Chapter 2. Antimicrobial Resistance

Abattoir Surveillance

Key Findings

Beef Cattle

Escherichia Coli (n = 165)

One percent (1/165) of E. coli isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (Table 26). The previous occurrence of this resistance in CIPARS Abattoir surveillance was 1 isolate (less than 1%, 1/167) in 2004 (Figure 15).

Campylobacter (n = 152)

Recovery of Campylobacter isolates in beef continues to rise from 77% (108/141) in 2011 to 92% (152/166) in 2012 (Table 42).

Slight increase in resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed from 2011 (1%, 1/108) to 2012 (5%, 8/152) (Figure 16).

Resistance to tetracycline was significantly higher in 2012 (63%, 95/152) than in 2006 (45%, 37/82) (Figure 16).

Chickens

Salmonella (n = 126)

Recovery of Salmonella in chickens continued to decline to 18% (126/684) from a peak of 28% (234/851) in 2008 (Table 42). This is similar to levels from the first 3 years of the program (2003-2005).

The proportion of S. Enteritidis isolates decreased from 20% (28/140) in 2011 to 7% (7/104), although 22 isolates do not have serovar information in the 2012 data.

In 2012, resistance to ceftiofur (20%, 25/126) and ampicillin (24%, 30/126) was significantly lower than in 2011 (31%, 44/140; 36%, 51/140, respectively) (Figure 17). This difference was primarily driven by a decrease in ceftiofur (2012: 26%, 11/43; 2011: 57%, 33/58) and ampicillin resistance (2012: 28%, 12/43; 2011: 57% 33/58) in Kentucky isolates.

Resistance to ceftiofur was significantly higher (20%, 25/126) in 2012 than in 2006 (10%, 18/187) (Figure 17).

Resistance to streptomycin and tetracycline was significantly higher in 2012 (39%, 49/126, 40%, 51/126, respectively) than in 2003 (24%, 30/126, 19%, 24/126, respectively) (Figure 17).

Escherichia Coli (n = 173)

Two percent of E. coli isolates (3/173) were resistant to 6 to 7 classes of antimicrobials (Table 29). The previous occurrence of this multi-class resistance in CIPARS Abattoir Surveillance was 2 isolates (2/171) in 2009.

The apparent slow increase in resistance to nalidixic acid in 2011 (5%, 9/164) continued in 2012 (8%, 14/173) (Figure 18). One percent (1/173) of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (Table 29 and Table 37). This is the first time resistance to ciprofloxacin has been observed in E. coli isolates from abattoir chicken.

Other key findings were:

  • One percent (1/173) of isolates were resistant to azithromycin (Table 29 and Table 37).
  • The decrease in resistance to ceftiofur seen in 2011 (20%, 32/164) was maintained in 2012 (17%, 30/173) (Figure 18).
  • Resistance to tetracycline was significantly lower in 2012 (51%, 88/173) than in 2003 (69%, 106/153) (Figure 18).
  • Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly higher (15%, 26/173) in 2012 than in 2003 (8%, 12/153) (Figure 18).
Campylobacter (n = 155)

One percent (2/145) of C. jejuni isolates was resistant to 4 to 5 classes of antimicrobials (Table 30). Although this has been previously seen in C. coli from CIPARS Abattoir Surveillance, this is the first occurrence in C. jejuni. The number of C. coli isolates susceptible to all of the classes of antimicrobials tested decreased from 11 (out of 13) in 2011 to 3 (out of 10) in 2012.

Pigs

Salmonella (n = 157)

Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly higher in 2012 (6%, 9/157) than in 2003 (2%, 9/391) (Figure 20).

Escherichia Coli (n = 184)

Resistance to streptomycin and tetracycline was significantly higher in 2012 (40%, 73/184; 84%, 154/184, respectively) than in 2011 (30%, 57/190; 75%, 143/190, respectively) (Figure 21).

Campylobacter (n = 287)

No temporal analysis and temporal figure were presented in this report as 2012 is the first year where surveillance began. Recovery of Campylobacter in the first year of porcine sampling was 78% (289/370) (Table 42). Ninety-nine percent (286/287) of isolates were C. coli, less than 1% (1/287) were Campylobacter spp., and no C. jejuni were isolated. Other key findings were:

  • Approximately 45% of isolates were resistant to telithromycin (128/287) and clindamycin (126/287) (Table 33 and Table 41).
  • Fifty-three percent (151/287) of isolates were resistant to azithromycin and erythromycin (Table 33 and Table 41).
  • Ten percent of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (28/287) and nalidixic acid (29/287) (Table 33 and Table 41).

The high proportion (99%) of C. coli plays a role in the percentage of isolates resistant to these antimicrobials.

Multiclass Resistance

Table 26. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Escherichia coli from beef cattle
Animal species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathway inhibitors Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT AZM CHL CIP NAL TET
Beef cattle 165 113 32 19 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 17 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 45

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance in human medicine, respectively.

Table 27. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Campylobacter from beef cattle
Species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides Ketolides lactams Lincosamides Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN TEL CLI AZM ERY FLR CIP NAL TET
Campylobacter jejuni 111 (73.0) 47 58 6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6 64
Campylobacter coli 39 (25.7) 7 30 2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 32
Campylobacter spp. 2 (1.3) 2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2
Total 152 (100) 54 90 8 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10 96

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance in human medicine, respectively.
Campylobacter spp. include unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Table 28. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella from chickens
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathway inhibitors Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT AZM CHL CIP NAL TET
Kentucky 43 (41.3) 9 3 31 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.31 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.11 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.11 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.11 31
Heidelberg 26 (25) 18 7 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.7 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 1 1
Hadar 8 (7.7) 4 4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 4
Enteritidis 7 (6.7) 7
Schwarzengrund 4 (3.8) 4
Thompson 4 (3.8) 3 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 1
Less common serovars 12 (11.5) 7 2 2 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 1 4
Total 104 (100) 52 12 39 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.38 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.24 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.19 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.19 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.19 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.19 5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 2 40

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as "Less common serovars".
The total number of isolates was 126 but 22 isolates did not have serovar information.

Table 29. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Escherichia coli from chickens
Animal species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathway inhibitors Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT AZM CHL CIP NAL TET
Chickens 173 48 24 70 28 3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.23 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.87 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.68 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.33 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.32 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.33 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.30 70 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.26 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 9 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.14 88

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 30. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Campylobacter from chickens
Species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides Ketolides lactams Lincosamides Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN TEL CLI AZM ERY FLR CIP NAL TET
Campylobacter jejuni 145 (93.5) 71 58 14 2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8 70
Campylobacter coli 10 (6.5) 3 6 1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 6
Total 155 (100) 74 64 14 3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.11 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10 76

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance in human medicine, respectively.

Table 31. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella from pigs
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathway inhibitors Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT AZM CHL CIP NAL TET
Derby 36 (24.2) 5 9 22 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.21 22 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 3 26
Typhimurium var. 5- 18 (12.1) 1 6 11 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.14 17 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 10 13
Infantis 16 (10.7) 15 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1
Brandenburg 10 (6.7) 5 3 2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 3
London 10 (6.7) 9 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 1 1
Agona 8 (5.4) 5 2 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 1 3
Typhimurium 8 (5.4) 3 1 4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5 4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 3 5
Bovismorbificans 6 (4.0) 3 3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 3 3
Give 4 (2.7) 4
4,[5],12:i:- 4 (2.7) 1 1 2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 2 3
Muenchen 4 (2.7) 4
Ohio 4 (2.7) 3 1 1
Worthington 4 (2.7) 4
Putten 3 (2.0) 3
Less common serovars 14 (9.4) 7 3 4 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 7
Total 149 (100) 72 20 35 22 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.14 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.31 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3 52 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 17 65

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as "Less common serovars".
The total number of isolates was 157 but 8 isolates did not have serovar information.

Table 32. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Escherichia coli from pigs
Animal species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathway inhibitors Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT AZM CHL CIP NAL TET
Pigs 184 20 40 89 35 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.25 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.73 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.66 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3 72 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.25 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 34 154

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 33. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Campylobacter from pigs
Species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides Ketolides lactams Lincosamides Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN TEL CLI AZM ERY FLR CIP NAL TET
Campylobacter coli 286 (99.7) 44 69 81 92 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.128 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.126 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.151 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.151 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.28 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.28 216
Campylobacter spp. 1 (0.3) 1 1 1
Total 287 (100) 44 69 82 92 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.128 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.126 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.151 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.151 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.28 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.29 217

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance in human medicine, respectively.
Campylobacter spp. include unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Temporal Antimicrobial Resistance Summary

Figure 15. Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle

Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle
Figure 15. Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle
Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 153 167 122 150 188 176 119 77 139 165
Antimicrobial

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas).

Ampicillin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.3% 7% 2% 5% 3% 1% 2% 1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1%
Ceftiofur Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 3% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1%
Nalidixic acid Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1%
Streptomycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.14% 10% 8% 9% 12% 15% 18% 5% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.7% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.7%
Tetracycline Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.29% 25% 22% 30% 36% 38% 30% 14% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.28% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.27%
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Temporal variations in resistance of Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle
Figure 16. Temporal variations in resistance of Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle
Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 105a 73 128 86 37 108 152
Antimicrobial
aThis number of isolates includes isolates from the end of year 2005 (n = 23).

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas). The presence of blue areas indicates significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.

Azithromycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Ciprofloxacin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% 1% 2% 1% 3% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.5%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Telithromycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Tetracycline Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.46% 66% 66% 52% 51% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.57% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.63%
Temporal variations in resistance of Salmonella isolates from chickens
Figure 17. Temporal variations in resistance of Salmonella isolates from chickens
Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 126 142 199 187 206 234 230 142 140 126
Antimicrobial

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas). The presence of blue areas indicates significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given and antimicrobial.
Additional temporal analyses for ampicillin and ceftiofur were conducted for Salmonella isolates from Ontario and Québec. These two antimicrobials and years (2004 and 2006) were selected due to a change in ceftiofur use practices by Québec chicken hatcheries in early 2005 and in 2007 (start and end of the voluntary period of withdrawal). Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) observed between the current year results and additional reference year results are indicated by underlined numbers.

Ampicillin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.25% 27% 18% 16% 18% 16% 31% 37% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.36% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.24%
Ceftiofur Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.6% 22% 13% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) observed between the current year results and additional reference year results.10% 12% 12% 23% 32% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.31% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) observed between the current year results and additional reference year results.20%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.5% 1% 2% 2% 0% 0% 1% 1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Nalidixic acid Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Streptomycin Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.24% 12% 14% 35% 37% 40% 41% 30% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.44% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.39%
Tetracycline Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.19% 15% 21% 37% 44% 41% 37% 31% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.44% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.40%
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.2%
Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from chickens
Figure 18. Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from chickens
Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 153 131 220 167 180 170 171 119 164 173
Antimicrobial

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas). The presence of blue areas indicates significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given and antimicrobial.
Additional temporal analyses for ampicillin and ceftiofur were conducted for E. coli isolates from Ontario and Québec. These two antimicrobials and years (2004 and 2006) were selected due to a change in ceftiofur use practices by Québec chicken hatcheries in early 2005 and in 2007 (start and end of the voluntary period of withdrawal). Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) observed between the current year results and additional reference year results are indicated by underlined numbers.

Ampicillin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.41% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.43% 38% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.43% 39% 36% 43% 53% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.40% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.39%
Ceftiofur Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.17% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.25% 20% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.21% 26% 20% 29% 34% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.20% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.17%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.15% 11% 11% 8% 11% 8% 12% 10% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.13% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.13%
Nalidixic acid Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.4% 3% 5% 4% 2% 4% 5% 4% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.5% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.8%
Streptomycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.52% 53% 43% 34% 40% 44% 45% 50% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.50% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.50%
Tetracycline Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.69% 56% 58% 51% 57% 51% 44% 52% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.52% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.51%
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.8% 11% 9% 10% 4% 12% 9% 10% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.15% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.15%
Temporal variations in resistance of Campylobacter isolates from chickens
Figure 19. Temporal variations in resistance of Campylobacter isolates from chickens
Year 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 111 117 155
Antimicrobial

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas).

Azithromycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.6% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.4% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.6%
Ciprofloxacin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.4% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.9% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.7%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Telithromycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.4% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.2% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.5%
Tetracycline Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.47% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.39% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.49%
Temporal variations in resistance of Salmonella isolates from pigs
Figure 20. Temporal variations in resistance of Salmonella isolates from pigs
Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 391 269 212 145 105 151 147 182 165 157
Antimicrobial

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas). The presence of blue areas indicates significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given and antimicrobial.

Ampicillin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.18% 13% 13% 19% 29% 28% 20% 24% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.21% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.22%
Ceftiofur Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1% 0% 3% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.2%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.2% 2% 0% 1% 6% 1% 1% 2% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1%
Nalidixic acid Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Streptomycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.34% 26% 30% 30% 45% 44% 39% 37% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.38% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.36%
Tetracycline Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.45% 42% 44% 48% 55% 58% 46% 48% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.48% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.45%
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.2% 5% 2% 6% 6% 7% 3% 6% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.4% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.6%
Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from pigs
Figure 21. Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from pigs
Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 153 142 163 114 93 150 160 199 190 184
Antimicrobial

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas). The presence of blue areas indicates significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given and antimicrobial.

Ampicillin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.35% 30% 35% 35% 37% 33% 33% 37% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.37% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.36%
Ceftiofur Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 1% 2% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.2% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.2%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.3% 1% 1% 2% 0% 2% 2% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1%
Nalidixic acid Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Streptomycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.40% 39% 39% 26% 33% 35% 47% 36% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.30% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.40%
Tetracycline Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.82% 71% 75% 83% 75% 85% 77% 72% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.75% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.84%
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.14% 5% 10% 18% 12% 13% 12% 14% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.12% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.14%

Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations

More details on how to interpret the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) tables are provided in the CIPARS Annual Report 2012 – Chapter 1. Design and Methods.

Table 34. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle
  Antimicrobial n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 >256
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 165 4 4 0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.27.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.60.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.8 Table 34 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Table 34 - Footnote2
Ceftiofur 165 0.25 0.50 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.43.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.47.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6  Table 34 - Footnote1  Table 34 - Footnote2
Ceftriaxone 165 ≤ 0.25 ≤ 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.99.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6  Table 34 - Footnote1  Table 34 - Footnote2
Ciprofloxacin 165 ≤ 0.015 ≤ 0.015 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.98.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6  Table 34 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6  Table 34 - Footnote2
II Ampicillin 165 2 4 0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.53.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.28.5  Table 34 - Footnote1  Table 34 - Footnote2 0.6
Azithromycin 165 4 4 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.75.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.5  Table 34 - Footnote2
Cefoxitin 165 4 8 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.24.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.62.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.7 Table 34 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2  Table 34 - Footnote2
Gentamicin 165 1 1 1.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.74.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.1  Table 34 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.2
Kanamycin 165 ≤ 8 ≤ 8 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.97.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Table 34 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.8  Table 34 - Footnote2
Nalidixic acid 165 2 4 0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.75.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.15.2  Table 34 - Footnote2 0.6
Streptomycin 165 ≤ 32 ≤ 32 7.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.92.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.4.2 Table 34 - Footnote2 3.0
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 165 ≤ 0.12 ≤ 0.12 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.98.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6  Table 34 - Footnote2
III Chloramphenicol 165 8 8 0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.37.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.58.8 Table 34 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2  Table 34 - Footnote2 0.6
Sulfisoxazole 165 ≤ 16 > 256 10.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.73.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.14.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.8 10.3 Table 34 - Footnote2
Tetracycline 165 ≤ 4 > 32 27.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.66.1 Table 34 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.5.5 Table 34 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.4 19.4
IV

Table 35. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle
  Antimicrobial Species n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.016 0.032 0.064 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 >64
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Ciprofloxacin Campylobacter coli 39 0.125 0.25 5.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.66.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.28.2  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.6
Ciprofloxacin Campylobacter jejuni 111 0.125 0.25 5.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.31.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.47.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.7  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.9 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.8
Ciprofloxacin Campylobacter spp. 2 0.25 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Telithromycin Campylobacter coli 39 4 4 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.35.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.61.5 Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Telithromycin Campylobacter jejuni 111 1 2 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.34.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.43.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.21.6  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Telithromycin Campylobacter spp. 2 1 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
II Azithromycin Campylobacter coli 39 0.125 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.69.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30.8  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2 52.8
Azithromycin Campylobacter jejuni 111 0.064 0.064 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.41.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.51.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7.2  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Azithromycin Campylobacter spp. 2 0.25 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Clindamycin Campylobacter coli 39 0.5 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.51.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.43.6  Table 35 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.6  Table 35 - Footnote2
Clindamycin Campylobacter jejuni 111 0.25 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.32.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.59.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.6  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Clindamycin Campylobacter spp. 2 0.25 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Erythromycin Campylobacter coli 39 2 2 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.79.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7.7  Table 35 - Footnote2
Erythromycin Campylobacter jejuni 111 0.5 0.5 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.34.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.55.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.0  Table 35 - Footnote2
Erythromycin Campylobacter spp. 2 0.5 0.5 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 35 - Footnote2
Gentamicin Campylobacter coli 39 1 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.84.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.6 Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Gentamicin Campylobacter jejuni 111 1 2 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.76.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11.7 Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Gentamicin Campylobacter spp. 2 0.25 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2
Nalidixic acid  Campylobacter coli 39 16 16 5.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.38.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.56.4 Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2 5.4
Nalidixic acid  Campylobacter jejuni 111 ≤ 4 8 5.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.41.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.7 Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2 5.4
Nalidixic acid  Campylobacter spp. 2 64 64 100.0  Table 35 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.100.0 Table 35 - Footnote2
III Florfenicol Campylobacter coli 39 2 2 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.28.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.71.8  Table 35 - Footnote1
Florfenicol Campylobacter jejuni 111 1 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.84.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.9  Table 35 - Footnote1
Florfenicol Campylobacter spp. 2 0.5 0.5 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0  Table 35 - Footnote1
Tetracycline Campylobacter coli 39 > 64 > 64 82.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.9  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2 82.1
Tetracycline Campylobacter jejuni 111 32 > 64 57.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.22.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.6  Table 35 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.9 Table 35 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.7.2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.18.9 30.6
Tetracycline Campylobacter spp. 2 0.25 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 35 - Footnote1  Table 35 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.100.0
IV

Campylobacter spp. include unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Table 36. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Salmonella isolates from chickens
  Antimicrobial n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 >256
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 126 <=1 >32 19.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.75.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.4 Table 36 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.4 Table 36 - Footnote2 17.5
Ceftiofur 126 1 >8 19.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.31.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.46.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.6 Table 36 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.8 Table 36 - Footnote2 19.0
Ceftriaxone 126 <=0.25 16 19.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.80.2  Table 36 - Footnote1  Table 36 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.15.9 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.4.0
Ciprofloxacin 126 <=0.015 0.03 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.85.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.14.3  Table 36 - Footnote1  Table 36 - Footnote2
II Ampicillin 126 <=1 >32 23.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.72.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.0  Table 36 - Footnote1  Table 36 - Footnote2 23.8
Azithromycin 126 4 8 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.14.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.66.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.18.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.8  Table 36 - Footnote2
Cefoxitin 126 2 32 19.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.26.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.42.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.6 Table 36 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.8 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.17.5 Table 36 - Footnote2 1.6
Gentamicin 126 0.50 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.79.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.8   Table 36 - Footnote1  Table 36 - Footnote2
Kanamycin 126 <=8 <=8 0.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.99.2  Table 36 - Footnote1  Table 36 - Footnote2 0.8
Nalidixic acid 126 4 4 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.34.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.61.9  Table 36 - Footnote2
Streptomycin 126 <=32 >64 38.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.61.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.16.7 Table 36 - Footnote2 22.2
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 126 <=0.12 <=0.12 1.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.96.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.4  Table 36 - Footnote2 1.6
III Chloramphenicol 126 8 8 1.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.42.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.8 Table 36 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.8  Table 36 - Footnote2 1.6
Sulfisoxazole 126 32 64 6.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.65.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.19.0 6.3 Table 36 - Footnote2
Tetracycline 126 <=4 >32 40.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.57.9 Table 36 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.6  Table 36 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.6 38.9
IV

Table 37. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Escherichia coli isolates from chickens
  Antimicrobial n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 >256
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 173 4 32 19.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.37.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.21.4 Table 37 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.15.0 Table 37 - Footnote2 4.0
Ceftiofur 173 0.50 8 17.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.31.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.45.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 Table 37 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.12.7 Table 37 - Footnote2 4.6
Ceftriaxone 173 <=0.25 16 18.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.78.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Table 37 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2  Table 37 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.6.4 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.9.8 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.3
Ciprofloxacin 173 <=0.015 0.03 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.88.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.3  Table 37 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Table 37 - Footnote2
II Ampicillin 173 4 >32 39.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.34.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.19.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 Table 37 - Footnote1  Table 37 - Footnote2 39.3
Azithromycin 173 4 8 0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.71.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 0.6 Table 37 - Footnote2
Cefoxitin 173 4 >32 19.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.49.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.2 Table 37 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.6.9 Table 37 - Footnote2 12.1
Gentamicin 173 1 >16 13.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.15.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.61.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.1  Table 37 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.3 Table 37 - Footnote2 11.0
Kanamycin 173 <=8 >64 17.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.80.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Table 37 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.2 Table 37 - Footnote2 16.2
Nalidixic acid 173 2 4 8.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.14.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.62.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Table 37 - Footnote2 7.5
Streptomycin 173 64 >64 50.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.49.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.11.6 Table 37 - Footnote2 38.7
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 173 <=0.12 >4 15.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.74.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6  Table 37 - Footnote2 15.0
III Chloramphenicol 173 8 8 5.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.37.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.53.2 Table 37 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.9  Table 37 - Footnote2 5.2
Sulfisoxazole 173 32 >256 40.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.45.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 40.5 Table 37 - Footnote2
Tetracycline 173 >32 >32 50.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.49.1 Table 37 - Footnote1  Table 37 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 50.3
IV

Table 38. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Campylobacter isolates from chickens
  Antimicrobial Species n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.016 0.032 0.064 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 >64
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Ciprofloxacin Campylobacter coli 10 0.125 16 20.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.40.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.0  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.10.0 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.10.0
Ciprofloxacin Campylobacter jejuni 145 0.125 0.25 6.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.29.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.51.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.8 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3.4
Telithromycin Campylobacter coli 10 0.5 16 10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30.0  Table 38 - Footnote1 10.0 Table 38 - Footnote2
Telithromycin Campylobacter jejuni 145 1 2 4.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.37.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.37.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Table 38 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 4.1 Table 38 - Footnote2
II Azithromycin Campylobacter coli 10 0.064 >64 10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.40.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.0  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 10.0
Azithromycin Campylobacter jejuni 145 0.064 0.125 5.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.31.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.52.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.0  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 5.5
Clindamycin Campylobacter coli 10 0.25 8 10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.60.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0  Table 38 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.10.0 Table 38 - Footnote2
Clindamycin Campylobacter jejuni 145 0.125 0.25 3.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.49.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.36.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7  Table 38 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.4 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.8 Table 38 - Footnote2 0.7
Erythromycin Campylobacter coli 10 0.5 >64 10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.40.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.0  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 10.0
Erythromycin Campylobacter jejuni 145 0.5 1 5.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.43.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.40.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.3  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.7 4.8
Gentamicin Campylobacter coli 10 1 2 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.60.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0 Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2
Gentamicin Campylobacter jejuni 145 1 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.24.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.74.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2
Nalidixic acid  Campylobacter coli 10 8 >64 20.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.50.0  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 20.0
Nalidixic acid  Campylobacter jejuni 145 <=4 8 5.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.55.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.38.6  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 5.5
III Florfenicol Campylobacter coli 10 1 2 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.80.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0  Table 38 - Footnote1
Florfenicol Campylobacter jejuni 145 1 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.92.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.8  Table 38 - Footnote1
Tetracycline Campylobacter coli 10 >64 >64 60.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.0  Table 38 - Footnote1  Table 38 - Footnote2 60.0
Tetracycline Campylobacter jejuni 145 2 >64 48.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.25.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.1  Table 38 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.4 Table 38 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.8 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.19.3 24.8
IV

Table 39. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Salmonella isolates from pigs
  Antimicrobial n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 >256
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 157 <=1 16 1.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.75.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.4 Table 39 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.9 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Table 39 - Footnote2 1.3
Ceftiofur 157 1 1 1.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.79.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7.0 Table 39 - Footnote1  Table 39 - Footnote2 1.9
Ceftriaxone 157 <=0.25 <=0.25 1.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.98.1  Table 39 - Footnote1  Table 39 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6
Ciprofloxacin 157 <=0.015 0.03 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.80.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.5 Table 39 - Footnote1  Table 39 - Footnote2
II Ampicillin 157 <=1 >32 21.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.67.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.3  Table 39 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.9 Table 39 - Footnote2 19.7
Azithromycin 157 4 8 0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.56.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.29.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.5 0.6 Table 39 - Footnote2
Cefoxitin 157 4 4 1.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.39.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.44.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.1 Table 39 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6  Table 39 - Footnote2 1.9
Gentamicin 157 0.50 1 1.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.72.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.21.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Table 39 - Footnote1  Table 39 - Footnote2 1.3
Kanamycin 157 <=8 <=8 8.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.91.1  Table 39 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Table 39 - Footnote2 8.3
Nalidixic acid 157 4 4 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.25.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.68.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6  Table 39 - Footnote2
Streptomycin 157 <=32 >64 35.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.64.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.4.5 Table 39 - Footnote2 31.2
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 157 <=0.12 0.25 5.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.74.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.9  Table 39 - Footnote2 5.7
III Chloramphenicol 157 8 >32 12.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.14.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.63.1 Table 39 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.3  Table 39 - Footnote2 12.7
Sulfisoxazole 157 64 >256 36.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.29.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30.6 0.6 36.9 Table 39 - Footnote2
Tetracycline 157 <=4 >32 45.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.54.8 Table 39 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Table 39 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.4.5 40.1
IV

Table 40. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Escherichia coli isolates from pigs
  Antimicrobial n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 >256
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 184 4 8 1.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.16.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.45.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.29.9 Table 40 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.6 Table 40 - Footnote2
Ceftiofur 184 0.25 0.50 1.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.51.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.45.7  Table 40 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.6 Table 40 - Footnote2
Ceftriaxone 184 <=0.25 <=0.25 1.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.97.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.5  Table 40 - Footnote1  Table 40 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.5 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.1
Ciprofloxacin 184 <=0.015 <=0.015 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.97.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.2  Table 40 - Footnote1  Table 40 - Footnote2
II Ampicillin 184 4 >32 35.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.39.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Table 40 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.5  Table 40 - Footnote2 35.9
Azithromycin 184 4 8 0.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.65.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11.4 0.5 Table 40 - Footnote2
Cefoxitin 184 4 8 1.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.29.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.59.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.2 Table 40 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.5 Table 40 - Footnote2 1.1
Gentamicin 184 1 2 1.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.25.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.63.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.3  Table 40 - Footnote1 1.1
Kanamycin 184 <=8 >64 13.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.85.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.5 Table 40 - Footnote1  Table 40 - Footnote2 13.6 Table 40 - Footnote2
Nalidixic acid 184 2 4 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.78.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13.0  Table 40 - Footnote2
Streptomycin 184 <=32 >64 39.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.60.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.16.8 Table 40 - Footnote2 22.8
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 184 <=0.12 >4 13.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.75.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.5  Table 40 - Footnote2 13.6
III Chloramphenicol 184 8 32 18.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.27.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.47.3 Table 40 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.10.3 Table 40 - Footnote2 8.2
Sulfisoxazole 184 32 >256 39.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.47.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 39.1 Table 40 - Footnote2
Tetracycline 184 >32 >32 83.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.15.8 Table 40 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.5 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.1 Table 40 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.1 81.5
IV

Table 41. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Campylobacter isolates from pigs
  Antimicrobial Species n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.016 0.032 0.064 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 >64
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Ciprofloxacin Campylobacter coli 286 0.125 0.5 9.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.15.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.42.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.8  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.0 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.8.0 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.7
Ciprofloxacin Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Ciprofloxacin Campylobacter spp. 1 0.25 0.25 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Telithromycin Campylobacter coli 286 4 16 44.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.19.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.1 Table 41 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.5 44.8 Table 41 - Footnote2
Telithromycin Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Telithromycin Campylobacter spp. 1 1 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
II Azithromycin Campylobacter coli 286 >64 >64 52.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.16.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.24.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.2  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2 52.8
Azithromycin Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Azithromycin Campylobacter spp. 1 0.125 0.125 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Clindamycin Campylobacter coli 286 4 16 44.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7.0 Table 41 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.18.9 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.22.4 Table 41 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.15.4 6.3
Clindamycin Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Clindamycin Campylobacter spp. 1 0.5 0.5 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2  Table 41 - Footnote2
Erythromycin Campylobacter coli 286 64 >64 52.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.21.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.0  Table 41 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.4 Table 41 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.7 49.7
Erythromycin Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Erythromycin Campylobacter spp. 1 1 1 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1
Gentamicin Campylobacter coli 286 1 2 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.76.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.3 Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Gentamicin Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Gentamicin Campylobacter spp. 1 0.5 0.5 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Nalidixic acid  Campylobacter coli 286 8 32 9.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.70.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.0 Table 41 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.3 Table 41 - Footnote2 9.4
Nalidixic acid  Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Nalidixic acid  Campylobacter spp. 1 >64 >64 100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2 100.0
III Florfenicol Campylobacter coli 286 1 2 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.15.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.67.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.16.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3 Table 41 - Footnote1
Florfenicol Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1
Florfenicol Campylobacter spp. 1 0.5 0.5 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1
Tetracycline Campylobacter coli 286 64 >64 75.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.7 Table 41 - Footnote1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.7.7 Table 41 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.6.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.12.2 49.3
Tetracycline Campylobacter jejuni 0 0 0 0.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2
Tetracycline Campylobacter spp. 1 32 32 100.0  Table 41 - Footnote1  Table 41 - Footnote2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.100.0
IV

Campylobacter spp. include unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Recovery Results

Table 42. Abattoir surveillance recovery rates, 2003-2012
CIPARS Component/
Animal species
Year Percentage (%) of isolates recovered and number of isolates recovered / number of samples submitted
Escherichia coli Salmonella Campylobacter Enterococcus
aImplementation of a new Campylobacter recovery method in 2008 in abattoir beef cattle isolates.
bIn 2010, the number of samples received from abattoir beef cattle was much lower than anticipated due to a 55% drop in submissions related to unavoidable operational issues at 2 major participating abattoirs.
cDecreased prevalence in chickens and one non-compliant plant (lack of sampling) resulted in a shortfall of Salmonella isolates from chickens.
Beef cattle 2002 97% 76/78 1% 3/78
2003 97% 155/159 < 1% 1/114
2004 98% 167/170
2005 97% 122/126  66% 23/35
2006 100% 150/150 36% 31/87
2007 99% 188/190 39% 75/190
2008 97%Table 17 - Footnote b 176/182 71%Table 17 - Footnote a 129/182
2009 94% 119/126 68% 86/126
2010 97% 77/79 53%Table 17 - Footnote b 37/70
2011 99% 139/141 77% 108/141
2012 99% 165/166 92% 152/166
Chickens 2002 100% 40/40 13% 25/195
2003 97% 150/153 16% 126/803
2004 99% 130/131 16% 142/893
2005 99% 218/220 18% 200/1,103
2006 100% 166/166 23% 187/824
2007 99% 180/181 25% 204/808
2008 99% 170/171 28% 234/851
2009 100% 171/171 27% 230/851
2010 99% 119/120 24% 142/599 19% 111/599
2011 99% 164/166 20% 140/701 17% 117/696
2012 100% 173/173 18%Table 17 - Footnote c 126/684 23% 155/685
Pigs 2002 97% 38/39 27% 103/385
2003 98% 153/155 28% 395/1,393
2004 99% 142/143 38% 270/703
2005 99% 163/164 42% 212/486
2006 98% 115/117 40% 145/359
2007 98% 93/95 36% 105/296
2008 100% 150/150 44% 151/340
2009 98% 160/163 45% 147/327
2010 98% 199/203 44% 182/410
2011 99% 190/191 43% 165/382
2012 100% 184/184 42% 157/370 78% 289/370

Grey-shaded areas indicate either: a) isolates recovered from sampling activities outside the scope of CIPARS routine (or “core”) surveillance in the specified year (i.e. grey-shaded areas with data) or b) discontinuation or no surveillance activity (i.e. grey-shaded areas with no data).

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