Glossary

Climate change mitigation
refers to efforts to reduce or prevent emission of greenhouse gases, or enhance carbon sinks. Mitigation can mean planting trees, using renewable energies, making older equipment more energy efficient, or changing management practices or consumer behavior. It can be as complex as a plan for a new city or as a simple as improvements to a cook stove design.
Climate change adaptation
means anticipating the adverse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimize the damage they can cause, or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise. Adaptation can include changes in behaviour, technology, institutions, policies, and other aspects of human systems.
Concessional finance
Loans that are extended on terms substantially more generous than market loans. The concessionality is achieved either through interest rates below those available on the market or by grace periods, or a combination of these.
Export Credit Agency
Institution that offers financing for domestic companies' international export operations and other activities. These institutions provide loans and insurance to companies to help eliminate the uncertainty of exporting to other countries.
Greenhouse gas (GHG)
Greenhouse gases refer to gases in the atmosphere that absorb heat radiated from earth. Together, greenhouse gases act like a blanket reducing heat loss, similar to the way the glass of a greenhouse warms the air inside the greenhouse. Concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have grown significantly since pre-industrial times largely because of the burning of fossil fuels and permanent forest loss. The rise in greenhouse gas concentrations is amplifying the natural greenhouse effect and warming the planet, affecting wind patterns, precipitation, and storm events. Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide is the main cause of human-induced climate change. It stays in the atmosphere for a very long time. Other greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide, stay in the atmosphere for a long time. Other substances only produce short-term effects.
Institutional investor
large organization, such as a bank, pension fund, labor union, or insurance company, that has considerable cash reserves with which to invest in securities and other investment assets.
Multilateral Development Banks
An institution created by two or more countries for the purpose of encouraging economic development. Unlike commercial banks, MDBs do not seek to maximize profits for their shareholders, but prioritize development goals such as ending extreme poverty and reducing economic inequality. MDBs have large membership including both developed donor countries and developing borrower countries. MDBs finance projects in the form of long-term loans at market rates, very long-term loans (also known as credits) below market rates, and through grants.
Philanthropist
individual who seeks to promote the welfare of others, especially by the generous donation of money to good causes.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (PDF – 82 kB) (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty developed to address the problem of climate change. It is where governments meet to discuss solutions to climate change. It entered into force on March 21, 1994.
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