Healthy Canadians and Communities Fund: Glossary of terms
Evaluation: Is the systematic assessment of the design, implementation or results of an initiative for the purposes of learning or decision-making
Formative evaluation: Ensures that a program or program activity is feasible, appropriate, and acceptable before it is fully implemented. It is usually conducted when a new program or activity is being developed or when an existing one is being adapted or modified. For Design Phase projects, it is expected that formative evaluations will be used.
Quantitative design: A type of evaluation design which relies on examining quantitative data obtained from instruments such as closed-ended surveys. This design option observes and measures information numerically, and employs statistical procedures.
Qualitative design: A type of evaluation design used to capture the priority population's perceptions, opinions, and experiences about your program activities, and/or to better understand a programmatic aspect in more depth by telling how and what happened, and when and to whom.
Evidence: Research, contextual information and experience that helps to understand the need for an intervention in a priority population, the effectiveness of a particular intervention, or the difference in access to a particular solution. Evidence may refer to systematic reviews, peer-reviewed research, evaluations of pilot projects or policies, practice-based evidence, or culturally-informed ways of knowing such as lived experience of people, families and communities, and cultural and traditional knowledge. Interventions can take an evidence-based or evidence-informed approach.
Health behaviour change: Refers to a change in a specified health behaviour, including being more physically active, eating more fruit and vegetables, and/or quitting smoking.
Health equity: Refers to an absence of unjust, systemic, and avoidable inequalities in health status or the distribution of health resources among sub-populations defined socially, economically or geographically. A health equity approach seeks to reduce inequalities and to increase access to opportunities and conditions conducive to health for all. For more information, refer to the PHAC webpage on social determinants of health and health inequalities.
Health inequalities: Refers to differences in health status experienced by different groups in society. Frequently, health inequalities are the consequence of unequal access to key societal factors that influence health such as income, education, employment and social supports - referred to as the social determinants of health. For more information, refer to the PHAC webpage on social determinants of health and health inequalities.
Health outcome: Measurable long-term change in an individual or community health status in terms of health-related quality of life, physiological health or mental health and well-being that is attributable to an intervention and assessed using valid and reliable measurement tools.
In-kind contributions: Non-monetary contributions towards the project activities that are usually in the form of products or services that would normally need to be purchased or acquired for the project, but are being provided instead by other organizations or partners. In-kind contributions may include donated equipment, services or staff time/labour necessary for the proposed project. To be eligible as an in-kind contribution the contribution must be essential to the project's success and supported by a commitment/letter of support from the contributor. In-kind contributions will only be recognized when fair value can be reasonably estimated.
Intervention: A coordinated set of activities aimed at achieving positive, measurable changes in health behaviour ultimately leading to improved health outcomes. Interventions can focus on individuals and/or environments and could include program and/or policy actions that would result in changes to health behaviours.
Primary prevention intervention: A primary prevention intervention focuses on reducing the behavioral risk factors for chronic disease (i.e., physical inactivity and/or sedentary behaviour, unhealthy eating and tobacco use) to positively impact health
Knowledge mobilization: A dynamic and iterative process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and application of knowledge. This process involves interactions between researchers and knowledge users which can vary in intensity, complexity and level of engagement depending on the nature of the research, the findings and the needs of the particular knowledge user. Knowledge mobilization turns research into action by using evidence to inform decisions.
Priority populations: Groups in Canada that face health inequalities and are at greater risk of developing chronic disease. Priority populations are identified and targeted based on research and evidence that is regularly reviewed, compiled and verified by experts in the fields of health equity and chronic disease prevention.
Subgroups within a Priority Population: Groups within a priority population which can be identified by one or multiple characteristics - such as a demographic, social, economic, racial and/or geographic descriptors - in order to better understand the diversity within the priority population and tailor intervention activities, methods or approaches to decrease health inequalities and enhance access and maximize benefits for all participants.
Project phases: Refers to the phase of maturity of a project, acknowledging the importance of supporting projects at various stages.
Design: Gain insights into the experiences of a priority population and establish an understanding of the barriers and enablers for the desired health behaviour changes. Focus is on gaining an in depth understanding of the evidence, developing partnerships, building organizational capacity, meaningfully engaging and co-designing with the priority population and stakeholders, and ultimately designing an intervention that addresses the problem
Implement: Deliver and evaluate new or promising evidence-based or evidence-informed interventions that improve the health outcomes of participants. Focus is on learning as a result of testing new approaches, understanding if the intervention is achieving the desired impact, and generating meaningful data on what works, for whom, and in which context.
Scale: Optimize and adapt an effective, evidence-based intervention to new contexts, populations or communities/geographic locations, and achieve an increase in reach or outcomes. Focus is on replicating the previous success for improving health outcomes, and generating meaningful evidence on replicability and adapting interventions to new contexts without losing the components that make them impactful.
Pure research: An original investigation undertaken to gain new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding, but without specific applications.
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