Liste de références : Exemples de stigmates liés aux identités sociales et aux états de santé

Rapport de l'administratrice en chef de la santé publique sur l'état de la santé publique au Canada de 2019

Table des matières

Renseignements généraux

Cette liste de références soutient le Rapport de l’administratrice en chef de la santé publique sur l’état de la santé publique au Canada de 2019 : Lutte contre la stigmatisation – vers un système de santé plus inclusif (Rapport annuel de l’ACSP de 2019). Cette liste sera utile pour ceux qui souhaitent en apprendre plus sur les principaux stigmates liés aux identités sociales et aux états de santé dans le contexte du système de santé.

Les références sont directement liées au tableau 1 du Rapport annuel de l'ACSP 2019, qui présente les voies de la stigmatisation pour 7 stigmates différents. Ils sont classés selon le type de stigmate et la composante des voies (les moteurs de la stigmatisation, les pratiques stigmatisantes, les expériences de la stigmatisation et les résultats et répercussions) :

  1. stigmatisation vécue par les membres des Premières Nations, les Inuits et les Métis
  2. stigmatisation vécue par les Canadiens de race noire, d’origine africaine, et caribéenne 
  3. stigmatisation sexuelle et stigmatisation liée à l’identité de genre vécue par les personnes LGBTQ2+
  4. stigmatisation liée aux problèmes de santé mentale
  5. stigmatisation liée au VIH
  6. stigmatisation liée à l’utilisation de substances
  7. stigmatisation liée à l’obésité

Les références se veulent un point de départ pour ceux qui souhaitent étudier ces stigmatisations de façon plus poussée. Cette liste n’est pas exhaustive; elle ne comprend pas l’ensemble de la littérature pertinente pour chaque catégorie.

Méthode

Ces références ont été compilées à partir d’une revue rapide menée par le Bureau de l’administratrice en chef de la santé publique de l’Agence de la santé publique du Canada. Cette revue visait à :

  1. préciser la définition de la stigmatisation
  2. décrire les répercussions de la stigmatisation sur les résultats de santé
  3. déterminer l’efficacité des interventions visant à réduire la stigmatisation dans le système de santé et à améliorer les résultats de santé
  4. analyser le panorama des politiques pour lutter contre la stigmatisation au Canada

De concert avec la Bibliothèque de la santé de l’Agence de la santé publique du Canada, une stratégie de recherche de la littérature a été élaborée. Cette recherche a été menée en février 2019 au moyen des bases de données suivantes : Medline, Embase, ProQuest Public Health et Scopus. Seules des études publiées après le 1er janvier 2009, font partie de la sélection initiale. Les études qui se penchaient sur les concepts, les facteurs, les cadres et les modèles liés à la stigmatisation n’étaient toutefois pas exclues basées sur leur date de publication. Des filtres de recherche ont été appliqués afin d’identifier des articles axés sur la stigmatisation liée à des états de santé et à des identités sociales clés. Seules des études menées au Canada, au Royaume-Uni, en Australie, en Nouvelle-Zélande et aux États-Unis ont été incluses.

Cette recherche a permis de recueillir 3 500 articles, après élimination des doublons. Deux examinateurs indépendants ont effectué la présélection de 80 % des articles en fonction de leur titre et de leur résumé. Les données ont été réparties en 3 catégories principales :

  1. les concepts et les méthodes
  2. la recherche liée aux identités sociales et aux états de santé retenus
  3. la recherche sur les interventions visant à lutter contre la stigmatisation et les interventions en matière de santé

Les examinateurs ont évalué les articles afin de déterminer leur pertinence et leur qualité. En tout, 516 études ont été considérées pour un examen complet. D’autres recherches ciblées ont été menées après le mois de février 2019, y compris des recherches bibliographiques, un examen de la littérature grise et des recherches sur les origines. En août 2016, une dernière recherche a été menée afin d’identifier toute nouvelle publication dans ce domaine. On a accordé la priorité aux revues systématiques, aux revues narratives et aux revues critiques. Des études originales de grande qualité ont également été incluses. Les meilleures données probantes disponibles ont été mises en évidence.

Limites

Portée

Le Rapport annuel de l’ACSP de 2019 se limitait à la stigmatisation et au système de santé. Par conséquent, la revue rapide ne se concentrait pas sur la littérature abordant les facteurs plus généraux qui favorisent et alimentent la stigmatisation et la discrimination, y compris d’autres déterminants sociaux de la santé, tels que les mouvements politiques.   

Recherche de la littérature

Les recherches réalisées n’étaient pas exhaustives et n’ont peut-être pas saisi tous les documents pertinents. Seuls les documents publiés en anglais et en français ont été examinés, et il est possible que certains documents aient été exclus pour cette raison. L’examen détaillé de la qualité des études et du risque de biais n’a pas été fait dans cette analyse. Enfin, l’analyse portait principalement sur des articles publiés après le 1er janvier 2009.

Tableau 1. Racisme vécu par les membres des Premières nations, les Inuits et les Métis

  • Moteurs de la stigmatisation
    • Allan, B. & Smylie, J. First Peoples, Second Class Treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. (The Wellesley Institute, 2015).
    • Bombay, A., Matheson, K. A. & Anisman, H. Intergenerational Trauma: Convergence of Multiple Processes among First Nations peoples in Canada. Journal of Aboriginal Health 5, 6-47 (2009).
    • Hunt, S. An Introduction to the Health of Two-Spirit People: Historical, contemporary and emergent issues. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2016).
    • Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. Social Determinants of Inuit Health in Canada. (Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami,2014).
    • Loppie, S., Reading, C. & de Leeuw, S. Aboriginal Experiences with Racism and its Impacts. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2014).
    • Nelson, S. E. & Wilson, K. Understanding barriers to health care access through cultural safety and ethical space: Indigenous people’s experiences in Prince George, Canada. Soc. Sci. Med. 218, 21-27 (2018).
    • Reading, C. & Wien, F. Health Inequalities and Social Determinants of Aboriginal Peoples' Health. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2013).
    • Wilk, P., Maltby, A. & Cooke, M. Residential schools and the effects on Indigenous health and well-being in Canada—a scoping review. Public Health Reviews 38, (2017).
  • Pratiques stigmatisantes
    • Allan, B. & Smylie, J. First Peoples, Second Class Treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. (The Wellesley Institute, 2015).
    • Goodman, A. et al. “They treated me like crap and I know it was because I was Native”: The healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples living in Vancouver’s inner city. Social Sciences and Medicine 178, 87-94 (2017).
    • Hunt, S. An Introduction to the Health of Two-Spirit People: Historical, contemporary and emergent issues. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2016).
    • Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. Social Determinants of Inuit Health in Canada. (Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2014).
    • Loppie, S., Reading, C. & de Leeuw, S. Aboriginal Experiences with Racism and its Impacts. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2014).
    • Nelson, S. E. & Wilson, K. Understanding barriers to health care access through cultural safety and ethical space: Indigenous people’s experiences in Prince George, Canada. Soc. Sci. Med. 218, 21-27 (2018).
    • Reading, C. & Wien, F. Health Inequalities and Social Determinants of Aboriginal Peoples' Health. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2013).
  • Expériences de la stigmatisation
    • Allan, B. & Smylie, J. First Peoples, Second Class Treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. (The Wellesley Institute, 2015).
    • Goodman, A. et al. “They treated me like crap and I know it was because I was Native”: The healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples living in Vancouver’s inner city. Social Sciences and Medicine 178, 87-94 (2017).
    • Loppie, S., Reading, C. & de Leeuw, S. Aboriginal Experiences with Racism and its Impacts. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2014).
    • Nelson, S. E. & Wilson, K. Understanding barriers to health care access through cultural safety and ethical space: Indigenous peoples’ experiences in Prince George, Canada. Soc. Sci. Med. 218, 21-27 (2018).
    • Reading, C. & Wien, F. Health Inequalities and Social Determinants of Aboriginal Peoples' Health. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2013).
  • Résultats et répercussions
    • Allan, B. & Smylie, J. First Peoples, Second Class Treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. (The Wellesley Institute, 2015).
    • Bombay, A., Matheson, K. A. & Anisman, H. Intergenerational Trauma: Convergence of Multiple Processes among First Nations peoples in Canada. Journal of Aboriginal Health 5, 6-47 (2009).
    • Goodman, A. et al. “They treated me like crap and I know it was because I was Native”: The healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples living in Vancouver’s inner city. Social Sciences and Medicine 178, 87-94 (2017).
    • Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. Social Determinants of Inuit Health in Canada. (Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2014).
    • Loppie, S., Reading, C. & de Leeuw, S. Aboriginal Experiences with Racism and its Impacts. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2014).
    • Nelson, S. E. & Wilson, K. Understanding barriers to health care access through cultural safety and ethical space: Indigenous people’s experiences in Prince George, Canada. Soc. Sci. Med. 218, 21-27 (2018).
    • Paine, S., Harris, R., Cormack, D. & Stanley, J. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey. Sleep 39, 477-485 (2016).
    • Reading, C. & Wien, F. Health Inequalities and Social Determinants of Aboriginal Peoples' Health. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2013).
    • Shepherd, C., Li, J., Cooper, M., Hopkins, K. & Farrant, B. The impact of racial discrimination on the health of Australian Indigenous children aged 5–10 years: analysis of national longitudinal data. International Journal for Equity in Health 16, 1-12 (2017).
    • Wilk, P., Maltby, A. & Cooke, M. Residential schools and the effects on Indigenous health and well-being in Canada—a scoping review. Public Health Reviews 38, 1-23 (2017).

Tableau 2. Racisme vécu par les Canadiens de race noire, d'origine africaine, et caribéenne

  • Moteurs de la stigmatisation
    • Bailey, Z. D. et al. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet 389, 1453-1463 (2017).
    • Feagin, J. & Bennefield, Z. Systemic racism and U.S. health care. Soc. Sci. Med. 103, 7-14 (2014).
    • James, C. et al. Race & Well-being: The Lives, Hopes, and Activism of African Canadians (Brunswick Books, 2010).
    • Krieger, N. Discrimination and health inequities. Int. J. Health Serv. 44, 643-710 (2014).
    • Prather, C. et al. Racism, African American Women, and Their Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Historical and Contemporary Evidence and Implications for Health Equity. Health Equity 2, 249-259 (2018).
  • Pratiques stigmatisantes
    • Bailey, Z. D. et al. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet 389, 1453-1463 (2017).
    • Feagin, J. & Bennefield, Z. Systemic racism and U.S. health care. Soc. Sci. Med. 103, 7-14 (2014).
    • James, C. et al. Race & Well-being: The Lives, Hopes, and Activism of African Canadians (Brunswick Books, 2010).
    • Krieger, N. Discrimination and health inequities. Int. J. Health Serv. 44, 643-710 (2014).
    • Paradies, Y. et al. Racism as a Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 10, e0138511 (2015).
    • Prather, C. et al. Racism, African American Women, and Their Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Historical and Contemporary Evidence and Implications for Health Equity. Health Equity 2, 249-259 (2018).
    • Williams, D. R., Lawrence, J. A. & Davis, B. A. Racism and Health: Evidence and Needed Research. Annu. Rev. Public Health 40, 105-125 (2019).
  • Expériences de la stigmatisation
    • Bailey, Z. D. et al. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet 389, 1453-1463 (2017).
    • Bécares, L., Nazroo, J., & Kelly, Y. A longitudinal examination of maternal, family, and area-level experiences of racism on children’s socioemotional development: Patterns and possible explanations. Social Science and Medicine 142, 128-135 (2015).
    • Cozier, Y., Yu, J., Coogan, P. F., Bethea, T. N., Rosenberg, L. & Palmer, J. R. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women’s Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 179, 875-883 (2014).
    • Feagin, J. & Bennefield, Z. Systemic racism and U.S. health care. Soc. Sci. Med. 103, 7-14 (2014).
    • James, C. et al. Race & Well-being: The Lives, Hopes, and Activism of African Canadians (Brunswick Books, 2010).
    • Thorpe, R. J. Jr., Parker, L. J., Cobb, R. J., Dillard, F., & Bowie, J. Association between discrimination and obesity in African-American men. Biodemography Soc Biol. 63, 253-261 (2017).
    • Williams, D. R., Lawrence, J. A. & Davis, B. A. Racism and Health: Evidence and Needed Research. Annu. Rev. Public Health 40, 105-125 (2019).
  • Résultats et répercussions
    • Bailey, Z. D. et al. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet 389, 1453-1463 (2017).
    • Bécares, L., Nazroo, J., & Kelly, Y. A longitudinal examination of maternal, family, and area-level experiences of racism on children’s socioemotional development: Patterns and possible explanations. Social Science and Medicine 142, 128-135 (2015).
    • Cozier, Y., Yu, J., Coogan, P. F., Bethea, T. N., Rosenberg, L. & Palmer, J. R. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women’s Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 179, 875-883 (2014).
    • Feagin, J. & Bennefield, Z. Systemic racism and U.S. health care. Soc. Sci. Med. 103, 7-14 (2014).
    • James, C. et al. Race & Well-being: The Lives, Hopes, and Activism of African Canadians (Brunswick Books, 2010).
    • Lukachko, A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L. & Keyes, K. M. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States. Soc. Sci. Med. 103, 42-50 (2014).
    • Paradies, Y. et al. Racism as a Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 10, e0138511 (2015).
    • Prather, C. et al. Racism, African American Women, and Their Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Historical and Contemporary Evidence and Implications for Health Equity. Health Equity 2, 249-259 (2018).
    • Thorpe, R. J. Jr., Parker, L. J., Cobb, R. J., Dillard, F., & Bowie, J. Association between discrimination and obesity in African-American men. Biodemography Soc Biol. 63, 253-261 (2017).
    • Wallace, M., Crear-Perry, J., Richardson, L., Tarver, M. & Theall, K. Separate and unequal: Structural racism and infant mortality in the US. Health Place 45, 140–144 (2017).
    • Williams, D. R., Lawrence, J. A. & Davis, B. A. Racism and Health: Evidence and Needed Research. Annu. Rev. Public Health 40, 105-125 (2019).

Tableau 3. Stigmates tels que vécus par les personnes LGBTQ2+ (stigmatisation sexuelle et stigmatisation liée à l'identité de genre)

  • Moteurs de la stigmatisation
    • Alencar Albuquerque, G. et al. Access to health services by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons: systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights 16, 1-10 (2016).
    • Hunt, S. An Introduction to the Health of Two-Spirit People: Historical, contemporary and emergent issues. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2016).
    • Jaffee, K. D., Shires, D. A., & Stroumsa, D. Discrimination and delayed health care among transgender women and men. Medical Care 54, 1010-1016 (2016).
    • Logie, C. et al. “Automatic assumption of your gender, sexuality and sexual practices is also discrimination”: Exploring sexual healthcare experiences and recommendations among sexually and gender diverse persons in Arctic Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community 27, 1204-1213 (2019).
    • McCann, E. & Brown, M. Homelessness among youth who identify as LGBTQ+: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Nursing 28, 2061-2072 (2019).
    • Miller, L. & Grollman, E. The Social Costs of Gender Nonconformity for Transgender Adults: Implications for Discrimination and Health. Sociological Forum 30, 809-831 (2015).
    • White Hughto, J., Reisner, S. & Pachankis, J. Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Social Science & Medicine 147, 222-231 (2015).
    • Whitehead, J., Shaver, J. & Stephenson, R. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations. PLOS ONE 11, e0146139 (2016).
  • Pratiques stigmatisantes
    • Alencar Albuquerque, G. et al. Access to health services by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons: systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights 16, 1-10 (2016).
    • Casey, B. et al. The Health of LGBTQIA2 Communities in Canada: Report of the Standing Committee on Health. (House of Commons, 2019).
    • Doan Van, E., Mereish, E., Woulfe, J. & Katz-Wise, S. Perceived Discrimination, Coping Mechanisms, and Effects on Health in Bisexual and Other Non-Monosexual Adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior 48, 159-174 (2019).
    • Hunt, S. An Introduction to the Health of Two-Spirit People: Historical, contemporary and emergent issues. (National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, 2016).
    • Jaffee, K. D., Shires, D. A., & Stroumsa, D. Discrimination and delayed health care among transgender women and men. Medical Care 54, 1010-1016 (2016).
    • Lyons, T. et al. A qualitative study of transgender individuals’ experiences in residential addiction treatment settings: stigma and inclusivity. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 10, (2015).
    • Lyons, T. et al. Experiences of Trans Women and Two-Spirit Persons Accessing Women-Specific Health and Housing Services in a Downtown Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. LGBT Health 3, 373-378 (2016).
    • McCann, E. & Brown, M. Homelessness among youth who identify as LGBTQ+: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Nursing 28, 2061-2072 (2019).
    • Reisner, S. et al. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults. LGBT Health 2, 324-332 (2015).
    • Saewyc, E. et al. Hazards of stigma: the sexual and physical abuse of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents in the U.S. and Canada. Child Welfare 85, 195-213 (2006).
    • White Hughto, J., Reisner, S. & Pachankis, J. Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Social Science & Medicine 147, 222-231 (2015).
    • Whitehead, J., Shaver, J. & Stephenson, R. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations. PLOS ONE 11, e0146139 (2016).
    • Ylioja, T. & Craig, S. Exclusionary Health Policy: Responding to the Risk of Poor Health among Sexual Minority Youth in Canada. Social Work in Public Health 29, 81-86 (2014).
  • Expériences de la stigmatisation
    • Alencar Albuquerque, G. et al. Access to health services by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons: systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights 16, 1-10 (2016).
    • Casey, B. et al. The Health of LGBTQIA2 Communities in Canada: Report of the Standing Committee on Health. (House of Commons, 2019).
    • Colledge, L., Hickson, F., Reid, D. & Weatherburn, P. Poorer mental health in UK bisexual women than lesbians: evidence from the UK 2007 Stonewall Women's Health Survey. Journal of Public Health 37, 427-437 (2015).
    • Doan Van, E., Mereish, E., Woulfe, J. & Katz-Wise, S. Perceived Discrimination, Coping Mechanisms, and Effects on Health in Bisexual and Other Non-Monosexual Adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior 48, 159-174 (2019).
    • Jaffee, K. D., Shires, D. A., & Stroumsa, D. Discrimination and delayed health care among transgender women and men. Medical Care 54, 1010-1016 (2016).
    • Knight, K. W. et al. The kids are OK: it is discrimination, not same-sex parents, that harms children. MJA 207, (2017).
    • Logie, C. et al. “Automatic assumption of your gender, sexuality and sexual practices is also discrimination”: Exploring sexual healthcare experiences and recommendations among sexually and gender diverse persons in Arctic Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community 27, 1204-1213 (2019).  
    • Lyons, T. et al. A qualitative study of transgender individuals’ experiences in residential addiction treatment settings: stigma and inclusivity. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 10, (2015).
    • Lyons, T. et al. Experiences of Trans Women and Two-Spirit Persons Accessing Women-Specific Health and Housing Services in a Downtown Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. LGBT Health 3, 373-378 (2016).
    • Reisner, S. et al. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults. LGBT Health 2, 324-332 (2015).
    • White Hughto, J., Reisner, S. & Pachankis, J. Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Social Science & Medicine 147, 222-231 (2015).
  • Résultats et répercussions
    • Alencar Albuquerque, G. et al. Access to health services by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons: systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights 16, 1-10 (2016).
    • Casey, B. et al. The Health of LGBTQIA2 Communities in Canada: Report of the Standing Committee on Health. (House of Commons, 2019).
    • Colledge, L., Hickson, F., Reid, D. & Weatherburn, P. Poorer mental health in UK bisexual women than lesbians: evidence from the UK 2007 Stonewall Women's Health Survey. Journal of Public Health 37, 427-437 (2015).
    • Jaffee, K. D., Shires, D. A., & Stroumsa, D. Discrimination and delayed health care among transgender women and men. Medical Care 54, 1010-1016 (2016).
    • Logie, C. et al. “Automatic assumption of your gender, sexuality and sexual practices is also discrimination”: Exploring sexual healthcare experiences and recommendations among sexually and gender diverse persons in Arctic Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community 27, 1204-1213 (2019).  
    • McCann, E. & Brown, M. Homelessness among youth who identify as LGBTQ+: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Nursing 28, 2061-2072 (2019).
    • Miller, L. & Grollman, E. The Social Costs of Gender Nonconformity for Transgender Adults: Implications for Discrimination and Health. Sociological Forum 30, 809-831 (2015).
    • Reisner, S. et al. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults. LGBT Health 2, 324-332 (2015).
    • Scheim, A., Bauer, G. & Shokoohi, M. Drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: Disparities and associations with social exclusion. Addictive Behaviors 72, 151-158 (2017).
    • White Hughto, J., Reisner, S. & Pachankis, J. Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Social Science & Medicine 147, 222-231 (2015).
    • Whitehead, J., Shaver, J. & Stephenson, R. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations. PLOS ONE 11, e0146139 (2016).
    • Ylioja, T. & Craig, S. Exclusionary Health Policy: Responding to the Risk of Poor Health among Sexual Minority Youth in Canada. Social Work in Public Health 29, 81-86 (2014).

Tableau 4. Stigmatisation liée aux problèmes de santé mentale  

  • Moteurs de la stigmatisation
    • Abdullah, T. & Brown, T. L. Mental illness stigma and ethnocultural beliefs, values, and norms: an integrative review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31, 934-948 (2011).
    • Boksa, P., Joober, R. & Kirmayer, L. J. Mental wellness in Canada's Aboriginal communities: striving toward reconciliation. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN 40, 363-365 (2015).
    • Henderson, C. et al. Mental health-related stigma in health care and mental health-care settings. The Lancet Psychiatry 1, 467-482 (2014).
    • Kirmayer, L. J. & Valaskakis, G. G. Healing traditions: The mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. (UBC Press, 2009).
    • Knaak, S., Mantler, E. & Szeto, A. Mental illness-related stigma in healthcare: Barriers to access and care and evidence-based solutions. Healthcare management forum 30, 111-116 (2017).
    • Koschorke, M., Evans-Lacko, S., Sartorius, N. & Thornicroft, G. Stigma in different cultures. The stigma of mental illness — End of the story? 67-82 (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2017).
    • Larkings, J. S. & Brown, P. M. Do biogenetic causal beliefs reduce mental illness stigma in people with mental illness and in mental health professionals? A systematic review. International journal of mental health nursing 27, 928-941 (2018).
    • Leaune, E. et al. Ethnic minority position and migrant status as risk factors for psychotic symptoms in the general population: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Med. 49, 1-14 (2018).
    • Sharp, M. et al. Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems. Epidemiol. Rev. 37, 144-162 (2015).
    • Young, C., Hanson, C., Craig, J. C., Clapham, K. & Williamson, A. Psychosocial factors associated with the mental health of Indigenous children living in high income countries: a systematic review. International Journal for Equity in Health 16, 153 (2017).
  • Pratiques stigmatisantes
    • Coleman, S. J., Stevelink, S. A., Hatch, S. L., Denny, J. A. & Greenberg, N. Stigma-related barriers and facilitators to help seeking for mental health issues in the armed forces: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature. Psychol. Med. 47, 1-13 (2017).
    • Donnelly, L. R. et al. Stigma Experiences in Marginalized People Living With HIV Seeking Health Services and Resources in Canada. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 27, 768-783 (2016).
    • Haugen, P. T., McCrillis, A. M., Smid, G. E. & Nijdam, M. J. Mental health stigma and barriers to mental health care for first responders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Psychiatr. Res. 94, 218-229 (2017).
    • Jackson-Best, F. & Edwards, N. Stigma and intersectionality: a systematic review of systematic reviews across HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability. BMC Public Health 18, 919 (2018).
    • Kaushik A., Kostaki E., Fewings S., Thomas G. & Kyriakopoulos M. The stigma of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review. European Psychiatry, S130 (2016).
    • Pantelic, M., Sprague, L. & Stangl, A. L. It's not "all in your head": critical knowledge gaps on internalized HIV stigma and a call for integrating social and structural conceptualizations. BMC infectious diseases 19, 210 (2019).
    • Ross, A. M., Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F. & Reavley, N. J. A systematic review of the impact of media reports of severe mental illness on stigma and discrimination, and interventions that aim to mitigate any adverse impact. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 54, 11-31 (2019).
    • Young, C., Hanson, C., Craig, J. C., Clapham, K. & Williamson, A. Psychosocial factors associated with the mental health of Indigenous children living in high income countries: a systematic review. International Journal for Equity in Health 16, 153 (2017).
  • Expériences de la stigmatisation
    • Chambers, L. A. et al. Evidence informing the intersection of HIV, aging and health: A scoping review. AIDS and Behavior 18, 661-675 (2014).
    • Coleman, S. J., Stevelink, S. A., Hatch, S. L., Denny, J. A. & Greenberg, N. Stigma-related barriers and facilitators to help seeking for mental health issues in the armed forces: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature. Psychol. Med. 47, 1-13 (2017).
    • Donnelly, L. R. et al. Stigma Experiences in Marginalized People Living With HIV Seeking Health Services and Resources in Canada. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 27, 768-783 (2016).
    • Furlotte, C. & Schwartz, K. Mental Health Experiences of Older Adults Living with HIV: Uncertainty, Stigma, and Approaches to Resilience. Canadian Journal on Aging 36, 125-140 (2017).
    • Jackson-Best, F. & Edwards, N. Stigma and intersectionality: a systematic review of systematic reviews across HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability. BMC Public Health 18, 919 (2018).
    • Kaushik A., Kostaki E., Fewings S., Thomas G. & Kyriakopoulos M. The stigma of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review. European Psychiatry, S130 (2016).
    • Shi, Y. et al. Correlates of affiliate stigma among family caregivers of people with mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Psychiatr. Ment. Health Nurs. 26, 49-61 (2019).
  • Résultats et répercussions
    • Coleman, S. J., Stevelink, S. A., Hatch, S. L., Denny, J. A. & Greenberg, N. Stigma-related barriers and facilitators to help seeking for mental health issues in the armed forces: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature. Psychol. Med. 47, 1-13 (2017).
    • Donnelly, L. R. et al. Stigma Experiences in Marginalized People Living With HIV Seeking Health Services and Resources in Canada. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 27, 768-783 (2016).
    • Evans-Lacko S. et al. How much does mental health discrimination cost: Valuing experienced discrimination in relation to healthcare care costs and community participation. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 24, 423-434 (2014).
    • Jackson-Best, F. & Edwards, N. Stigma and intersectionality: a systematic review of systematic reviews across HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability. BMC Public Health 18, 919 (2018).
    • Kaushik A., Kostaki E., Fewings S., Thomas G. & Kyriakopoulos M. The stigma of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review. European Psychiatry, S130 (2016).
    • Leaune, E. et al. Ethnic minority position and migrant status as risk factors for psychotic symptoms in the general population: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Med. 49, 545-559 (2018).
    • Ross, A. M., Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F. & Reavley, N. J. A systematic review of the impact of media reports of severe mental illness on stigma and discrimination, and interventions that aim to mitigate any adverse impact. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 54, 11-31 (2019).
    • Schnyder, N., Panczak, R., Groth, N. & Schultze-Lutter, F. Association between mental health-related stigma and active help-seeking: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 210, 261-268 (2017).
    • Shi, Y. et al. Correlates of affiliate stigma among family caregivers of people with mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Psychiatr. Ment. Health Nurs. 26, 49-61 (2019).

Tableau 5. Stigmatisation liée au VIH

  • Moteurs de la stigmatisation
    • Auerbach, J. D., Parkhurst, J. O. & Cáceres, C. F. Addressing social drivers of HIV/AIDS for the long-term response: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Global Public Health 6, S293-S309 (2011).
    • Chambers, L. A. et al. Stigma, HIV and health: a qualitative synthesis. BMC Public Health 15, 848 (2015).
    • Jackson-Best, F. & Edwards, N. Stigma and intersectionality: a systematic review of systematic reviews across HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability. BMC Public Health 18, 919 (2018).
    • Jaworsky, D. et al. Geographic differences in the experiences of HIV-related stigma for women living with HIV in northern and rural communities of Ontario, Canada. Rural & Remote Health 18, 4522 (2018).
    • Logie, C. H., Jenkinson, J. I. R., Earnshaw, V., Tharao, W. & Loutfy, M. R. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. PLoS ONE 11, e0162826 (2016).
    • Mahajan, A. P. et al. Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward. AIDS 22, S67-S79 (2008).
    • Mason, S. & Sultzman, V. O. Stigma as experienced by children of HIV-positive parents: a narrative review. AIDS Care 31, 1049-1060 (2019).
    • Monteiro, S. S., Villela, W. V. & Soares, P. S. The interaction between axes of inequality in studies on discrimination, stigma and HIV/AIDS: contributions to the recent international literature. Global public health 8, 519-533 (2013).
    • Pantelic, M., Sprague, L. & Stangl, A. L. It's not "all in your head": critical knowledge gaps on internalized HIV stigma and a call for integrating social and structural conceptualizations. BMC infectious diseases 19, 210 (2019).
  • Pratiques stigmatisantes
    • Alexandra Marshall, S., Brewington, K. M., Kathryn Allison, M., Haynes, T. F. & Zaller, N. D. Measuring HIV-related stigma among healthcare providers: a systematic review. AIDS Care 29, 1337-1345 (2017).
    • Baugher, A. R. et al. Discrimination in healthcare settings among adults with recent HIV diagnoses. AIDS Care 31, 1-6 (2018).
    • Forni J., Nicholson S. & Ford-Young W. HIV stigma and discrimination in primary care. HIV Medicine 17, 4 (2016).
    • Geter, A., Herron, A. R. & Sutton, M. Y. HIV-Related Stigma by Healthcare Providers in the United States: A Systematic Review. AIDS Patient Care & Stds 32, 418-424 (2018).
    • Jackson-Best, F. & Edwards, N. Stigma and intersectionality: a systematic review of systematic reviews across HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability. BMC Public Health 18, 919 (2018).
    • Katz, I. T. et al. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis. Journal of the International AIDS Society 16, 18640 (2013).
    • Mason, S. & Sultzman, V. O. Stigma as experienced by children of HIV-positive parents: a narrative review. AIDS Care 31, 1049-1060 (2019).
    • Rueda, S. et al. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses. BMJ Open 6, e011453 (2016).
    • Saewyc, E., Clark, T., Barney, L., Brunanski, D. & Homma, Y. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Pimatisiwin 11, 411-420 (2014).
  • Expériences de la stigmatisation
    • Baugher, A. R. et al. Discrimination in healthcare settings among adults with recent HIV diagnoses. AIDS Care 31, 1-6 (2018).
    • Chambers, L. A. et al. Evidence informing the intersection of HIV, aging and health: A scoping review. AIDS and Behavior 18, 661-675 (2014).
    • Forni J., Nicholson S. & Ford-Young W. HIV stigma and discrimination in primary care. HIV Medicine 17, 4 (2016).
    • Geter, A., Herron, A. R. & Sutton, M. Y. HIV-Related Stigma by Healthcare Providers in the United States: A Systematic Review. AIDS Patient Care & Stds 32, 418-424 (2018).
    • Jackson-Best, F. & Edwards, N. Stigma and intersectionality: a systematic review of systematic reviews across HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability. BMC Public Health 18, 919 (2018).
    • Katz, I. T. et al. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis. Journal of the International AIDS Society 16, 18640 (2013).
    • Mason, S. & Sultzman, V. O. Stigma as experienced by children of HIV-positive parents: a narrative review. AIDS Care 31, 1-12 (2019).
    • Rueda, S. et al. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses. BMJ Open 6, e011453 (2016).
    • Saewyc, E., Clark, T., Barney, L., Brunanski, D. & Homma, Y. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Pimatisiwin 11, 411-420 (2014).
  • Résultats et répercussions
    • Forni J., Nicholson S. & Ford-Young W. HIV stigma and discrimination in primary care. HIV Medicine 17, 4 (2016).
    • Furlotte, C. & Schwartz, K. Mental Health Experiences of Older Adults Living with HIV: Uncertainty, Stigma, and Approaches to Resilience. Canadian Journal on Aging 36, 125-140 (2017).
    • Geter, A., Herron, A. R. & Sutton, M. Y. HIV-Related Stigma by Healthcare Providers in the United States: A Systematic Review. AIDS Patient Care & Stds 32, 418-424 (2018).
    • Jackson-Best, F. & Edwards, N. Stigma and intersectionality: a systematic review of systematic reviews across HIV/AIDS, mental illness, and physical disability. BMC Public Health 18, 919 (2018).
    • Katz, I. T. et al. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis. Journal of the International AIDS Society 16, 18640 (2013).
    • Mason, S. & Sultzman, V. O. Stigma as experienced by children of HIV-positive parents: a narrative review. AIDS Care 31, 1-12 (2019).
    • Patterson, S. E. et al. The impact of criminalization of HIV non-disclosure on the healthcare engagement of women living with HIV in Canada: a comprehensive review of the evidence. Journal of the International AIDS Society 18, 20572 (2015).
    • Rueda, S. et al. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses. BMJ Open 6, e011453 (2016).
    • Stockton, M. A., Giger, K. & Nyblade, L. A scoping review of the role of HIV-related stigma and discrimination in noncommunicable disease care. PloS one 13, e0199602 (2018).

Tableau 6. Stigmatisation liée à l’utilisation de substances

  • Moteurs de la stigmatisation
    • Corrigan, P. W. & Nieweglowski, K. Stigma and the public health agenda for the opioid crisis in America. International Journal of Drug Policy 59, 44-49 (2018).
    • Kennedy-Hendricks, A. et al. Social Stigma toward Persons With Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: Associations With Public Support for Punitive and Public Health-Oriented Policies. Psychiatric Services 68, 462-469 (2017).
    • Kulesza, M., Larimer, M. E. & Rao, D. Substance Use Related Stigma: What we Know and the Way Forward. Journal of addictive behaviors, therapy & rehabilitation 2 (2013).
    • Reisner, S. L. et al. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults. Lgbt Health 2, 324-332 (2015).
    • Scheim, A. I., Bauer, G. R. & Shokoohi, M. Drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: Disparities and associations with social exclusion. Addict. Behav. 72, 151-158 (2017).
    • Yang, L. H., Wong, L. Y., Grivel, M. M. & Hasin, D. S. Stigma and substance use disorders: an international phenomenon. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 30, 378-388 (2017).
  • Pratiques stigmatisantes
    • Cooper, S. & Nielsen, S. Stigma and Social Support in Pharmaceutical Opioid Treatment Populations: a Scoping Review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 15, 452-469 (2017).
    • Kelly J.F., Saitz R. & Wakeman S. Language, Substance Use Disorders, and Policy: The Need to Reach Consensus on an "addiction-ary". Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 34, 116-123 (2016).
    • Kennedy-Hendricks, A. et al. Social Stigma toward Persons With Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: Associations With Public Support for Punitive and Public Health-Oriented Policies. Psychiatric Services 68, 462-469 (2017).
    • van Boekel, L. C., Brouwers, E. P., van Weeghel, J. & Garretsen, H. F. Stigma among health professionals towards patients with substance use disorders and its consequences for healthcare delivery: Systematic review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 131, 23-35 (2013).
    • Vayr, F., Herin, F., Jullian, B., Soulat, J. M. & Franchitto, N. Barriers to seeking help for physicians with substance use disorder: A review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 199, 116-121 (2019).
  • Expériences de la stigmatisation
    • Cooper, S. & Nielsen, S. Stigma and Social Support in Pharmaceutical Opioid Treatment Populations: a Scoping Review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 15, 452-469 (2017).
    • Kelly J.F., Saitz R. & Wakeman S. Language, Substance Use Disorders, and Policy: The Need to Reach Consensus on an "addiction-ary". Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 34, 116-123 (2016).
    • van Boekel, L. C., Brouwers, E. P., van Weeghel, J. & Garretsen, H. F. Stigma among health professionals towards patients with substance use disorders and its consequences for healthcare delivery: Systematic review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 131, 23-35 (2013).
    • Vayr, F., Herin, F., Jullian, B., Soulat, J. M. & Franchitto, N. Barriers to seeking help for physicians with substance use disorder: A review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 199, 116-121 (2019).
  • Résultats et répercussions
    • Kennedy-Hendricks, A. et al. Social Stigma toward Persons With Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: Associations With Public Support for Punitive and Public Health-Oriented Policies. Psychiatric Services 68, 462-469 (2017).
    • Reisner, S. L. et al. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults. Lgbt Health 2, 324-332 (2015).
    • van Boekel, L. C., Brouwers, E. P., van Weeghel, J. & Garretsen, H. F. Stigma among health professionals towards patients with substance use disorders and its consequences for healthcare delivery: Systematic review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 131, 23-35 (2013).
    • Vayr, F., Herin, F., Jullian, B., Soulat, J. M. & Franchitto, N. Barriers to seeking help for physicians with substance use disorder: A review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 199, 116-121 (2019).

Tableau 7. Stigmatisation liée à l’obésité

  • Moteurs de la stigmatisation
    • Alberga, A. S., McLaren, L., Russell-Mayhew, S. & Von Ranson, K. M. Canadian Senate Report on Obesity: Focusing on Individual Behaviours versus Social Determinants of Health May Promote Weight Stigma. Journal of Obesity 2018 (2018).
    • Puhl, R. M. & Brownell, K. D. Confronting and Coping with Weight Stigma: An Investigation of Overweight and Obese Adults. Obesity 14, 1802-1815 (2006).
    • Puhl, R. M. & Heuer, C. A. The Stigma of Obesity: A Review and Update. Obesity 17, 941-964 (2009).
    • Puhl, R. M. et al. A multinational examination of weight bias: predictors of anti-fat attitudes across four countries. Int. J. Obes. (Lond) 39, 1166-1173 (2015).
  • Pratiques stigmatisantes
    • Alberga, A.S., Russell-Mayhew, S., von Ranson, K.M., & McLaren, L. Weight bias: a call to action. J.Eat.Disord. 4, 016-0112-4 (2016).
    • Nutter, S. et al. Weight Bias in Educational Settings: a Systematic Review. Curr. Obes. Rep. 8, 185-200 (2019).
  • Expériences de la stigmatisation
    • Alberga, A.S., Russell-Mayhew, S., von Ranson, K.M., & McLaren, L. Weight bias: a call to action. J.Eat.Disord. 4, 016-0112-4 (2016).
    • Hebl, M. R. & Xu, J. Weighing the care: physicians' reactions to the size of a patient. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 25, 1246-1252 (2001).
    • Nutter, S. et al. Weight Bias in Educational Settings: a Systematic Review. Curr. Obes. Rep. 8, 185-200 (2019).
    • Puhl, R. M. & Brownell, K. D. Confronting and Coping with Weight Stigma: An Investigation of Overweight and Obese Adults. Obesity 14, 1802-1815 (2006).
    • Puhl, R. M. et al. A multinational examination of weight bias: predictors of anti-fat attitudes across four countries. Int. J. Obes. (Lond) 39, 1166-1173 (2015).
    • Ramos, S. X., Forhan, M., Caulfield T., Sharma, A.M., & Raine, K. Addressing Internalized Weight Bias and Changing Damaged Social Identities for People Living With Obesity. Front Psych 10, (2019).
  •  Résultats et répercussions
    • Alberga, A. S., McLaren, L., Russell-Mayhew, S. & Von Ranson, K. M. Canadian Senate Report on Obesity: Focusing on Individual Behaviours versus Social Determinants of Health May Promote Weight Stigma. Journal of Obesity 2018 (2018).
    • Alberga, A.S., Russell-Mayhew, S., von Ranson, K.M., & McLaren, L. Weight bias: a call to action. J.Eat.Disord. 4, 016-0112-4 (2016).
    • Amy, N. K., Aalborg, A. F., Lyons, P. F. & Keranen, L. Barriers to routine gynecological cancer screening for White and African-American obese women. International Journal of Obesity 30, 147-155 (2005).
    • Chu, F. & Ohinmaa, A. The obesity penalty in the labor market using longitudinal Canadian data. Econ. Hum. Biol. 23, 10-17 (2016).
    • Hebl, M. R. & Xu, J. Weighing the care: physicians' reactions to the size of a patient. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 25, 1246-1252 (2001).
    • Hunger, J. M., Major, B., Blodorn, A. & Miller, C. T. Weighed Down by Stigma: How Weight-Based Social Identity Threat Contributes to Weight Gain and Poor Health. Social & Personality Psychology Compass 9, 255-268 (2015).
    • Nutter, S. et al. Weight Bias in Educational Settings: a Systematic Review. Curr. Obes. Rep. 8, 185-200 (2019).
    • Puhl, R. M. & Brownell, K. D. Confronting and Coping with Weight Stigma: An Investigation of Overweight and Obese Adults. Obesity 14, 1802-1815 (2006).
    • Puhl, R. M. & Heuer, C. A. The Stigma of Obesity: A Review and Update. Obesity 17, 941-964 (2009).
    • Puhl, R. M. et al. A multinational examination of weight bias: predictors of anti-fat attitudes across four countries. Int. J. Obes. (Lond) 39, 1166-1173 (2015).
    • Ramos, S. X., Forhan, M., Caulfield T., Sharma, A.M., & Raine K. Addressing Internalized Weight Bias and Changing Damaged Social Identities for People Living With Obesity. Front Psych 10, (2019).
    • Sutin, A. R., Stephan, Y. & Terracciano, A. Weight Discrimination and Risk of Mortality. Psychological science 26, 1803-1811 (2015).
    • Tomiyama, A. J. Weight stigma is stressful. A review of evidence for the Cyclic Obesity/Weight-Based Stigma model. Appetite 82, 8-15 (2014).
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