HIV and hepatitis C care and treatment services: Survey report among Indigenous participants who inject drugs in Canada, 2017-2019: Infographic

Results from Indigenous participants in the Tracks survey of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Canada, Phase 4, 2017-2019

What is the Tracks survey of PWID?

  • A behavioural and biological surveillance system that monitors the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C as well as the associated risk behaviours among PWID in CanadaFootnote *
  • 42.2% of survey participants identified as Indigenous

Key results among Indigenous participants (n=997)

HIV prevalence

  • 15.4% were HIV-positive
  • HIV prevalence was higher among cisgender females (17.6%) than cisgender males (12.7%)

Awareness of HIV-positive status among HIV-positive participants

  • 78.2% aware of HIV-positive status
    • 76.9% among cisgender females
    • 81.7% among cisgender males
  • 21.8% not aware of HIV-positive status
    • 23.1% among cisgender females
    • 18.3% among cisgender males

HIV 90-90-90 targets among HIV-positive participants

  • 78.2% aware of HIV-positive status
  • 83.7% currently taking antiretroviral treatment
  • 64.4% self-reported undetectable HIV viral load

Avoidance of HIV services or treatment due to stigma and discrimination in the past 12 months, among participants who were aware of their HIV-positive status

  • 25.3% avoided HIV services
    • Higher among cisgender females (35.7%) than cisgender males (13.5%)
  • 21.7% avoided HIV treatment
    • Higher among cisgender females (30.2%) than cisgender males (13.5%)

Hepatitis C lifetime exposure: antibody positive

  • 65.8% were antibody positive for hepatitis C
  • Roughly the same proportion among cisgender females (65.2%) and cisgender males (65.9%)
  • 56.1% of those living in a First Nations, Inuit or Métis community were hepatitis C antibody positive

Current hepatitis C infection: ribonucleic acid (RNA) prevalence

  • 38.5% never infected with hepatitis C
    • 39.6% among cisgender females
    • 38.1% among cisgender males
  • 25.1% previously infected with hepatitis C
    • 29.9% among cisgender females
    • 20.8% among cisgender males
  • 36.4% currently infected with hepatitis C
    • 30.5% among cisgender females
    • 41.1% among cisgender males

Hepatitis C care and treatment indicators: among those aware of their current hepatitis C infection

  • 54.1% linked to hepatitis C care
  • 14.1% ever taken hepatitis C treatment
  • 5.8% currently taking hepatitis C treatment


This infographic was made through a collaboration between the Communities, Alliances And Networks (CAAN) and the Public Health Agency of Canada. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of survey participants, the sentinel site teams and the site principal investigators (who worked with regional and local health authorities, researchers and community organizations) and the National Microbiology Laboratory. We would also like to thank the Writing Team: Meghan Sullivan, Donna Bush, Christian Hui, Melissa Morris, Tami Starlight, Renée Mashing, Leigh Jonah, and Jill Tarasuk. Many thanks to Matthew Bonn and Nelson Hollinger for their review of the infographic.


Footnote *

Phase 4 of the Tracks survey of PWID was conducted between 2017 and 2019 in 14 sentinel sites across Canada. A total of 2383 PWID participated in this survey and of those 2360 answered the survey question about Indigenous Status. This infographic focuses on results from Indigenous participants (977 of 2360). A comparison is made for cisgender females and males; however due to low cell counts this was not possible for participants who identified their gender as transfeminine or transmasculine. For more information, look for our full length report in the Canada Communicable Disease Report titled: Findings among Indigenous participants of the Tracks survey of people who inject drugs in Canada, Phase 4, 2017–2019.

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