There are some differences between the occupational distributions of the total population and immigrants. Sales and service occupations account for the highest percentage in each demographic group. For total residents, this is followed by the category of trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (19 percent) and the category of business, finance and administration occupations (15 percent). The next highest ranking occupational category for all immigrants is that of management occupations (17 percent). The categories of business, finance and administration occupations and of trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations each rank third for all immigrants (14 percent).  The top ranking occupational categories for recent immigrants in order of importance are as follows: sales and service occupations (21 percent) and business, finance and administration occupations (21 percent).

Table 12: Occupational distribution of the total resident population, immigrants and recent immigrants in the labour force of Colchester, 2006 (%)
Occupation Total Residents Immigrants  Recent immigrants
   A  Management occupations 8.01 16.95 10.53
   B  Business; finance and administration occupations 15.24 13.56 21.05
   C  Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 3.52 3.39 10.53
   D  Health occupations 5.41 8.47 0
   E  Occupations in social science; education; government service and religion 7.95 10.17 10.53
   F  Occupations in art; culture; recreation and sport 1.61 3.39 10.53
   G  Sales and service occupations 25.93 18.08 21.05
   H  Trades; transport and equipment operators and related occupations 19.22 13.56 10.53
   I  Occupations unique to primary industry 5.25 6.21 0
   J  Occupations unique to processing; manufacturing and utilities 7.85 3.39 10.53
Total 99.98 97.18 105.26

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Industrial composition of employment

Table 13 summarizes the data on the industrial distribution of employment among resident and immigrant populations in Charlottetown in 2006. The highest proportions of the resident population and immigrants were found in the service industries, with the proportions of employment being 51 percent, 63 percent and 57 percent for the resident population, all immigrants and recent immigrants, respectively. According to the table, all other services, which include a variety of services other than health care services, social services, and educational services, account for the highest proportion of employment in services among both immigrants and the resident population. Manufacturing industries (14 percent), retail trade (13 percent), and health care and social services (9 percent) are the next three high ranking industries for the resident population. For all immigrants, the next high ranking industries of employment were health care and social services (14 percent), educational services (10 percent) and the retail trade (10 percent). About 7 percent of all immigrants are employed in each of manufacturing and agriculture and other resource-based industries. The shares of employment in agriculture and other resource-based industries, wholesale trade, and retail trade are equal (14 percent) among recent immigrants.

Table 13: Industrial distribution of the resident population, immigrants and recent immigrants in the labour force of Colchester, 2006 (%)
Industry Total Residents Immigrants  Recent immigrants
Agriculture and other resource-based industries 5.8 7.74 14.29
 Construction industries 6.7 6.55 0
   Manufacturing industries 14.21 7.14 0
   Wholesale trade 5.84 2.98 14.29
   Retail trade 13.06 9.52 14.29
   Finance and real estate 2.94 2.98 0
   Health care and social services 9.4 13.69 0
   Educational services 7.45 10.12 0
   All other services 34.56 39.29 57.14
Total 99.96 100 100

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Labour market earnings

In both census years, the average employment income of all immigrants was higher than that of all residents and recent immigrants (Chart 35).  Recent immigrants earned the lowest average employment income in 2001. At the time of the 2006 census, the average employment income of both immigrant populations had increased, while the average employment income of the total resident population had declined by about 16 percent.  Recent immigrants reported the highest rate of increase (162 percent) compared to all immigrants, who reported an increase of 52 percent. The increase in average employment income of recent immigrants represented an increase from 48 percent to 152 percent of the average employment income of the resident population between 2001 and 2006. All immigrants earned almost the same average employment income as did the resident population in 2001. In 2006, however, the average employment income for all immigrants had increased to 183 percent of that of residents.

In summary, both overall and recent immigrants had an earnings advantage over the resident population in 2006, while recent immigrants did not have this advantage in 2001.

Chart 35: Average employment income of immigrants and the total resident population of Colchester County, 2001 and 2006 Censuses
Chart 35: Average employment income of immigrants and the total resident population of Colchester County, 2001 and 2006 Censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 25117 21018
Immigrants  25258 38500
Recent immigrants 12133 31775
Ratio (3/1)  0.48 1.51

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Immigrants in Carleton, New Brunswick

Carleton County lost population by 2 percent (from 27,184 to 26,632) during 2001-2006. However, 185 new immigrants settled in the county during this period, comprising about 19 percent of its total immigrant population. About 110 of these immigrants came from the United States and Europe and 45 came from Asia and the Middle East - 35 of whom came from India alone. McCain Foods is the major employer and also owns some of county’s transportation and manufacturing industries. In 2006, the county’s unemployment rate was 6.8 percent in 2006, as opposed to 10 percent for the province of New Brunswick. According to information obtained from the Multicultural Association of Carleton County (MACC), most immigrants in the county are employed as researchers, information technologists, engineers, truck drivers, farmers and medical professionals. There is a high demand for skilled as well as unskilled workers in Carleton County.

The following analyses are based on census data only as detailed data on inflows are not available.

Age distribution among new immigrants: Carleton

Most of the new immigrants who arrived in Carleton during the periods of 1996 -2000 and 2001-2006 belonged to the 25-44 age group, accounting for 75 percent and 63 percent of new immigrants in the two periods, respectively (Chart 36).  There has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of immigrants who belonged to the 15-24 age group, from 21 percent to 6 percent between the two periods. There have also been noticeable changes in other age groups of immigrants. The percentage of immigrants in the 45-64 age group increased from 7 percent to 25 percent and that of the 65+ group also increased, from zero in 2001 to 6 percent in 2006. Among total residents, percentages in the age groups of 15-24 and 65+ remained almost the same in the two census years: 16 percent for 15-24 and 17 percent for 65+. The percentage of all residents aged 25-44 decreased from 37 percent to 32 percent, while their percentage in the 45-64 age group increased from 30 percent to 34 percent between 2001 and 2006.

In sum, 1) while most recent immigrants are in the working age group (25-64), in the 2006 census, a larger percentage of them is found in the 45-64 age group, perhaps indicating that the county is attracting more experienced immigrants to fill in vacant jobs, and 2) the age distributions of the resident population in the two censuses do not show an aging trend, which is a different finding from what is true for the province of New Brunswick in general.

Chart 36: Age distribution among recent immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 36: Age distribution among recent immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
 Carleton  2001 census 2006 census
Total population Recent immigrants Total population Recent immigrants
15-24 16.49 21.43 15.90 6.25
25-44 36.61 75.00 32.35 62.50
45-64 29.53 7.14 34.08 25.00
65+ 17.37 0.00 17.67 6.25

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Total (resident) population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Education distribution among new arrivals: Carleton

Chart 37 shows the percentages of immigrant and resident populations with a high school level of education or less in 2001 and 2006. In general, a greater percentage of immigrants resident in Carleton County had a higher level of education than did the resident population in 2001 and 2006. The percentage of individuals with high school or less education was 40 percent for total residents and 41 percent for recent immigrants in 2001. At the time of the 2006 census, this percentage for all residents had increased to 57 percent, while the same for recent immigrants declined to 31 percent. The decrease in the percentage of recent immigrants is associated with a clear increase in the percentage of immigrants holding a university degree, as shown in Chart 38.

Chart 37: Immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 37: Immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County with high school or less education, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 40.31 57.49
Immigrants  45.33 45.11
Recent immigrants  41.38 31.25

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.  These data are for immigrants who were resident in Carleton at the time of the census (and not for their inflows), some of whom may have acquired their education in Canada. While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

In Carleton, the percentage of immigrants who held a university degree was higher than that of the resident population in both censuses. As shown in Chart 38, the percentage of immigrants who held a university degree increased from 24 percent to 38 percent between 2001and 2006. This increase is significantly higher than the increase in the percentage of corresponding total residents, among whom the percentage holding a university degree was almost unchanged (an increase from 9 percent to 10 percent between the two years). These data indicate that on average, a recent immigrant living in the county had a relatively higher level of education than did a resident.

Chart 38: Immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County with a university degree, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 38: Immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County with a university degree, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 9.01 10.14
Immigrants  11.68 21.20
Recent immigrants  24.14 37.50

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.  These data are for immigrants who were resident in Carleton at the time of the census (and not for their inflows), some of whom may have acquired their education in Canada. While all immigrant data are for those aged 15 and above at the time of arrival, resident population data are for those aged 20 and above in 2001 and 15 and above in 2006.

Immigrants in the labour force: Carleton

In this section, immigrants’ labour market performance is analyzed in comparison to that of the resident population in Carleton.

Labour force participation rates

The labour force participation rates based on census data for all immigrants, recent immigrants, and the total population in Carleton are provided in Chart 39, which shows that the respective labour force participation rates were 66 percent, 58 percent and 90 percent in 2001. The rates for recent immigrants were the highest of all in both census years, although they declined from 90 percent in 2001 to 81 percent in 2006. Between the two census years, participation rates for the two immigrant populations changed but not for total residents, whose participation in the labour force was 60 percent.

Chart 39: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 39: Labour force participation rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 66.4 65.9
Immigrants  57.9 61.4
Recent immigrants  89.7 81.2

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Unemployment rates

Chart 40 presents data on unemployment rates experienced by the total population and all immigrants in Carleton in 2001 and 2006. Data on the unemployment rate for recent immigrants were not available in the Statistics Canada data. (An unemployment rate of zero percent was reported due to small numbers.) In 2001, immigrants resident in the county experienced a higher unemployment rate (about 9 percent) than did the total population (8.6 percent). However, in 2006, immigrants experienced a lower unemployment rate (4.4 percent) than did all residents (6.8 percent).

Chart 40: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 40: Unemployment rates among immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 8.6 6.8
Immigrants  8.9 4.4
Recent immigrants  0 0

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Table 14 presents data on the occupational distributions of all residents and immigrants in Carleton County. Sales and service occupations account for the highest percentage of employment among each population group participating in the labour force. For the resident population, this participation is followed by the category of trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations (20 percent) and the category of business, finance and administration occupations (15 percent). The next highest ranking occupational category for all immigrants is that of business, finance and administration occupations (18 percent). The category of trades transport and equipment operators and related occupations (13 percent) ranks in third place for all immigrants, followed by management occupations.  The top ranking occupational category for recent immigrants (sales and service occupations) accounts for 38 percent of their population.

Table 14: Occupational distribution of the resident population, immigrants and recent immigrants in the labour force of Carleton, 2006 (%)
Occupation Resident population Immigrants  Recent immigrants
   A  Management occupations 7.2 10.53 0
   B  Business; finance and administration occupations 14.73 18.42 7.69
   C  Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 3.57 3.51 7.69
   D  Health occupations 5.24 7.02 0
   E  Occupations in social science; education; government service and religion 7.28 7.89 11.54
   F  Occupations in art; culture; recreation and sport 1.39 3.51 0
   G  Sales and service occupations 21.54 21.93 38.46
   H  Trades; transport and equipment operators and related occupations 20.04 13.16 11.54
   I  Occupations unique to primary industry 9.74 7.89 7.69
   J  Occupations unique to processing; manufacturing and utilities 9.27 5.26 0
Total 100 99.12 84.62

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Industrial composition of employment

Table 15 summarizes data on the industrial distribution of employment among the resident and immigrant populations in Carleton in 2006. Service industries, which include health care and social services, educational services and all other services, account for the highest proportions of employment among all demographic groups. The employment shares are 46 percent for the resident population, 58 percent for all immigrants and 76 percent for recent immigrants. All other services, which include a variety of services other than health care services, social services, and educational services, account for the highest proportion of employment in services. The percentages of immigrants employed in all other services are noticeably higher than is the percentage of total residents employed in these services. Manufacturing industries, agriculture and other resource-based industries, and retail trade are the next high ranking industries for total population in terms of their employment shares: 20 percent, 11 percent, and 10 percent, respectively. For all immigrants, on the other hand, the next high ranking industries of employment in order are manufacturing (22 percent), health care and social services (11 percent), and agriculture and other resource-based industries (8 percent).

Table 15: Industrial distribution of the resident population, immigrants and recent immigrants in the labour force of Carleton, 2006 (%)
Industry Total Residents Immigrants  Recent immigrants
Agriculture and other resource-based industries 11.06 8.26 8
 Construction industries 5.99 5.5 0
   Manufacturing industries 20.29 22.02 8
   Wholesale trade 4.03 0 0
   Retail trade 9.91 6.42 8
   Finance and real estate 2.67 0 0
   Health care and social services 9.2 11.01 8
   Educational services 5.81 3.67 0
   All other services 31.03 43.12 68
Total 100 100 100

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Labour market earnings

In both census years, average employment earnings of all immigrants in Carleton were higher than those of the total population and also of recent immigrants (Chart 41). In 2001, the average employment earnings of all immigrants were only 5 percent higher than those of the total population. In 2006, their earnings advantage over the total population increased to 24 percent. On the other hand, recent immigrants earned the lowest average employment income in both census years, and the gap between their income and that of the total population widened in 2006, from 98 percent in 2001 to 89 percent in 2006.

Chart 41: Average employment income of immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
Chart 41: Average employment income of immigrants and the total resident population of Carleton County, 2001 and 2006 censuses
  2001 census 2006 census
Resident population 23557 21966
Immigrants  24738 27288
Recent immigrants  23024 19523
Ration (3/1) 0.98 0.89

Source: Census of Canada, 2001 and 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.

Immigrants in Florenceville, New Brunswick

Carleton County comprises six municipalities, including the towns of Woodstock and Hartland and villages of Florenceville, Bristol, Bath and Centreville. While the county as a whole lost population between 2001 and 2006 (by about 2 percent), the population in the Florenceville village rose by about 6.4 percent during this period. Its total population was 860 in 2006. In that year, 55 immigrants were living in this village, 35 of whom had arrived during 2001-2006. McCain Foods has its world headquarters in this village and is a major employer that has also attracted immigrant workers from many countries. In 2006, the village had an unemployment rate of only 5.3 percent, as opposed to 10 percent for the province, and the census family median income in this village was about $79,000, as opposed to the provincial average of $53,000. Although its present immigrant population is small, Florenceville’s booming economy is a major attraction for new immigrants, thereby making it a vibrant community.

Due to Florenceville’s small population, immigrant inflow data and also immigrant data based on the 2001 census are not available for the village. The only data available on immigrants resident in Florenceville are for the 55 immigrants reported in the 2006 census, and these data are discussed below; however, some caution is needed in their interpretation because of small numbers, which can lead to rounding errors. The discussion is based on Statistics Canada data based on the 2006 census and information collected from the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency and the Multicultural Association of Carleton County. As noted earlier, 35 of Florenceville’s immigrants arrived during 2001-2006.

Most of Florenceville’s population is young, with about 52 percent in the15-44 age group  (Chart 42). Among immigrants, this percentage is even higher: about 73 percent.  The village’s booming economy and higher per capita income appear to be the major reasons why the young people stay there. However, the presence of a large percentage of youth (aged 15-24) in the village is also interesting, and the reasons for their stay can be investigated in a separate research study.

Most immigrants living in Florenceville have come from India (25 out of 55). Source countries and regions of others are equally divided among the United States (10), the Caribbean and Bermuda (10), and Europe (10).

Labour force participation rates among immigrants and total residents are 72.7 percent and 70.7 percent, respectively. The unemployment rate is almost zero among immigrants aged 25 and over, probably because they all moved to the village with a priori job offers. Among the total population, the rate of unemployment was 5.3 percent. Immigrants find employment as managers, scientists and agriculture workers, and the industrial distribution of their employment is even among the groups of agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and of manufacturing. As discussed earlier, McCain Foods is the main employer in the village, and therefore most immigrants profiled in these data appear to be engaged in agricultural processing. A large percentage of Spanish speakers from the Caribbean are also found in the village’s small immigrant population (15 out of 55). These workers are employed as food processors by McCain Foods. Immigrants from India (35) are employed in technical occupations, also at McCain Foods.

Chart 42: Age distribution among immigrants and the total resident population of Florenceville, 2006 census
Chart 42: Age distribution among immigrants and the total resident population of Florenceville, 2006 census
Groups Total Population In Numbers Recent Immigrants In Numbers
15-24 100 20
25-44 245 20
45-64 200 0
65+ 120 10
Total 665 55

Groups Total Population In Percentage Recent Immigrants In Percentage
15-24 15.04 36.36
25-44 36.84 36.36
45-64 30.08 0.00
65+ 18.05 18.18

Source: Census of Canada, 2006. Resident population data are based on community profiles published on Statistics Canada’s web site. Immigrant profile data are based on data purchased from Statistics Canada.


2 A detailed discussion can be found in Akbari, A., S. Lynch, T. McDonald and W. Rankaduwa. 2007. Socioeconomic and Demographic Profiles of Immigrants in Atlantic Canada (available on www.atlantic.metropolis.net).

3 A detailed list can be found in Table A20 of Akbari, et al (2007), noted above

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