Appendix E: The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada, 2009 – Definitions and data sources for indicators

Appendix E: Definitions and Data Sources for Indicators

A

Aboriginal (2006)Footnote 574

This is a collective name for all Aboriginal Peoples of Canada and their descendants. The Constitution Act of 1982 specifies that the Aboriginal Peoples in Canada consist of three groups – Indians, Inuit and Métis. Indians, Inuit and Métis peoples have unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2009–03–18). 2006 Census – Aboriginal Population aged 0–11 by Area of Residence [Custom Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008–06–12). Aboriginal Identity, Sex and Age Groups for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data [Data File].

First Nations (single ancestry) (2006)Footnote 574

A term which came into common usage in the 1970s to replace Indian. Although the term First Nation is widely used, no legal definition of it exists. Among its uses, the term “First Nations Peoples” refers generally to the Indian Peoples in Canada, both Status and non–Status. Single ancestry indicates the person has identified only First Nations as their ancestors' culture of origin.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–02–17). 2006 Census Table – Persons 0–11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008–06–12). Aboriginal Identity, Sex and Age Groups for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data [Data File].

Inuit (single ancestry) (2006)Footnote 574

Inuit are the Aboriginal People of Arctic Canada who live primarily in Nunavut, the Northwest Territories and northern parts of Labrador and Quebec. Single ancestry indicates the person has identified only Inuit as their ancestors' culture of origin.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–02–17). 2006 Census Table – Persons 0–11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008–06–12). Aboriginal Identity, Sex and Age Groups for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data [Data File].

Métis (single ancestry) (2006)Footnote 574

A term which is used broadly to describe people with mixed First Nations and European ancestry who identify themselves as Métis, distinct from Indian people, Inuit or non–Aboriginal people. Single ancestry indicates the person has identified only Métis as their ancestors' culture of origin.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–02–17). 2006 Census Table – Persons 0–11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008–06–12). Aboriginal Identity, Sex and Age Groups for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data [Data File].

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy (2006–2007)Footnote 324

Proportion of women who have given birth in the past 5 to 14 months and have consumed alcoholic beverages during their pregnancy.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). Data Tables – The Maternity Experiences Survey (MES) 2006–2007.

Alcohol dependence (2002)Footnote 199 Footnote 575

Alcohol dependence is defined as tolerance, withdrawal, loss of control or social or physical problems related to alcohol use. A respondent (aged 15+ years) who reported having five drinks or more on one occasion at least once a month during the past 12 months and had five drinks or more during another 12–month period.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2002 (Cycle 1.2) from Statistics Canada [Data File].

Alzheimer's and other dementias (2000)Footnote 576

Persons aged 65+ years who have been diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease, vascular disease, frontal lobe dementia or Lewy Body disease (ICD–10 F01, F03, G30–G31).

Data Source
Appendix D: Mathers, C. E. & Leonardi, M. (2002). Global burden of dementia in the year 2000: Summary of methods and data sources. (World Health Organization).

Anxiety disorders (2002)Footnote 199 Footnote 575

A respondent (aged 15+ years) who reported experiencing any of the following criteria associated with agoraphobia, panic disorder and social phobia in the past 12 months was considered to meet the criteria for anxiety disorders:

  • a panic attack in the past 12 months;
  • significant emotional distress during a panic attack in the past 12 months;
  • fear or avoidance of social or performance situation(s) in the past 12 months;
  • clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning;
  • anxiety about being in at least two different places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing, along with fear of having a panic attack; and
  • avoidance of situations associated with agoraphobia; or endurance of situations with marked distress or anxiety; or requiring the presence of a companion in the situations.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2002 (Cycle 1.2) from Statistics Canada [Data File].

Arthritis/rheumatism (2007)Footnote 577

Respondents (aged 12+ years) who report having arthritis or rheumatism, excluding fibromyalgia.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007 (Cycle 4.1) from Statistics Canada [Data File].

Asthma (2000)Footnote 164

Prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma at any point in the child's life.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2007). Life and Breath: Respiratory Disease in Canada.

Asthma (2007)Footnote 577

Respondents (aged 12+ years) who report having:

  • asthma;
  • asthma symptoms or attacks in the past 12 months; or
  • taken medicine for asthma such as inhalers, nebulizers, pills, liquids or injections.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007 (Cycle 4.1) from Statistics Canada [Data File].

B

Breastfeeding (initiation) (2006–2007)Footnote 311 Footnote 324

The rate of breastfeeding is defined as the number of women who have given birth to a live born child in the past 5 to 14 months and ever breastfed that child, expressed as a proportion of all the women who delivered a live born child (in a given place and time).

Data Source
Table 4.1: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). Data Tables - The Maternity Experiences Survey (MES) 2006–2007.

Breastfeeding (6+ months) (2006–2007)Footnote 311 Footnote 324

The rate of breastfeeding is defined as the number of women who have given birth to a live born child in the past 5 to 14 months and breastfed that child for a minimum of six months, expressed as a proportion of all the women who delivered a live born child (in a given place and time).

Data Source
Table 4.1: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). Data Tables – The Maternity Experiences Survey (MES) 2006–2007.

C

Cancer incidence (2000–2004, 2008)Footnote 578

Estimated number of children that are diagnosed with new cases of cancer.

Data Source Table 3.2: Canadian Cancer Society, National Cancer Institute of Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Statistics Canada, & Provincial/Territorial Cancer Registries. (2008). Canadian Cancer Statistics 2008. Appendix D: Canadian Cancer Society, National Cancer Institute of Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Statistics Canada, & Provincial/Territorial Cancer Registries. (2008). Canadian Cancer Statistics 2008; and Statistics Canada. (2009–03–02). CANSIM Table 282–0004 – Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by educational attainment, sex and age group, annual [Data File].

Children living in low income (after tax) (2006)Footnote 226

Describes how many Canadians, between the ages of 0 and 11 years, live in families spending a share of their total post–tax income on food, clothing and footwear, and shelter 20 percentage points higher than did average families of the same size in the same broad community size. Low income is based on the consumption patterns for 1992 and adjusted for family size, community sizes and inflation based on the national Consumer Price Index.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–03–13). Number of children aged 0–11, living in low income (after–tax), Canada [Custom Data File].
Statistics Canada. (2008). Income in Canada, 2006.

Children living in private households (2006)Footnote 129

Children identified in the 2006 Census as living within a private household.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–02–17). 2006 Census Table – Persons 0–11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].

Children living in two–parent households (2006)Footnote 129

Children identified in the 2006 Census as living within a private household with two parents (married or common–law) present.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–02–17). 2006 Census Table – Persons 0–11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].

Children living in single–parent households (2006)Footnote 129

Children identified in the 2006 Census as living within a private household with only a single parent present.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–02–17). 2006 Census Table – Persons 0–11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].

Children living with single fathers (2006)Footnote 129

Children identified in the 2006 Census as living within a private household with only a single father present.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–02–17). 2006 Census Table – Persons 0–11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].

Children living with single mothers (2006)Footnote 129

Children identified in the 2006 Census as living within a private household with only a single mother present.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009–02–17). 2006 Census Table – Persons 0–11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].

Chlamydia (2007)Footnote 579

Rate per 100,000 population where Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) has been identified by a laboratory.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008–05–28). Reported cases of notifiable STI from January 1 to June 30, 2007 and January 1 to June 30, 2008 and corresponding annual rates for the years 2007 and 2008.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2005)Footnote 580

Respondents (aged 35+ years) who report having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2005 (Cycle 3.1) from Statistics Canada [Data File].

Circulatory diseases (2005)Footnote 581

Deaths associated with circulatory diseases, classified as International Classification of Disease codes I00–I99, such as ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases and pulmonary heart conditions.

Data Source Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006–10–25). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the CANSIM Table 051–0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), prepared by Statistics Canada]; and Statistics Canada. (2009–03–30). CANSIM Table 102–0529 Deaths, by cause, Chapter IX: Diseases of the circulatory system (I00 to I99), age group and sex, Canada, annual [Data File].

Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (2004, 2005)Footnote 154

Deaths associated with congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (ICD–10 Q00–Q99) including but not limited to spina bifida, Down's syndrome, malformations of the heart and lungs.

Data Source Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2009–03–26). Causes of death in children 0 to 11 years of age, Canada, by age group, 2000 to 2004 [Custom Data File]; and Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006– 10–25). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the CANSIM Table 051–0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), prepared by Statistics Canada].

Contact with dental professional (2007)Footnote 473 Footnote 582

Persons who have consulted with a dental professional in the past 12 months.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007–04–27). CANSIM Table 105–0460 Contact with dental professionals in the past 12 months, by age group and sex, household population aged 12 and over, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (June 2005 boundaries) and peer groups, every 2 years [Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008–06–16). CANSIM Table 105– 0501 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) indicator profile, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, annual [Data File].

Crude birth rate (2006)Footnote 135

The number of live births per 1,000 population.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2008–09–25). CANSIM Table 102-4505 Live births, crude birth rate, age-specific and total fertility rates, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

Current smoker (2007)Footnote 583

Respondents who have identified themselves as daily smokers and non-daily smokers (also known as occasional smokers).

Data Source
Appendix D: Health Canada. (2008-08-25). Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (CTUMS) 2007 - Table 1. Smoking status and average number of cigarettes smoked per day, by age group and sex, age 15+ years, Canada 2007.

D

Diabetes (2005-2006)Footnote 166

Individuals were counted as having been diagnosed with diabetes when they had at least one hospitalization with a diagnosis of diabetes or had at least two physician visits with a diagnosis of diabetes within a two-year period.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). Report from the National Diabetes Surveillance System: Diabetes in Canada, 2008. Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). Report from the National Diabetes Surveillance System: Diabetes in Canada, 2008.

Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal growth (2005)Footnote 155

Deaths associated with length of gestation and fetal growth (ICD-10 P05-P08) including but not limited to fetal malnutrition, extremely low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

Data Source Table 3.2: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006-10-25). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the CANSIM Table 051-0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), prepared by Statistics Canada]; and Statistics Canada. (2009-03-27). CANSIM Table 102-0536 Deaths, by cause, Chapter XVI: Certain conditions origination in the perinatal period (P00 to P96), age group and sex, Canada, annual [Data File].

E

Emotional problem-anxiety score (2004-2005)Footnote 584

The proportion of children, as identified by parents or guardians, aged two to five years who exhibit high levels of emotional and/or anxiety problems, excluding those living in the territories, on reserve or in institutions.

Data Source
Table 3.2: British Columbia. (2008). Indicators of Early Childhood Health & Well-Being in British Columbia.

Engaged in leisure-time physical activity (2007)Footnote 585

Population aged 12 and over who reported a level of physical activity, based on their responses to questions about the nature, frequency and duration of their participation in leisure-time physical activity. Respondents are classified as active, moderately active or inactive based on an index of average daily physical activity over the past three months. For each leisuretime physical activity engaged in by the respondent, an average daily energy expenditure is calculated by multiplying the number of times the activity was performed by the average duration of the activity by the energy cost (kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per hour) of the activity. The index is calculated as the sum of the average daily energy expenditures of all activities. Respondents are classified as follows:

  • 3.0 kcal/kg/day or more = physically active
  • 1.5 to 2.9 kcal/kg/day = moderately active
  • less than 1.5 kcal/kg/day = inactive

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-06-16). CANSIM Table 105- 0501 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) indicator profile, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, annual [Data File].

Excellent or very good self-rated health (2007)Footnote 585

Population aged 12 years and over who reported perceiving their own health status as being either excellent or very good. Perceived health refers to the perception of a person's health in general, either by the person himself or herself, or, in the case of a proxy response, by the person responding. Health means not only the absence of disease or injury but also physical, mental and social well-being.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-06-16). CANSIM Table 105- 0501 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) indicator profile, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, annual [Data File].

Excellent or very good self-rated mental health (2007)Footnote 585

Population aged 12 years and over who reported perceiving their own mental health status as being either excellent or very good. Perceived mental health refers to the perception of a person's mental health in general. Perceived mental health provides a general indication of the population suffering from some form of mental disease, mental or emotional problems, or distress, not necessarily reflected in perceived health.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-06-16). CANSIM Table 105- 0501 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) indicator profile, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, annual [Data File].

F

Family functioning (2004-2005)Footnote 586

Parents of children who have indicated on a survey a high degree of family dysfunction, including issues with problem solving, communicating, role definition, affective involvement, affective responsiveness and behaviour control.

Data Source
Table 4.1: British Columbia. (2008). Indicators of Early Childhood Health & Well-Being in British Columbia.

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure (2006)Footnote 587

This indicator uses the warm seasonal average of daily 24- hour daily average concentrations, which is populationweighted to calculate trends and averages across monitoring stations located throughout the country.

Data Source
Appendix D: Environment Canada. (2009-03-12). Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators Maps and Charts.

First Nations (single ancestry) (2006)

See Aboriginal

Fruit and vegetable consumption (5+ times a day) (2004, 2007)Footnote 179 Footnote 585

Indicates the usual number of times (frequency) per day a person reported eating fruits and vegetables. Measure does not take into account the amount consumed.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Shields, M. (2006). Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Reports, 17(3), 27–42.
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-06-16). CANSIM Table 105- 0501 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) indicator profile, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, annual [Data File].

G

Gonorrhea (2007)Footnote 579

Rate per 100,000 population where Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) has been identified by a laboratory.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008-05-28). Reported cases of notifiable STI from January 1 to June 30, 2007 and January 1 to June 30, 2008 and corresponding annual rates for the years 2007 and 2008.

Ground-level ozone exposure (2006)Footnote 587

This indicator uses the warm seasonal average of daily eight-hour maximum average concentrations, which is population-weighted to calculate trends and averages across monitoring stations located throughout the country.

Data Source
Appendix D: Environment Canada. (2009-03-12). Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators Maps and Charts.

H

Health-adjusted life expectancy (2001)Footnote 145

Health-adjusted life expectancy is the number of years in full health that an individual can expect to live given the current morbidity and mortality conditions. Healthadjusted life expectancy uses the Health Utility Index to weigh years lived in good health higher than years lived in poor health. Thus, health-adjusted life expectancy is not only a measure of quantity of life but also a measure of quality of life.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2007-05-17). CANSIM Table 102-0121 Health-adjusted life expectancy, at birth and at age 65, by sex and income group, Canada and provinces, occasional (years) [Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-05-17). CANSIM Table 102-0121 Health-adjusted life expectancy, at birth and at age 65, by sex and income group, Canada and provinces, occasional (years) [Data File].

Heart disease (2007)Footnote 577

Respondents (aged 12+ years) who report having heart disease.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007 (Cycle 4.1) from Statistics Canada [Data File].

Heavy drinking (5+ drinks on one occasion 12+ times in a year) (2007)Footnote 585

Population aged 12 and over who reported having at least five drinks on a single occasion each month for the past 12 months.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-06-16). CANSIM Table 105- 0501 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) indicator profile, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, annual [Data File].

High blood pressure (2007)Footnote 577

Respondents (aged 20+ years) who report having:

  • high blood pressure;
  • been diagnosed with high blood pressure; or
  • taken high blood pressure medication.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007 (Cycle 4.1) from Statistics Canada [Data File].

High school graduates (2008)Footnote 588

Persons who have received, at minimum, a high school diploma or, in Quebec, a completed Secondary V or, in Newfoundland and Labrador, completed fourth year of secondary.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2009-03-02). Table 282-0004 - Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by educational attainment, sex and age group, annual [Data File].

HIV (2005)Footnote 331

The number of new HIV infections occurring in 2005.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2007). HIV/AIDS - EPI Updates.

Hyperactivity-inattention score (2004-2005)Footnote 584

The proportion of children, as identified by parents or guardians, from two to five years of age who exhibit high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention, excluding those living in the territories, on reserve or in institutions.

Data Source
Table 3.2: British Columbia. (2008). Indicators of Early Childhood Health & Well-Being in British Columbia.

I

Illicit drug use (in the past year) (2004)Footnote 589

Illicit drug use by persons aged 25 years and older, in Canada, who have used illicit drugs (cannabis, cocaine, speed, ecstacy, hallucinogens or heroin) within the past year. Note: Current definition differs from The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada, 2008 - Addressing Health Inequalities.

Data Source
Appendix D: Health Canada. (2007). Canadian Addiction Survey - A National Survey of Canadians' Use of Alcohol and Other Drugs.

Immigrant (2006)Footnote 590

A landed immigrant is a person who has been granted the right to live in Canada by immigration authorities.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009-02-17). 2006 Census Table - Persons 0-11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-11-20). Profile of Language, Immigration, Citizenship, Mobility and Migration for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2006 Census [Data File].

By birth place (2006)Footnote 591 Footnote 592

The concept of place of birth applies to the country of a respondent if born outside Canada. Respondents are to report their place of birth according to international boundaries in effect at the time of enumeration not at the time of birth. Countries should be coded according to the most recent International Standardisation Organization codes and it is recommended that they be aggregated into regions according to the most recent United Nations' standards for the reporting of demographic and social data.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-11-20). Profile of Language, Immigration, Citizenship, Mobility and Migration for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2006 Census [Data File].

By years since immigration (2006)Footnote 591 Footnote 592

Year/Period of immigration refers to a person who is a landed immigrant by the period of time in which he or she first obtained landed immigrant status.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-11-20). Profile of Language, Immigration, Citizenship, Mobility and Migration for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2006 Census [Data File].

Infant mortality rate (under one year) (2006)Footnote 593

Infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths occurring within the first year of life during a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2009-04-27). CANSIM Table 102-0507 Infant mortality, by age group, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2009-04-27). CANSIM Table 102-0507 Infant mortality, by age group, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

Infectious syphilis (2007)Footnote 579

Rate per 100,000 population where infectious syphilis (including primary, secondary and early latent stages) has been identified by a laboratory.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008-05-28). Reported cases of notifiable STI from January 1 to June 30, 2007 and January 1 to June 30, 2008 and corresponding annual rates for the years 2007 and 2008.

Inuit (single ancestry) (2006)

See Aboriginal

Intentional and unintentional injuries (2004)Footnote 159

Deaths associated with accidents, also known as unintentional injuries (ICD-10 V01-Y89) including but not limited to transport accidents, drownings, burns, poisonings and assault.

Data Source Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2009-03-26). Causes of death in children 0 to 11 years of age, Canada, by age group, 2000 to 2004 [Custom Data File]; and Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006- 10-25). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the CANSIM Table 051-0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), prepared by Statistics Canada].

L

Life expectancy (2006)Footnote 144

Life expectancy is the number of years a person would be expected to live, starting from birth (for life expectancy at birth) and similarly for other age groups, on the basis of the mortality statistics for a given observation period.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2009-04-27). CANSIM Table 102-0511 Life expectancy, abridged life table, at birth and at age 65, by sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (years) [Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2009-04-27). CANSIM Table 102-0511 Life expectancy, abridged life table, at birth and at age 65, by sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (years) [Data File].

Low birth weight (2006)Footnote 147

Live births where the measured birth weight of the infant is less than 2,500 grams.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2008-09-26). CANSIM Table 102- 4509 Live births, by birth weight and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

Low on at least one school readiness domain (2006)Footnote 284

Percentage of vulnerable children in senior kindergarten who score low (below the 10th percentile cut-off of the site population) in one or more of the five domains (physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive development, and communication skills and general knowledge) in select provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick).

Data Source
Table 4.1: The Offord Centre for Child Studies, McMaster University. School Readiness to Learn National SK Cohort Results, Based on the Early Development Instrument Data Collection for Senior Kindergarten Students in Canada, Spring 2006.

M

Major depression (2002)Footnote 199 Footnote 575

A major depressive episode is a period of two weeks or more with persistent depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities, accompanied by symptoms such as decreased energy, changes in sleep and appetite, impaired concentration, and feelings of guilt, hopelessness or suicidal thoughts. Respondents (aged 15+ years) who reported experiencing the following associated with major depressive episode were considered to fit the criteria for the 12-month period prevalence of major depression:

  • a period of two weeks or more with depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure and at least five additional symptoms;
  • clinically significant distress or social or occupational impairment;
  • the symptoms are not better accounted for by bereavement;
  • meet the criteria for lifetime diagnosis of major depressive episode;
  • report a 12-month episode; and
  • report marked impairment in occupational or social functioning.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2002 (Cycle 1.2) from Statistics Canada [Data File].
Retrieved on December 12, 2008.

Malignant cancers (2004, 2005)Footnote 594

Deaths associated with malignant cancers (ICD-10 C00-C97) including but not limited to cancers of the lymph nodes, blood, brain and urinary tract.

Data Source Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2009-03-26). Causes of death in children 0 to 11 years of age, Canada, by age group, 2000 to 2004 [Custom Data File]; and Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006- 10-25). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the CANSIM Table 051-0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), prepared by Statistics Canada]. Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2009-03-30). CANSIM Table 102- 0522 Deaths, by cause, Chapter II: Neoplasms (C00 to D48), age group and sex, Canada, annual [Data File]; and Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006-10-25). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the CANSIM Table 051-0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), prepared by Statistics Canada].

Maltreatment (2003)Footnote 246

Substantiated cases within Canada, excluding Quebec, where sufficient evidence exists that abuse and/or neglect occurred. The information is then categorized into five broad subcategories including physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, emotional maltreatment and exposure to domestic violence.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2005). Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect - 2003: Major Findings. (Public Health Agency of Canada).

Measles (2004-2005)Footnote 596

The proportion of children, as identified by parents or guardians, to have had measles within the given year, excluding those living in the territories, on reserve or in institutions.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Human Resources and Social Development Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2007). The well-being of Canada's young children: Government of Canada Report 2006.

Meningococcal Group C (2004-2005)Footnote 596

The proportion of children, as identified by parents or guardians, to have had meningococcal group C infection within the given year, excluding those living in the territories, on reserve or in institutions.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Human Resources and Social Development Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2007). The well-being of Canada's young children: Government of Canada Report 2006.

Métis (single ancestry) (2006)

See Aboriginal

Multiple births (2006)Footnote 597

A delivery that results in more than one birth, whether live born or still born. This includes the delivery of twins, triplets, quadruplets, quintuplets and more.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2008-09-25). CANSIM Table 102- 4515 Live births and fetal deaths (stillbirths), by type (single or multiple), Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

N

Neighbourhood cohesion (2004-2005)Footnote 14

Parents of children who have indicated on a survey that they felt little support in their neighbourhood, such as having adults children can look up to, people in their neighbourhood willing to help, and other adults that would watch out for the safety of children and suspicious activities.

Data Source
Table 4.1: British Columbia. (2008). Indicators of Early Childhood Health & Well-Being in British Columbia.

Neighbourhood safety (2004-2005)Footnote 14

Parents of children who have indicated on a survey that they felt unsafe participating in activities in and around their neighbourhood such as walking alone after dark or allowing children to play outside during the day.

Data Source
Table 4.1: British Columbia. (2008). Indicators of Early Childhood Health & Well-Being in British Columbia.

Neonatal mortality rate (0 to 27 days) (2006)Footnote 593

Neonatal mortality rate is the number of infant deaths occurring within the first 27 days of life during a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2009-04-27). CANSIM Table 102-0507 Infant mortality, by age group, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

O

Obese (2004)Footnote 179

The International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) has implemented a new approach to measuring overweight and obesity among children because the measurements and classifications identified for adults do not accurately reflect those of children under 18 years of age. The index is calculated for the population aged 2 to 17 years, by gender and age in six-month intervals (see Table E.1).

Table E.1 Body mass index for children, aged 2 to 17 years Footnote 183
  Overweight cutpoints Obese cut-points
  BMI greater than or equal to: BMI greater than or equal to:
Age (years) Boys Girls Boys Girls
2 18.41 18.02 20.09 19.81
2.5 18.13 17.76 19.80 19.55
3 17.89 17.56 19.57 19.36
3.5 17.69 17.40 19.39 19.23
4 17.55 17.28 19.29 19.15
4.5 17.47 17.19 19.26 19.12
5 17.42 17.15 19.30 19.17
5.5 17.45 17.20 19.47 19.34
6 17.55 17.34 19.78 19.65
6.5 17.71 17.53 20.23 20.08
7 17.92 17.75 20.63 20.51
7.5 18.16 18.03 21.09 21.01
8 18.44 18.35 21.60 21.57
8.5 18.76 18.69 22.17 22.18
9 19.10 19.07 22.77 22.81
9.5 19.46 19.45 23.39 23.46
10 19.84 19.86 24.00 24.11
10.5 20.20 20.29 24.57 24.77
11 20.55 20.74 25.10 25.42
11.5 20.89 21.20 25.58 26.05
12 21.22 21.68 26.02 26.67
12.5 21.56 22.14 26.43 27.24
13 21.91 22.58 26.84 27.76
13.5 22.27 22.98 27.25 28.20
14 22.62 23.34 27.63 28.57
14.5 22.96 23.66 27.98 28.87
15 23.29 23.94 28.30 29.11
15.5 23.60 24.17 28.60 29.29
16 23.90 24.37 28.88 29.43
16.5 24.19 24.54 29.14 29.56
17 24.46 24.70 29.41 29.69
17.5 24.73 24.85 29.70 29.84

 

Obesity (2005)Footnote 598

According to the WHO and Health Canada guidelines, the index for body weight classification is: less than 18.50 (underweight); 18.50 to 24.99 (normal weight); 25.00 to 29.99 (overweight); 30.00 to 34.99 (obese, class I); 35.00 to 39.99 (obese, class II); 40.00 or greater (obese, class III).

The index is calculated for the population aged 18 years and over, excluding pregnant females and persons less than 3 feet (0.914 metres) tall or greater than 6 feet 11 inches (2.108 metres).

Body mass index (BMI) is calculated by dividing the respondent's body weight (in kilograms) by their height (in metres) squared.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-04-27). CANSIM Table 105- 0407 Measured adult body mass index (BMI), by age group and sex, household population aged 18 and over excluding pregnant females, Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 3.1), Canada, every 2 years [Data File].

Overweight (2004)

See Obese

P

Parental depression (2004-2005)Footnote 14

Parents of children who have indicated on a survey that they feel depressed, withdrawn, tired, pessimistic about the future and despondent during the past week.

Data Source
Table 4.1: British Columbia. (2008). Indicators of Early Childhood Health & Well-Being in British Columbia.

Parental education (2007)Footnote 473

The proportion of households with children under the age of 12 with a minimum attainment of a high school education, as identified by parents or guardians, excluding those living in the territories, on reserve or in institutions.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2007 (C4.1 SHR), prepared by Statistics Canada].

People reporting food insecurity (2004)Footnote 236

A situation that exists when people lack secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Health Canada. (2007). Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004): Income-Related Household Food Security in Canada.
Appendix D: Health Canada. (2007). Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004): Income-Related Household Food Security in Canada.

Persons living in low income after tax (2006)Footnote 363

Describes how many Canadians live in families spending a share of their total post-income tax income on food, clothing and footwear, and shelter 20 percentage points higher than did average families of the same size in the same broad community size. Low income is based on the consumption patterns for 1992 and adjusted for family size, community sizes and inflation based on the national Consumer Price Index (see Table E.2).

Data Source Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008). Income in Canada, 2006; and Statistics Canada. (2009-06-03). Table 3 Percentage of persons in low income (1992 base after-tax income, low-income cutoff).

Table E.2 Low-income cut offs, Canada, 2006 Footnote 368
  Rural Areas Urban Areas
Size of family unit   Less than 30,000 population 30,000 to 99,999 population 100,000 to 499,999 population 500,000 and over population
1 person 11,492 13,152 14,671 14,857 17,568
2 persons 13,987 16,008 17,857 18,082 21,381
3 persons 17,417 19,932 22,236 22,516 26,624
4 persons 21,728 24,867 27,741 28,091 33,216
5 persons 24,742 28,317 31,590 31,987 37,823
6 persons 27,440 31,404 35,034 35,474 41,946
7 or more persons 30,138 34,491 38,477 38,962 46,070

 

Physical activity (7+ hours per week) (2004)Footnote 179

The amount of time spent doing physical activities that causes the child to be out of breath or to feel warmer than usual.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Shields, M. (2006). Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Reports, 17(3), 27-42.

Physical aggression score (2004-2005)Footnote 584

The proportion of children, as identified by parents or guardians, aged two to five years. who exhibit high levels of physical aggression, opposition and/or conduct disorder, excluding those living in the territories, on reserve or in institutions.

Data Source
Table 3.2: British Columbia. (2008). Indicators of Early Childhood Health & Well-Being in British Columbia.

Population (2006, 2008)Footnote 128 Footnote 599

The census enumerates the entire Canadian population, which consists of Canadian citizens (by birth and by naturalization), landed immigrants and non-permanent residents and their families living with them in Canada. Non-permanent residents are persons who hold a work or student permit, or who claim refugee status.

The census also counts Canadian citizens and landed immigrants who are temporarily outside the country on Census Day. This includes federal and provincial government employees working outside Canada, Canadian embassy staff posted to other countries, members of the Canadian Forces stationed abroad, all Canadian crew members of merchant vessels and their families.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2008-04-01). Age and Sex for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories and Forward Sortation Areas, 2006 Census - 100% Data [Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008). Quarterly Demographic Estimates, January to March 2008. Quarterly Demographic Estimates, 22(1), 1-99.

Post-secondary education (2008)Footnote 588

Persons who have completed a certificate (including a trade certificate), diploma or a minimum of a university bachelor's degree from an educational institution beyond the secondary level. This includes certificates from vocational schools, apprenticeship training, community colleges, Collège d'Enseignement Général et Professionnel (CEGEP), and schools of nursing.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2009-03-02). CANSIM Table 282-0004 - Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by educational attainment, sex and age group, annual [Data File].

Potential years of life lost Footnote 585

Potential years of life lost is the number of years of life lost when a person dies prematurely from any cause – before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Premature mortality due to malignant cancer (2001)Footnote 600

The number of years of life lost when a person dies prematurely, before age 75, from any malignant cancer, classified as International Classification of Disease codes C00-C97, such as cancers of the lymph nodes, blood, brain and urinary tract.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-05-11). CANSIM Table 102-0311 Potential years of life lost, by selected causes of death and sex, population aged 0 to 74, three-year average, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, occasional [Data File].

Premature mortality due to circulatory diseases (2001)Footnote 600

The number of years of life lost when a person dies prematurely, before age 75, from any circulatory disease, classified as International Classification of Disease codes I00-I99, such as ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases and pulmonary heart conditions.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-05-11). CANSIM Table 102-0311 Potential years of life lost, by selected causes of death and sex, population aged 0 to 74, three-year average, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, occasional [Data File].

Premature mortality due to HIV (2001)Footnote 600

The number of years of life lost when a person dies prematurely, before age 75, from HIV infection, classified as International Classification of Disease codes B20-B24.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-05-11). CANSIM Table 102-0311 Potential years of life lost, by selected causes of death and sex, population aged 0 to 74, three-year average, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, occasional [Data File].

Premature mortality due to respiratory diseases (2001)Footnote 600

The number of years of life lost when a person dies prematurely, before age 75, from any respiratory disease, classified as International Classification of Disease codes J00-J99, such as respiratory infections, influenza and pneumonia.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-05-11). CANSIM Table 102-0311 Potential years of life lost, by selected causes of death and sex, population aged 0 to 74, three-year average, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, occasional [Data File].

Premature mortality due to suicide and self-inflicted injuries (2004)Footnote 601

The number of years of life lost when a person dies prematurely, before age 75, due to suicide or self-inflicted injuries, classified as International Classification of Disease codes X60-X84 and Y87.0.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-07-09). CANSIM Table 102-0110 Potential years of life lost, by selected causes of death (ICD-10) and sex, population aged 0 to 74, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

Premature mortality due to unintentional injuries (2004)Footnote 601

The number of years of life lost when a person dies prematurely, before age 75, due to unintentional injuries, classified as International Classification of Disease codes V01-X59 and Y85-Y86.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-07-09). CANSIM Table 102-0110 Potential years of life lost, by selected causes of death (ICD-10) and sex, population aged 0 to 74, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

Pre-term birth rate (2006)Footnote 602

Pre-term birth rate is the number of live births before 37 weeks' gestational age per 100 live births in any given year.

Data Source
Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2008-09-26). CANSIM Table 102-4512 Live births, by weeks of gestation and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

R

Regular family physician (2007)Footnote 585

Population aged 12 and over who reported that they have a regular medical doctor. In 2003 and 2005, the indicator in French only included “médecin de famille”. Starting in 2007, this concept was widened to “médecin régulier”, which includes “médecin de famille”.

Note: Current definition differs from The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada, 2008 - Addressing Health Inequalities.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2007 (C4.1 SHR), prepared by Statistics Canada].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-06-16). CANSIM Table 105-0501 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) indicator profile, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, annual [Data File].

Respiratory diseases (2005)Footnote 603

Deaths associated with respiratory diseases, classified as International Classification of Disease codes J00-J99, such as respiratory infections, influenza and pneumonia.

Data Source Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006-10-25). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the CANSIM Table 051-0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), prepared by Statistics Canada]; and Statistics Canada. (2009-03-30). CANSIM Table 102-0530 Deaths, by cause, Chapter X: Diseases of the respiratory system (J00 to J99), age group and sex, Canada, annual [Data File].

S

Schizophrenia (2005)Footnote 199 Footnote 580

Respondents (aged 12+ years) reporting schizophrenia as diagnosed by a health professional. This is believed to underestimate the true prevalence since some people do not report that they have schizophrenia and the survey did not reach individuals who were homeless, in hospital or supervised residential settings.

Data Source
Appendix D: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, using the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2005 (Cycle 3.1) from Statistics Canada [Data File].

Screen time (less than 1 hour per day) (2004)Footnote 179

The amount of time spent watching television or videos, playing video games or using a computer.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Shields, M. (2006). Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Reports, 17(3), 27–42.

Some post-secondary education (2008)Footnote 588

Persons who worked toward, but did not complete, a degree, certificate (including a trade certificate) or diploma from an educational institution, including a university, beyond the secondary level. This includes vocational schools, apprenticeship training, community colleges, Collège d'Enseignement Général et Professionnel (CEGEP), and schools of nursing.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2009-03-02). CANSIM Table 282-0004 - Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by educational attainment, sex and age group, annual [Data File].

Smoking during last 3 months of pregnancy (2006-2007)Footnote 324

Female population who were pregnant within the past 5 to 14 months and indicated they smoked during the last three months of their pregnancy.

Data Source
Table 4.1: Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). Data Tables - The Maternity Experiences Survey (MES) 2006-2007.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) rate (2005)Footnote 604

SIDS refers to the sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant less than one year of age. SIDS rate is based on the number deaths as defined by the International Classification of Disease codes (R95) for the population under one year of age for the same year.

Data Source Table 3.2: Statistics Canada. (2007-04-26). CANSIM Table 102-0538 Deaths, by cause, Chapter XVIII: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, no elsewhere classified (R00 to R99), age group and sex, Canada, annual [Data File]; and Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006-10-25). [Analyses were performed using Health Canada's DAIS edition of anonymized microdata from the CANSIM Table 051-0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), prepared by Statistics Canada].

T

Teen pregnancy rate (2005)Footnote 605

Total number of pregnancies (including live births, induced abortions and fetal loss) for women aged 15 to 19 years.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-10-17). CANSIM Table 106-9002 Pregnancy outcomes, by age group, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

Total fertility rate (2006)Footnote 135

Total fertility rate is an estimate of the average number of live births a female can be expected to have in her lifetime, based on the age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) of a given year.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2008-09-25). CANSIM Table 102-4505 Live births, crude birth rate, age-specific and total fertility rates, Canada, provinces and territories, annual [Data File].

U

Unable to access acceptable housing (2006)Footnote 241

Refers to affordable dwellings (costing less than 30% of before-tax household income), adequate dwellings (those reported by their residents as not requiring any major repairs) and suitable dwellings (having enough bedrooms for the size and make-up of resident households according to National Occupancy Standard requirements).

Data Source
Table 4.1: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2009). 2006 Census Housing Series: Issue 3 - The Adequacy, Suitability, and Affordability of Canadian Housing, 1991-2006.

Appendix D: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2009). 2006 Census Housing Series: Issue 3 - The Adequacy, Suitability, and Affordability of Canadian Housing, 1991-2006.

Unemployment rate (2008)Footnote 588

The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2009-03-02). CANSIM Table 282-0004 - Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by educational attainment, sex and age group, annual [Data File].

Urban population (2006)Footnote 606

An urban area has a minimum population concentration of 1,000 persons and a population density of at least 400 persons per square kilometre, based on the current census population count.

Data Source
Table 3.1: Statistics Canada. (2009-02-17). 2006 Census Table - Persons 0-11 years old in private households in occupied private dwellings by age groups, by selected characteristics, for Canada, 2006 Census [Custom Data File].
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2007-11-24). Population and dwelling counts, for urban areas, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data [Data File].

V

Very or somewhat strong sense of community belonging (2007)Footnote 607

Population aged 12 years and over who reported their sense of belonging to their local community as being very strong or somewhat strong. Research shows a high correlation of sense of community belonging with physical and mental health.

Data Source
Appendix D: Statistics Canada. (2008-06-16). CANSIM Table 105- 0501 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) indicator profile, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, annual [Data File].

Violent crime incidents (2007)Footnote 608

Offences that deal with the application or threat of application, of force to a person including homicide, attempted murder, various forms of sexual and non-sexual assault, robbery and abduction, as well as traffic incidents that result in death or bodily harm.

Data Source
Appendix D: Dauvergne, M. (2008). Crime Statistics in Canada, 2007. Juristat, 28(7), 1–17.


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