Chapter 4: Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032) – Central nervous system cancers - HPCDP: Volume 35, Supplement 1, Spring 2015

Chapter 4: Projections by Cancer Site

18. Central nervous system cancers

Cancers of the brain and nervous system are referred to collectively as central nervous system (CNS) cancers. During 2003–2007, the average annual number of CNS cancers was 1365 for males and 1055 for females in Canada, making up 1.7% and 1.4% of all new male and female cancer cases, respectively (Tables 4.18.1 and 4.18.2). One in 117 Canadian males and 1 in 150 females can expect to be diagnosed with CNS cancers in their lifetime, and 1 in 165 males and 1 in 220 females are likely to die from it.Endnote 1

TABLE 4.18.1
Observed (2003–2007) and projected average annual new cases by age and province/territories combined (TC), central nervous system cancers, males, Canada, 2003–2032
Period Age New cases
CA BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL TC

Abbreviations: AB, Alberta; BC, British Columbia; CA, Canada; MB, Manitoba; NB, New Brunswick; NL, Newfoundland and Labrador; NS, Nova Scotia; ON, Ontario; PE, Prince Edward Island; QC, Quebec; SK, Saskatchewan; TC, All Territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut).

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

2003–07 <45 350 40 40 10 10 140 90 5 10 0 5 0
45–54 225 30 25 5 5 85 65 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 290 30 20 10 10 105 80 10 10 0 10 0
65–74 280 30 20 5 5 115 75 5 10 0 5 0
75–84 180 25 15 5 5 70 50 5 5 0 0 0
85+ 40 5 5 0 0 15 15 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1365 165 120 35 40 525 375 35 40 5 25 0
2008–12 <45 355 35 40 10 10 140 95 5 10 0 5 0
45–54 245 30 25 5 5 90 65 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 335 35 30 10 10 125 95 10 15 0 5 0
65–74 305 35 25 10 10 115 90 10 10 0 5 0
75–84 205 25 15 5 5 80 65 5 5 0 0 0
85+ 55 5 5 0 0 20 20 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1495 175 140 40 40 565 420 35 45 10 25 0
2013–17 <45 360 35 45 10 10 140 100 5 10 0 5 0
45–54 235 30 30 5 5 90 55 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 375 40 35 10 10 140 105 10 15 0 5 0
65–74 365 45 30 10 10 135 110 10 15 0 10 0
75–84 225 30 15 5 5 85 70 5 5 0 0 0
85+ 65 10 5 0 0 25 25 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1630 190 160 40 45 615 460 40 50 10 30 0
2018–22 <45 375 35 45 10 10 150 100 10 10 0 5 0
45–54 210 25 25 5 5 80 55 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 405 50 45 10 10 155 105 5 15 0 10 0
65–74 425 45 40 10 10 160 125 10 15 0 10 0
75–84 260 35 20 5 5 95 80 5 10 0 5 0
85+ 80 10 5 0 0 30 30 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1760 205 175 45 50 665 495 35 55 10 30 0
2023–27 <45 385 40 45 10 10 155 105 10 10 0 5 0
45–54 200 25 25 5 5 75 50 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 390 45 45 10 10 155 95 5 15 0 10 0
65–74 480 55 50 10 15 180 135 5 15 5 5 0
75–84 320 40 25 10 10 115 100 5 10 0 5 0
85+ 90 10 5 0 0 30 30 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1870 215 195 45 50 720 515 35 60 10 30 0
2028–32 <45 390 40 45 10 10 160 110 10 10 0 5 0
45–54 205 25 25 5 5 85 50 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 355 40 40 10 10 145 85 5 15 0 10 0
65–74 525 65 60 10 15 200 140 5 20 5 10 0
75–84 380 45 35 10 10 140 115 5 15 0 5 0
85+ 110 15 10 5 5 35 40 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1965 225 210 50 55 765 535 30 65 10 30 0
TABLE 4.18.2
Observed (2003–2007) and projected average annual new cases by age and province/territories combined (TC), central nervous system cancers, females, Canada, 2003–2032
Period Age New cases
CA BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL TC

Abbreviations: AB, Alberta; BC, British Columbia; CA, Canada; MB, Manitoba; NB, New Brunswick; NL, Newfoundland and Labrador; NS, Nova Scotia; ON, Ontario; PE, Prince Edward Island; QC, Quebec; SK, Saskatchewan; TC, All Territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut).

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

2003–07 <45 270 30 25 10 10 110 65 5 5 0 5 0
45–54 145 15 15 5 5 60 40 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 190 20 15 5 5 75 55 5 5 0 5 0
65–74 195 20 15 5 5 75 60 5 5 0 0 0
75–84 190 25 10 5 5 75 55 5 5 0 0 0
85+ 60 5 5 5 0 20 20 5 0 0 0 0
Total 1055 120 85 30 30 415 295 30 30 5 15 0
2008–12 <45 280 30 30 10 10 115 70 5 10 0 5 0
45–54 160 15 15 5 5 65 45 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 225 25 20 5 5 80 60 5 10 0 5 0
65–74 210 25 15 5 5 75 70 5 5 0 5 0
75–84 190 20 10 5 5 75 60 5 5 0 0 0
85+ 70 10 5 0 0 25 20 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1135 130 95 35 35 435 325 30 35 5 15 0
2013–17 <45 290 30 30 10 10 115 80 5 10 0 5 0
45–54 150 15 15 5 5 60 40 5 5 0 5 0
55–64 255 30 25 10 10 95 70 5 5 0 5 0
65–74 250 30 20 5 10 85 80 10 10 0 5 0
75–84 190 25 10 5 5 70 60 5 5 0 0 0
85+ 85 10 5 0 5 30 30 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1225 140 105 35 35 465 355 35 35 5 15 0
2018–22 <45 305 35 30 10 10 125 80 5 10 0 5 0
45–54 145 15 15 5 5 60 35 5 5 0 0 0
55–64 275 30 25 10 10 105 75 5 5 0 5 0
65–74 295 35 30 10 10 100 85 10 10 0 5 0
75–84 205 25 15 5 5 75 65 10 5 0 0 0
85+ 85 10 5 0 5 30 30 5 0 0 0 0
Total 1310 150 115 35 40 495 375 35 40 5 15 0
2023–27 <45 315 35 30 10 10 130 85 5 10 0 5 0
45–54 145 15 15 5 5 60 40 5 5 0 0 0
55–64 260 30 20 10 10 100 70 5 5 0 5 0
65–74 335 35 35 10 10 115 100 10 10 0 5 0
75–84 245 30 15 5 5 90 75 10 10 0 5 0
85+ 90 10 5 0 5 30 35 5 0 0 0 0
Total 1395 160 125 40 45 525 395 40 40 5 20 0
2028–32 <45 320 35 30 10 10 130 85 5 10 0 5 0
45–54 155 15 15 5 5 65 40 5 5 0 0 0
55–64 250 25 25 5 5 100 60 5 5 0 5 0
65–74 355 40 35 10 10 130 105 15 10 0 5 0
75–84 290 40 25 5 10 100 85 10 10 0 5 0
85+ 100 15 5 0 5 35 35 5 0 0 0 0
Total 1470 170 135 40 45 560 410 45 40 5 20 0

CNS cancers have a bimodal age distribution, with one peak in the pediatric population and another, much larger, in people in their 70s. In 2003–2007, the agespecific incidence was higher during early childhood (0–4 years) than young adulthood, increased gradually to peak at age 75 to 79, and then decreased (Figure 4.18.1).

FIGURE 4.18.1
Age-specific incidence rates of central nervous system cancers, Canada, 2003–2007 (from average annual counts)

Age-specific incidence rates of central nervous system cancers, Canada, 2003–2007 (from average annual counts)

[Click to enlarge]

[FIGURE 4.18.1, Text Equivalent]

Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada - Volume 35 · Supplement 1 · Spring 2015

FIGURE 4.18.1
Age-specific incidence rates of central nervous system cancer, Canada, 2003-2007 (from average annual counts)

Central nervous system cancers have a bimodal age distribution, with one peak in the pediatric population and another, much larger, in people in their 70s. In 2003-2007, the age-specific incidence was higher during early childhood (0-4 years) than young adulthood, increased gradually to peak at age 75 to 79, and then decreased. Males and females had similar rates up to their late 30s, after which the rates were higher in males and the divergence increased consistently with age.

CNS cancer is the second most common childhood malignancy (after leukemia), representing 20% of all cancers diagnosed in 0 to 14 year olds.Endnote 254 CNS cancers are the most common cause of cancer death in children. In 2003–2007, nearly 60% of CNS cancers were diagnosed in people aged 55 and over (Tables 4.18.1 and 4.18.2). Males and females had similar rates up to their late 30s, after which the rates were higher in males and the divergence increased consistently with age (Figure 4.18.1). The 5-year relative survival rates for CNS cancers diagnosed between 2006 and 2008 were 23% for males and 28% for females.Endnote 1 Survival is significantly higher in children and younger adults.Endnote 36, Endnote 254

The overall incidence rates of CNS cancers in males have decreased consistently since 1988–1992, but to a very small degree, while the rates in females were relatively stable until 1998–2002 and then decreased slightly (Figure 4.18.2). During 1998–2007, ASIRs of CNS cancer were stable: decreased in males by 0.4% per year and by 0.8% in females (Figures 3.1 and 3.2). When the Atlantic region is excluded, an east–west gradient in ASIRs appears in both sexes starting from 1993–1997, with the highest rates in Quebec and the lowest rates in British Columbia (Figure 4.18.2). The ASIRs in the Atlantic region, which had been in the lower regional rates, approached the national level in the last observation period (2003–2007).

FIGURE 4.18.2
Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) by region, central nervous system cancers, 1983–2032

Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) by region, central nervous system cancers, 1983–2032

[Click to enlarge]

[FIGURE 4.18.2, Text Equivalent]

Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada - Volume 35 · Supplement 1 · Spring 2015

FIGURE 4.18.2
Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) by region, central nervous system cancer, 1983-2032

We based the central nervous system cancer projections on the trends in all the observation quinquennia. This produced downward trends in the predicted rates in males in Canada and its regions, decreasing by 4% in Quebec and 9% to 20% in the other regions from 2003-2007 to 2028-2032. For females, the rates are expected to be stable in Quebec and the Atlantic region, and to decrease by 8% to 13% in the other regions. For both males and females, Quebec and British Columbia will remain in their respective highest and lowest ranking in the regional rates.

We based the CNS cancer projections on the trends in all the observation quinquennia. This produced downward trends in the predicted rates in males in Canada and its regions, decreasing by 4% in Quebec and 9% to 20% in the other regions from 2003–2007 to 2028–2032 (Figure 4.18.2). For females, the rates are expected to be stable in Quebec and the Atlantic region, and to decrease by 8% to 13% in the other regions. For both males and females, Quebec and British Columbia will remain in their respective highest and lowest ranking in the regional rates. The overall age-specific ASIRs are expected to stabilize in the youngest age group and decrease in each of the other age groups (Figure 4.18.3).

FIGURE 4.18.3
Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) for central nervous system cancers by age group, Canada, 1983–2032 (red lines denote males, blue lines denote females)

 Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) for central nervous system cancers by age group (males, females), Canada, 1983–2032

[Click to enlarge]

[FIGURE 4.18.3, Text Equivalent]

Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada - Volume 35 · Supplement 1 · Spring 2015

FIGURE 4.18.3
Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) for central nervous system cancer by age group, Canada, 1983-2032

The ASIRs of central nervous system cancers are expected to stabilize in the youngest age group and decrease in each of the other age groups.

From 2003–2007 to 2028–2032, the ASIRs of CNS cancers are expected to decrease by 10% in males, from 7.9 to 7.1 per 100 000, and decrease by 8% in females, from 5.6 to 5.2 per 100 000 (Tables 4.18.3 and 4.18.4). Nevertheless, the aging and growth of the population means that the annual number of male cases is projected to rise by 44%, from 1365 to 1965, and the number of female cases, by 40%, from 1055 to 1470 (Tables 4.18.1 and 4.18.2).

TABLE 4.18.3
Observed (2003–2007) and projected age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) by age and province/territories combined (TC), central nervous system cancers, males, Canada, 2003–2032
Period Age ASIRs
CA BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL TC

Abbreviations: AB, Alberta; BC, British Columbia; CA, Canada; MB, Manitoba; NB, New Brunswick; NL, Newfoundland and Labrador; NS, Nova Scotia; ON, Ontario; PE, Prince Edward Island; QC, Quebec; SK, Saskatchewan; TC, All Territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut).

2003–07 <45 3.5 3.0 3.4 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.9 3.0 3.7 4.5 3.6 2.9
45–54 9.2 9.0 9.2 6.5 6.8 9.0 10.4 9.2 9.9 9.4 6.8 0.0
55–64 16.7 13.6 14.3 18.1 13.4 16.5 18.4 18.4 20.0 19.7 26.8 7.3
65–74 26.0 21.0 23.0 21.6 19.0 27.8 29.0 26.5 22.3 39.3 25.5 10.9
75–84 29.1 27.9 24.6 24.5 23.8 29.9 34.1 29.5 21.5 22.2 14.5 0.0
85+ 27.7 25.6 23.2 16.0 22.3 23.0 44.2 43.7 14.9 26.6 17.9 0.0
Total 7.9 6.9 7.3 6.7 6.4 8.0 9.0 7.9 7.8 9.6 8.0 3.4
2008–12 <45 3.6 2.9 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.6 4.2 3.2 3.8 4.3 3.6 1.6
45–54 9.0 9.0 9.5 8.0 7.3 8.5 9.7 7.2 9.2 10.9 14.1 3.9
55–64 16.1 12.4 14.4 13.9 14.1 16.6 18.2 17.3 20.0 19.5 19.1 7.1
65–74 24.6 21.2 23.1 21.5 18.3 24.3 28.2 29.3 25.1 29.8 28.1 10.8
75–84 29.8 26.7 23.6 24.5 20.4 29.1 37.6 33.2 27.7 36.1 22.3 13.1
85+ 26.0 21.7 21.1 25.3 18.0 22.4 41.6 29.8 16.1 31.5 11.3 11.4
Total 7.8 6.6 7.2 6.8 6.2 7.7 9.2 8.0 8.2 9.5 8.5 3.4
2013–17 <45 3.5 2.7 3.4 3.0 2.9 3.5 4.3 3.5 3.9 4.3 3.6 1.5
45–54 8.7 8.4 9.5 8.8 7.1 8.3 9.5 8.5 9.4 10.6 16.8 3.8
55–64 15.8 12.9 14.4 12.3 13.7 16.0 18.1 13.6 20.4 19.2 18.7 6.9
65–74 23.5 19.6 22.1 20.7 17.9 23.1 27.7 24.1 25.5 28.5 30.7 10.3
75–84 29.5 24.7 25.2 24.3 19.9 28.8 37.1 34.3 28.2 35.8 19.5 13.0
85+ 25.1 22.3 20.1 17.8 17.5 21.6 39.7 29.5 16.4 30.5 11.2 11.0
Total 7.7 6.3 7.2 6.6 6.0 7.5 9.2 7.7 8.4 9.3 8.8 3.4
2018–22 <45 3.5 2.6 3.3 3.0 2.8 3.5 4.3 3.8 3.9 4.2 3.6 1.5
45–54 8.5 7.4 8.8 8.7 6.9 8.0 9.8 10.5 9.6 10.3 19.0 3.7
55–64 15.6 13.8 15.6 12.7 13.4 15.4 17.3 8.3 20.6 18.9 22.7 6.8
65–74 22.6 17.1 22.1 18.3 17.5 22.7 27.3 21.0 25.8 27.4 22.8 9.9
75–84 28.2 24.7 26.0 25.4 19.5 26.9 35.2 28.1 28.5 34.2 20.2 12.4
85+ 25.2 21.3 17.8 20.3 17.2 22.0 39.6 30.1 16.6 30.5 11.4 11.1
Total 7.5 6.1 7.2 6.5 5.9 7.4 9.1 7.2 8.5 9.1 8.9 3.3
2023–27 <45 3.5 2.5 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.5 4.4 3.9 4.0 4.2 3.6 1.5
45–54 8.0 7.0 8.5 8.7 6.8 7.7 9.3 11.5 9.6 9.7 20.2 3.5
55–64 15.1 13.0 15.7 13.9 13.3 15.1 16.3 8.0 20.8 18.3 24.9 6.6
65–74 22.1 18.1 21.9 16.5 17.4 22.0 26.4 13.0 25.9 26.8 18.6 9.7
75–84 26.8 22.3 24.7 24.1 19.4 25.7 33.8 19.4 28.7 32.5 17.1 11.8
85+ 24.5 19.2 21.4 18.7 17.0 21.5 37.6 25.1 16.7 29.7 6.6 10.7
Total 7.3 5.8 7.1 6.4 5.8 7.2 8.8 6.5 8.5 8.8 8.7 3.2
2028–32 <45 3.5 2.5 3.2 3.0 2.7 3.4 4.5 4.1 4.0 4.2 3.6 1.5
45–54 7.6 6.1 7.8 8.7 6.8 8.1 8.1 12.7 9.7 9.3 21.5 3.4
55–64 14.6 11.6 14.5 13.9 13.2 14.6 16.6 8.9 20.9 17.7 27.3 6.4
65–74 21.7 18.9 23.7 17.3 17.2 21.3 24.9 7.6 26.1 26.3 20.5 9.5
75–84 25.8 19.8 24.7 21.6 19.2 25.4 33.0 15.3 28.8 31.3 10.6 11.3
85+ 23.0 20.5 20.0 21.2 16.9 19.4 35.0 16.8 16.8 27.9 7.9 10.1
Total 7.1 5.6 7.0 6.4 5.8 7.1 8.7 6.2 8.6 8.6 9.0 3.1
TABLE 4.18.4
Observed (2003–2007) and projected age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) by age and province/territories combined (TC), central nervous system cancers, females, Canada, 2003–2032
Period Age ASIRs
CA BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL TC

Abbreviations: AB, Alberta; BC, British Columbia; CA, Canada; MB, Manitoba; NB, New Brunswick; NL, Newfoundland and Labrador; NS, Nova Scotia; ON, Ontario; PE, Prince Edward Island; QC, Quebec; SK, Saskatchewan; TC, All Territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut).

2003–07 <45 2.8 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.9 3.1 3.3 2.6 2.9 2.4 1.4
45–54 5.8 4.3 5.5 4.9 5.3 6.4 6.2 4.6 4.8 2.0 8.3 2.8
55–64 10.8 9.2 9.0 11.5 8.9 11.1 11.9 11.8 10.2 15.1 12.0 7.1
65–74 16.5 13.8 15.1 14.9 15.7 16.0 19.9 16.3 15.5 18.6 9.3 0.0
75–84 22.1 19.9 15.6 20.0 14.7 22.3 26.3 24.6 22.4 29.8 17.7 0.0
85+ 17.9 12.9 15.3 16.6 12.5 17.7 23.1 31.4 19.2 10.7 0.0 0.0
Total 5.6 4.7 4.9 5.3 4.8 5.7 6.4 6.1 5.3 6.0 4.9 1.9
2008–12 <45 2.9 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.4 3.0 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.5 1.0
45–54 5.8 4.5 4.9 5.4 5.1 6.1 6.7 5.1 3.7 6.2 6.3 2.0
55–64 10.5 9.1 10.2 11.8 9.5 10.2 11.4 11.5 12.3 11.3 11.6 3.6
65–74 15.7 13.7 14.1 15.9 14.6 14.6 19.8 19.7 14.5 16.9 13.5 5.5
75–84 20.9 17.4 16.0 15.9 15.9 21.3 25.3 26.6 20.7 22.6 12.5 7.3
85+ 16.4 15.0 13.3 11.3 12.5 15.9 20.6 18.3 16.9 17.8 4.8 5.7
Total 5.5 4.7 4.8 5.4 4.7 5.5 6.5 6.3 5.6 6.0 4.8 1.9
2013–17 <45 2.9 2.4 2.4 2.9 2.4 2.9 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.2 2.4 1.0
45–54 5.7 4.6 4.7 5.3 5.0 5.9 6.6 5.1 4.8 6.1 6.1 2.0
55–64 10.5 8.4 10.7 11.7 9.4 10.2 12.0 11.7 9.2 11.4 11.2 3.7
65–74 14.7 12.8 13.8 15.8 14.4 13.6 18.2 20.2 15.5 15.9 13.0 5.1
75–84 19.8 18.1 15.0 15.7 15.8 19.1 24.8 27.2 21.6 21.4 12.1 6.9
85+ 17.0 12.9 13.2 11.1 12.3 15.9 25.3 18.7 11.6 18.4 4.6 5.9
Total 5.4 4.6 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 6.6 6.4 5.5 5.9 4.6 1.9
2018–22 <45 2.9 2.4 2.4 2.9 2.4 2.9 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.2 2.3 1.0
45–54 5.8 4.3 5.1 5.3 4.9 5.9 6.7 5.1 4.8 6.2 6.0 2.0
55–64 10.3 8.0 9.0 11.6 9.3 10.2 12.4 11.8 7.7 11.1 10.9 3.6
65–74 14.4 12.2 15.2 15.7 14.3 12.8 17.6 20.5 17.9 15.5 12.8 5.0
75–84 18.4 17.2 14.1 15.6 15.6 17.2 23.6 27.7 18.5 19.9 11.8 6.4
85+ 15.1 13.0 12.2 11.1 12.2 14.2 20.2 19.1 13.3 16.3 4.5 5.3
Total 5.3 4.4 4.6 5.3 4.6 5.2 6.6 6.4 5.4 5.8 4.5 1.9
2023–27 <45 2.9 2.4 2.3 2.9 2.4 3.0 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.2 2.3 1.0
45–54 5.6 3.7 4.9 5.3 4.9 5.7 7.0 5.1 4.8 6.1 5.9 2.0
55–64 10.0 8.1 8.6 11.6 9.3 9.7 11.9 11.9 9.4 10.9 10.8 3.5
65–74 14.4 11.2 15.4 15.6 14.2 13.0 17.9 20.7 13.0 15.5 12.6 5.0
75–84 17.3 16.1 13.7 15.5 15.6 16.3 21.3 27.9 20.4 18.7 11.7 6.0
85+ 14.7 13.6 11.2 11.0 12.2 12.7 21.7 19.2 13.1 15.8 4.4 5.1
Total 5.2 4.2 4.5 5.3 4.6 5.1 6.5 6.4 5.3 5.7 4.5 1.8
2028–32 <45 2.9 2.4 2.2 2.9 2.4 2.9 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.2 1.0
45–54 5.7 3.8 4.9 5.3 4.9 6.0 6.7 5.1 4.9 6.2 5.8 2.0
55–64 10.1 7.5 9.2 11.5 9.2 9.8 11.9 11.9 9.4 11.0 10.7 3.5
65–74 13.9 10.6 13.1 15.6 14.2 12.8 18.3 20.9 11.6 15.0 12.5 4.8
75–84 16.9 15.1 15.4 15.5 15.5 15.3 20.6 28.1 22.9 18.2 11.6 5.9
85+ 13.1 12.0 10.5 11.0 12.1 11.4 18.7 19.4 9.9 14.2 4.3 4.6
Total 5.2 4.1 4.4 5.3 4.6 5.0 6.5 6.5 5.3 5.6 4.4 1.8

Comments

Investigators have suggested that the increase in CNS cancer rates in people aged 75 or older in the observed periods until 1998–2002 was due to improved diagnostic techniques.Endnote 255 X-radiation and gamma-radiation are the only established risk factors for CNS cancers, according to IARC.Endnote 47 This conclusion was mainly based on studies of atomic bomb survivors and of patients with radiation diagnosis and treatment. IARC classifies radiofrequency non-ionizing radiation from telecommunications as a possible cause of CNS cancers, with limited evidence.Endnote 47, Endnote 86 Genetic and hereditary conditions are also linked to an increased risk. Having a parent with the disease confers a 1.7-fold increased risk, and having an affected sibling doubles the risk.Endnote 256

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