Information for Canadians regarding reports of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM)

The Public Health Agency of Canada is aware of reports of increased cases of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) among children in the United States and is monitoring the situation. PHAC has enhanced its ongoing surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). This surveillance can also detect cases of AFM.

What is acute flaccid myelitis

Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a term used to describe the sudden onset of weakness in one or more limbs. The weakness is a result of inflammation (swelling) of the spinal cord which carries messages to and from the brain.

The condition can be caused by auto immune diseases or exposure to environmental toxins. It can also be caused by a number of different infections, including enteroviruses or West Nile virus. Sometimes the condition has no known cause.

The long-term effects of AFM can vary. Some individuals with AFM have recovered quickly while others will continue to experience muscle weakness and require ongoing care. Acute flaccid myelitis can affect persons of all ages, however, most of the cases observed since 2014 have occurred in children.

Acute flaccid myelitis is usually diagnosed after a doctor reviews the patient's current symptoms and their medical history. A doctor will use the findings from magnetic resonance imaging, and may order other laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis.

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if a child, or adult, experiences sudden onset muscle weakness. Other immediate life-threatening conditions, such as stroke, can cause similar symptoms. When in doubt, seek immediate medical attention.

Symptoms

Symptoms of acute flaccid myelitis usually include the sudden onset of weakness in the arms and/or legs or decreased or absent reflexes in the limbs. Occasionally symptoms are accompanied by facial weakness or drooping. Some patients report pain associated with the onset of symptoms.

Reduce your risk

Canadians are advised to reduce their risk by taking the same precautions they would during cold and flu season, including:

  • Frequent handwashing;
  • Coughing and sneezing into their arm, and not their hands;
  • Keeping common surface areas clean, such as countertops;
  • Avoiding touching their face with their hands; and
  • Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

Cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis detected in Canada between January 1, 2018 to present

AFM is a type of acute flaccid paralysis, or AFP. Canada monitors for cases of AFP as a part the World Health Organization surveillance efforts. On average, there are between 27-51 cases of AFP reported annually in Canada.

As of 11/13/2018

Cases Being Investigated Confirmed Cases Total cases
23 25 48
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