Chapter 2. Antimicrobial Resistance

Surveillance of Feed and Feed Ingredients

Key Findings

Salmonella (n = 35)

One Salmonella Mishmarhaemek isolate was resistant to 3 antimicrobial classes. None of these antimicrobials were from Category I resistance. No information about source or intended use of feed product was available.

Multiclass Resistance

Feed and Feed Ingredients

Table 58. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella from feed and feed ingredients
Serovar Numbers (%)
of isolates
Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathway inhibitors Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT AZM CHL CIP NAL TET
Oranienburg 4 (12.5) 4
Schwarzengrund 4 (12.5) 4
Infantis 3 (9.4) 3
Amsterdam var. 15+ 34+ 2 (6.3) 2
Agona 1 (3.1) 1
Anatum 1 (3.1) 1
Hartford 1 (3.1) 1
Havana 1 (3.1) 1
Heidelberg 1 (3.1) 1
8,20:z10:- 1 (3.1) 1
Livingstone 1 (3.1) 1
Llandoff 1 (3.1) 1
Mbandaka 1 (3.1) 1
Mbandaka var. 14+ 1 (3.1) 1
Minnesota 1 (3.1) 1
Mishmarhaemek 1 (3.1) 1 1 1 1
Montevideo 1 (3.1) 1
Muenster 1 (3.1) 1
Putten 1 (3.1) 1
Rissen 1 (3.1) 1
Senftenberg 1 (3.1) 1
Tennessee 1 (3.1) 1
Worthington 1 (3.1) 1
Total 32 (100) 31 1 1 1 1

Antimicrobial abbreviations are defined in the Preamble.
Red, blue, and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
The total number of isolates was 35 but 3 isolates did not have serovar information.

Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations

More details on how to interpret the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) tables are provided in the CIPARS Annual Report 2012 – Chapter 1. Design and Methods.

Table 59. Distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations among Salmonella from feed and feed ingredients
Antimicrobial n Percentiles % R Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/mL)
MIC 50 MIC 90 ≤ 0.015 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 >256
1Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints
2Antimicrobial resistance breakpoints
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 35 <=1 <=1 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.97.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.9 Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ceftiofur 35 1 1 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.20.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.80.0  Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ceftriaxone 35 <=0.25 <=0.25 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Ciprofloxacin 35 <=0.015 <=0.015 0.0 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.91.4 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.9 Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
II Ampicillin 35 <=1 <=1 2.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.94.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.9  Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Azithromycin 35 4 8 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.62.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.34.3  Discontinuation or no surveillance activityTable 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Cefoxitin 35 4 4 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.2.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.34.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.62.9  Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Gentamicin 35 0.50 1 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.5.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.82.9 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.11.4  Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Kanamycin 35 <=8 <=8 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0  Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Nalidixic acid 35 4 4 2.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.37.1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.60.0 Table 59 - Footnote 2 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint.2.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Streptomycin 35 <=32 <=32 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 100.0  Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 35 <=0.12 <=0.12 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 100.0 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
III Chloramphenicol 35 8 8 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 8.6 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 85.7 Table 59 - Footnote 1 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 5.7  Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
Sulfisoxazole 35 64 64 2.9  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 5.7 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 34.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 54.3 Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint. 2.9 Percentage of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobial according to the predefined resistance breakpoint. 2.9Table 59 - Footnote 2
Tetracycline 35 <=4 <=4 0.0  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity Percentage of isolates that were susceptible to the antimicrobial according to the predefined susceptibility breakpoint.100.0 Table 59 - Footnote 1 Table 59 - Footnote 2  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity  Discontinuation or no surveillance activity
IV    
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