Chapter 2. Antimicrobial Resistance

Farm Surveillance

Key Findings

Pigs

Salmonella (n = 93)

In 2012, the category I ß-lactams ceftriaxone (3%, 3/93) and ceftiofur (3%, 3/93) had resistance levels that were slightly lower than in 2011 [ceftriaxone (5%, 4/77) and ceftiofur (5%, 4/77)]. None of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or nalidixic acid (Table 43 and Table 45). Overall, there was a decrease in resistance to 4 or more antimicrobial classes (14%, 13/93) in 2012 compared to 2011 (29%, 22/77).
No significant temporal variations were detected in the percentages of Salmonella isolates with resistance to the selected antimicrobials between 2012 and 2011 or between 2012 and 2006 (Figure 22).

Escherichia Coli (n = 1,553) Footnote 9

In 2012, the category 1 ß-lactams amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (3%, 40/1,553), ceftriaxone (3%, 39/1,553), and ceftiofur (3%, 39/1,553) had resistance levels that were higher than in 2011 amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (1%, 18/1,667), ceftriaxone (1%, 17/1,667), and ceftiofur (1%, 15/1,667). When examined temporally, ceftiofur resistance was significantly higher in 2012 as compared to either 2006 (1%, 17/1,721), or 2011 (1%, 15/1,667) (Figure 23). Similarly, resistance to streptomycin was significantly higher in 2012 (44%, 679/1,553) than in 2006 (37%, 619/1,721), or in 2011 (33%, 548/1,667) (Figure 23). However, resistance to ampicillin was significantly lower in 2012 (31%, 480/1,553) than in 2006 (35%, 564/1,721) (Figure 23). None of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin but reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was detected in less than 1% (6/1,553) of isolates (Table 46).


Table 43. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella from pigs
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathway inhibitors Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT AZM CHL CIP NAL TET
Derby 23 (24.7) 10 12 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 13 1 22
Infantis 13 (14.0) 12 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1
Typhimurium var. 5- 12 (12.9) 8 2 2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8 2 2 6
London 6 (6.5) 6
Typhimurium var. Copenhagen 6 (6.5) 2 4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 4 4 6
California 5 (5.4) 3 2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2 5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 1 4
Livingstone 5 (5.4) 5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5 5 5
4,[5],12:i:- 4 (4.3) 1 1 2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 3 2 3
Typhimurium 3 (3.3) 1 1 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 3 1 2
Alachua 2 (2.2) 1 1 1 1
Bovismorbificans 2 (2.2) 2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2
4,12:i:- 2 (2.2) 2 2
Less common serovars 10 (10.8) 5 1 3 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1 4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 1 4
Total 93 (100) 24 26 30 13 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.39 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.22 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3 40 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 12 55

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as "Less common serovars".

Table 44. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Escherichia coli from pigs
Animal species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathway inhibitors Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT AZM CHL CIP NAL TET
Pigs 1,553 220 344 732 253 4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.165 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.679 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.480 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.40 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.39 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.40 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.39 630 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.180 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5 254 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4 1,192

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Temporal Antimicrobial Resistance Summary

Figure 22. Temporal variations in resistance of Salmonella isolates from pigs

Temporal variations in resistance of Salmonella isolates from pigs
Figure 22. Temporal variations in resistance of Salmonella isolates from pigs
Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 72 110 61 124 101 77 93
Antimicrobial

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas).

Ampicillin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.24% 35% 33% 30% 27% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.30% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.24%
Ceftiofur Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% 0% 0% 0% 2% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.6% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.2%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 2% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.3% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1%
Nalidixic acid Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Streptomycin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.38% 44% 40% 48% 32% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.32% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.44%
Tetracycline Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.57% 57% 60% 66% 47% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.50% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.62%
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.7% 9% 3% 12% 4% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.15% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.3%
Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from pigs
Figure 23. Temporal variations in resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from pigs
Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of isolates 1,721 1,575 1,425 2,057 1,673 1,667 1,553
Antimicrobial

For the temporal analyses, the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to a specific antimicrobial over the current year has been compared to the proportion (%) of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year (grey areas). The presence of blue areas indicates significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.

Ampicillin Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.35% 36% 34% 34% 30% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.31% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.31%
Ceftiofur Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.1% 1% 1% 0% 0% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.1% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.2%
Gentamicin Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% 1% 1% 1% 1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.1%
Nalidixic acid Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% 0% 0% 0% 1% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.0%
Streptomycin Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.37% 34% 35% 37% 33% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.33% Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for a given antimicrobial.44%
Tetracycline Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.79% 78% 80% 77% 75% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.77% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.77%
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.12% 10% 19% 12% 11% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.13% Percentage of isolates resistant to the same antimicrobial during the first and the previous surveillance year.12%

Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations

More details on how to interpret the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) tables are provided in the CIPARS Annual Report 2012 – Chapter 1. Design and Methods.

Table 45. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Salmonella from pigs
Antimicrobial n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 >256
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 93 1 8 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.69.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.7 Table 45 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.7  Table 45 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ceftiofur 93 1 1 3.2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.87.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.3 Table 45 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.3.2 Table 45 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ceftriaxone 93 ≤ 0.25 ≤ 0.25 3.2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.96.8  Table 45 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.2 Table 45 - Footnote 2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.1  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ciprofloxacin 93 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.75.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.23.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Table 45 - Footnote 1  Table 45 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
II Ampicillin 93 1 > 32 23.7  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.64.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1  Table 45 - Footnote 1  Table 45 - Footnote 2 23.7  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Azithromycin 93 4 8 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.9.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.68.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1  Table 45 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Cefoxitin 93 2 4 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.46.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.37.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.8 Table 45 - Footnote 1  Table 45 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Gentamicin 93 0.5 1 1.1  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.66.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.23.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.2 Table 45 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.1 Table 45 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Kanamycin 93 ≤ 8 > 64 12.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.86.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Table 45 - Footnote 1  Table 45 - Footnote 2 12.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Nalidixic acid 93 4 4 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.24.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.72.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.2  Table 45 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Streptomycin 93 ≤ 32 > 64 41.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.58.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.5.4 Table 45 - Footnote 2 36.6  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 93 ≤ 0.12 0.5 4.3  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.68.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.8.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1  Table 45 - Footnote 2 4.3  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
III Chloramphenicol 93 8 > 32 12.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.74.2 Table 45 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.2 Table 45 - Footnote 2 10.8  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Sulfisoxazole 93 64 > 256 43.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.19.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.30.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.2 43.0 Table 45 - Footnote 2
Tetracycline 93 > 32 > 32 59.1  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.40.9 Table 45 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.1 Table 45 - Footnote 2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.4.3 53.8  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
IV    

Table 46. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Escherichia coli from pigs
Antimicrobial n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 >256
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 1,553 4 8 2.6  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.26.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.41.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.26.5 Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.7 Table 46 - Footnote 2 0.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ceftiofur 1,553 0.25 0.5 2.5  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.3.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.53.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.39.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.8  Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.2 Table 46 - Footnote 2 1.4  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ceftriaxone 1,553 ≤ 0.25 ≤ 0.25 2.5  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.97.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3  Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.1 Table 46 - Footnote 2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.7 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ciprofloxacin 1,553 ≤ 0.015 ≤ 0.015 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.97.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.2 Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.1  Table 46 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
II Ampicillin 1,553 2 > 32 30.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.37.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.17.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.8 Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.0 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.1 Table 46 - Footnote 2 30.8  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Azithromycin 1,553 4 8 0.3  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.16.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.68.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.5 0.3 Table 46 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Cefoxitin 1,553 4 8 2.6  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.33.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.54.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7.5 Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.6 Table 46 - Footnote 2 1.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Gentamicin 1,553 1 1 0.8  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.29.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.62.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.6.2 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.2 Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.3 Table 46 - Footnote 2 0.5  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Kanamycin 1,553 ≤ 8 > 64 10.6  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.89.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3 Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.3 Table 46 - Footnote 2 10.4  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Nalidixic acid 1,553 2 4 0.3  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.12.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.73.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.13.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.1 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.0.1 Table 46 - Footnote 2 0.1  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Streptomycin 1,553 ≤ 32 > 64 43.7  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.56.3 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.18.4 Table 46 - Footnote 2 25.3  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 1,553 ≤ 0.12 > 4 11.6  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.75.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.10.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.1.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.1  Table 46 - Footnote 2 11.6  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
III Chloramphenicol 1,553 8 32 16.4  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.29.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.48.4 Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.4.0 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.9.1 Table 46 - Footnote 2 7.3  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Sulfisoxazole 1,553 16 > 256 40.6  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.51.8 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.7.5 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.1 40.6 Table 46 - Footnote 2
Tetracycline 1,553 > 32 > 32 76.8  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.23.2 Table 46 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.0.3 Table 46 - Footnote 2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.1.5 75.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
IV    
Table 47. Farm surveillance recovery rates, 2003-2012
CIPARS Component/
Animal species
Year Percentage (%) of isolates recovered and number of isolates recovered / number of samples submitted
Escherichia coli Salmonella Campylobacter Enterococcus
Pigs 2006 99% 459/462 20% 94/462  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity 81% 374/462
2007 100% 612/612 21% 136/612  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity 81% 495/612
2008 99% 481/486 13% 61/486  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity 92% 448/486
2009 99% 695/698 18% 124/698  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity 97% 680/698
2010 99% 566/569 18% 101/569  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity 96% 545/569
2011 100% 560/560 14% 77/560  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
2012 99% 519/520 18% 93/520  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity

Grey-shaded areas indicate either: a) isolates recovered from sampling activities outside the scope of CIPARS routine (or “core”) surveillance in the specified year (i.e. grey-shaded areas with data) or b) discontinuation or no surveillance activity (i.e. grey-shaded areas with no data).

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