Styles of address

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The table below indicates the appropriate way to use formal and honorific titles to address individuals in a respectful way, both in writing and in conversation.

Formal titles are granted according to the position or office a person occupies. In Canada, two types of formal titles are used: “Right Honourable” and “Honourable.” In some cases, they are used only while serving and in others, they are kept for life. This information can be found in the table of titles.

Complimentary to the formal titles are honorific titles. In Canada, examples would include the use of “Your Excellency” when addressing the Governor General.

Also, it should be noted that before addressing a person, in writing or verbally, one should verify their preferences. Some people might prefer to omit titles such as “Sir” or “Madam” or replace them by an alternate title such as “MxFootnote 1”. People who define their gender identity as neither male nor female but as being outside of the gender binary may prefer to use gender-neutral pronouns. Termium offers a list of commonly used gender-neutral pronouns but preferred gender pronouns should be confirmed with the person concerned.

Rather than risking offending the recipient by using the wrong gender, you may omit the courtesy title, such as “Dear P. T. Smith” rather than “Dear Mr. Smith”Footnote 2.

The Royal Family

N.B. The following section is not meant to represent the entire Royal Family nor reflect the order of succession to the British throne.
Dignitary Formal Title and Address (where applicable) Written Greetings Spoken greeting
Salutation Final Salutation In Conversation
The King

His Majesty King Charles III, King of Canada

One can also refer to "His Majesty The King" or "The King."

To write to The King:

His Majesty The King
Buckingham Palace
London SW1A 1AA
United Kingdom

Note: Although “King Charles” may be heard informally, this is not used officially.
Your Majesty: I remain Your Majesty’s faithful and devoted servant, “Your Majesty” first, then “Sir”
The Queen Consort

Her Majesty The Queen Consort

One can also refer to “The Queen Consort.

To write to The Queen Consort:

Her Majesty The Queen Consort
Buckingham Palace
London SW1A 1AA
United Kingdom

Note: As the former Camilla Rosemary Shand, later Parker Bowles, “Queen Camilla”, “Camilla, the Queen Consort”, and “Camilla” may be heard informally, but are not used officially.
Your Majesty: I remain Your Majesty’s faithful and devoted servant, “Your Majesty” first, then “’Ma’am”
The Prince of Wales

His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales

One can also refer to “The Prince of Wales.”

To write to The Prince of Wales:

His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
Clarence House
London SW1A 1BA
United Kingdom

Note: Although “Prince William” and “William, Prince of Wales” are often heard informally, they are not used officially.

Your Royal Highness: Yours very truly, “Your Royal Highness” first, then “Sir”
The Princess of Wales

Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales

One can also refer to “The Princess of Wales

To write to The Princess of Wales:

Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
Clarence House
London SW1A 1BA
United Kingdom

 Note: As the former Catherine Middleton, “Princess Catherine/Kate,” “Catherine, Princess of Wales,” “Catherine” and “Kate” may be heard informally, but are not used officially.
Your Royal Highness: Yours very truly, “Your Royal Highness” first, then “Ma’am”
The Duke of Sussex

His Royal Highness The Duke of Sussex

One can also refer to “The Duke of Sussex

To write to The Duke of Sussex:

His Royal Highness The Duke of Sussex
Clarence House
London SW1A 1BA
United Kingdom

Note 1: Although “Prince Harry” and “Harry, Duke of Sussex” may be heard informally, they are not used officially.

Note 2: Although the Duke of Sussex is no longer a working member of the Royal family and no longer actively uses the title “His Royal Highness”, he retains the prefix in a formal context, as agreed with Her Majesty the Queen.

Sir:

Note: As the Duke of Sussex no longer actively uses the title “His Royal Highness”, it is not used in written salutations.

Yours very truly,

“Sir”

Note: As the Duke of Sussex no longer actively uses the title “His Royal Highness”, it is not used in spoken greetings.

The Duchess of Sussex

Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Sussex

One can also refer to “The Duchess of Sussex

To write to The Duchess of Sussex:

Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Sussex
Clarence House
London SW1A 1BA
United Kingdom

Note 1: As the former Meghan Markle, “Princess Meghan”, “Meghan, Duchess of Sussex” or “Meghan” may be heard informally, but are not used officially.

Note 2: Although the Duchess of Sussex is no longer a working member of the Royal family and no longer actively uses the title “Her Royal Highness”, she retains the prefix in a formal context, as agreed with Her Majesty the Queen.

Ma’am:

Note: As the Duchess of Sussex no longer actively uses the title “Her Royal Highness”, it is not used in written salutations.

Yours very truly,

“Ma’am”

Note: As the Duchess of Sussex no longer actively uses the title “Her Royal Highness”, it is not used in spoken greetings.

The Duke of York

His Royal Highness The Duke of York

One can also refer to “The Duke of York

To write to The Duke of York:

His Royal Highness The Duke of York
Buckingham Palace
London SW1A 1AA
United Kingdom

Note 1: Although “Prince Andrew” and “Andrew, Duke of York” may be heard informally, they are not used officially.

Note 2: Although the Duke of York is no longer a working member of the Royal family and no longer actively uses the title “His Royal Highness”, he retains the prefix in a formal context, as agreed with Her Majesty the Queen.

Sir:

Note: As the Duke of York no longer actively uses the title “His Royal Highness”, it is not used in written salutations.

Yours very truly,

"Sir"

Note: As the Duke of York no longer actively uses the title “His Royal Highness”, it is not used in spoken greetings.

The Earl of Wessex

His Royal Highness The Earl of Wessex

One can also refer to “The Earl of Wessex

To write to The Earl of Wessex:

His Royal Highness The Earl of Wessex
Bagshot Park
Bagshot, Surrey GU19 5PL
United Kingdom

Note: Although “Prince Edward” and “Edward, Earl of Wessex” may be heard informally, they are not used officially.

Your Royal Highness: Yours very truly, "Your Royal Highness" first, then "Sir"
The Countess of Wessex

Her Royal Highness The Countess of Wessex

One can also refer to “The Countess of Wessex

To write to The Countess of Wessex:

Her Royal Highness The Countess of Wessex
Bagshot Park
Bagshot, Surrey GU19 5PL
United Kingdom

Note: As the former Sophie Rhys-Jones, “Sophie, Countess of Wessex” may be heard informally, but is not used officially.

Your Royal Highness: Yours very truly, "Your Royal Highness" first, then "Ma’am"
The Princess Royal

Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal

One can also refer to “The Princess Royal

To write to The Princess Royal:

Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal
Buckingham Palace
London SW1A 1AA
United Kingdom

Note: Although “Princess Anne” and “Anne, The Princess Royal” may be heard informally, they are not used officially.

Your Royal Highness: Yours very truly, "Your Royal Highness" first, then "Ma’am"

Government of Canada dignitaries

N.B. Each individual incumbent of the positions listed below may have additional honours and distinctions, whose post-nominal letters will follow the Order of Precedence of the Canadian Honours System.

Dignitary Formal Title and Address (where applicable) Written Greetings Spoken greeting
Salutation Final Salutation In Conversation
Governor General of Canada

His or Her Excellency the Right Honourable (full name), C.C., C.M.M., C.O.M, C.D.

Governor General of Canada

Rideau Hall
1 Sussex Drive
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A1

Note 1: The Governor General may have other post-nominal letters, such as P.C., K.C.

Note 2: The Governor General of Canada has the title "The Right Honourable" for life; the courtesy title "His or Her Excellency" is used only while in office.

Excellency: Yours truly, "Your Excellency" or "Excellency" first, then "Sir", "Madam" or an alternate titleFootnote 3.
Spouse of the Governor General of Canada

His or Her Excellency (full name), C.C.

Rideau Hall
1 Sussex Drive
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A1

Note: The courtesy title “His or Her Excellency” is used only while the Governor General is in office.

Excellency:

OR

Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname):

Yours sincerely, "Your Excellency" or "Excellency"
first, then "Sir", "Madam" or an alternate titleFootnote 3.
Former Governor General of Canada

The Right Honourable (full name), C.C., C.M.M., C.D.

Note: A former Governor General may have other post-nominal letters, such as P.C., K.C.

Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname): Yours sincerely, "Sir" or Madam", or "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Prime Minister of Canada

The Right Honourable (full name), P.C., M.P.
Prime Minister of Canada

Office of the Prime Minister
80 Wellington Street
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A2

Note 1: The Prime Minister may have other post-nominal letters, such as K.C.

Note 2: The Prime Minister of Canada has the title "The Right Honourable" for life.

Dear Prime Minister: or Prime Minister:

Note: While the term “Mr. Prime Minister” or "Madam Prime Minister" is often heard informally, it is not used officially.

Yours sincerely, "Prime Minister" first, then "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Former Prime Minister of Canada

The Right Honourable (full name), P.C.

Note: A former Prime Minister may have other post-nominal letters, such as K.C.

Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname): Yours sincerely, "Sir"/"Madam" or "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Chief Justice of Canada

The Right Honourable (full name), P.C.,
Chief Justice of Canada

Supreme Court of Canada
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0J1

Note: The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has the title "The Right Honourable" for life.

Dear Chief Justice: Yours sincerely, "Mr. or Madam Chief Justice" or "Chief Justice" first. Then "Sir" or "Madam" or an alternate titleFootnote 3
Judges of Federal Courts

The Honourable (full name)
Judge of the (court) of Canada

Note: Judges of the Supreme and Federal courts have the title "The Honourable" only while in office.

Dear Mr./Madam Justice (surname):

OR

Dear Justice (surname):

Yours sincerely, "Mr. or Madam Justice" or "Justice (surname)"first. Then "Sir" or "Madam" or alternate titleFootnote 3
Cabinet ministers

For a cabinet minister who is a member of the House of CommonsFootnote 4:

The Honourable (full name), P.C., M.P.
Minister of (department)

House of Commons
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A6

Dear Minister:

OR

Dear Colleague: (between colleagues)

Yours sincerely, "Minister" first, then "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"

For a cabinet minister who is a SenatorFootnote 4:

Senator the Honourable (full name), P.C.
Minister of (department)

The Senate
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A4

Dear Minister:

OR

Dear Colleague: (between colleagues)

Yours sincerely, "Minister" first, then "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"

For a cabinet minister who is a minister of StateFootnote 4:

The Honourable (full name), P.C., M.P.
Minister of State (portfolio)

House of Commons
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A6

Dear Minister of State:

OR

Dear Colleague: (between colleagues)

Yours sincerely, "Minister of State" first, then "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Speaker of the Senate

The Honourable (full name), Senator
Speaker of the Senate

The Senate
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A4

Note: Speakers of the Senate have the title “The Honourable” for life. A senator who is a member of the Canadian Privy Council is referred to as "Senator the Honourable (full name), P.C.";

Dear Mr. Speaker:

OR

Dear Madam Speaker:

OR

Dear Speaker:

Yours sincerely,

"Mr. Speaker" or "Madam Speaker"

Speaker of the House of Commons

The Honourable (full name), M.P.

Speaker of the House of Commons

House of Commons
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A6

Note: Speakers of the House of Commons have the title "The Honourable" only while in office. However, a Speaker of the House of Commons who is a member of the Canadian Privy Council has the title “The Honourable” for life and uses the initials "P.C." after their name.

Dear Mr. Speaker:

OR

Dear Madam Speaker:

OR

Dear Speaker:

Yours sincerely,

"Mr. Speaker" or "Madam Speaker"

Senators

The Honourable (full name), Senator

The Senate
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A4

Note: Senators have the title “The Honourable” for life. A senator who is a member of the Canadian Privy Council is referred to as "Senator the Honourable (full name), P.C.";

Dear Senator (surname): Yours sincerely, "Senator (surname)"
Members of the House of Commons (other than cabinet ministers)

Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (full name), M.P. or The Honourable (full name), P.C., M.P.

House of Commons
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0A6

Note: Members of the House of Commons use the post-nominal letters M.P.

Members of the House of Commons who are members of the Canadian Privy Council have the title "The Honourable" for life and use the initials "P.C., M.P." after their name.

Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname): Yours sincerely, "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Canadian Ambassadors/High Commissioners Abroad

Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (full name)
Ambassador of Canada to (country) or High Commissioner for Canada to (country)

Note: When addressed by a Canadian citizen, whether in Canada or abroad, the form used is simply Ambassador or High Commissioner.

The title "Excellency" is only used by the government and the citizens of the country to which the person is accredited.

Dear Ambassador/High Commissioner: Yours sincerely,

"Mr. Ambassador/High Commissioner" or “Madam Ambassador/High Commissioner”

Indigenous dignitaries

As there are over 650 Indigenous communities and over 50 Indigenous nations in Canada, each with its own heritage, culture, and social system, it cannot be assumed that standard titles or styles of address can relate to all Indigenous Peoples. It is strongly recommended to confirm with the person you are meeting or the community you are visiting how they wish to be addressed.

Dignitary Formal Title and Address (where applicable) Written Greetings Spoken greeting
Salutation Final Salutation In Conversation
First Nations
National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations (AFN)

National Chief (full name)

55 Metcalfe Street, Suite 1600
Ottawa, Ontario
K1P 6L5

Dear National Chief (surname): Yours sincerely, “National Chief (surname)”
Regional ChiefFootnote 5 Regional Chief (full name) Dear Regional Chief (surname): Yours sincerely, “Regional Chief (surname)”
Grand Chief Grand Chief (full name) Dear Grand Chief (surname): Yours sincerely, “Grand Chief (surname)”
Chief Chief (full name) Dear Chief (surname): Yours sincerely, “Chief (surname)”
Councillor Councillor (full name) Dear Councillor (surname): Yours sincerely, “Councillor (surname)”
Inuit
President of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK)

AngajuqqaaqFootnote 6 (full name), National Inuit Leader

75 Albert Street, Suite 1101
Ottawa, Ontario
K1P 5E7

Dear Angajuqqaaq (full name): Yours sincerely, “President (surname)”
PresidentFootnote 7
(Regional)
PresidentFootnote 8 (full name) Dear President (surname): Yours sincerely, “President (surname)”
Chair and CEO Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (full name), Chairman or chairwoman or chairpersonFootnote 9 of the Board and Chief Executive Officer Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname): Yours sincerely, “Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)”
Métis Nation
President of the Métis National Council (MNC)

President (full name)

#4 – 340, MacLaren Street
Ottawa, Ontario
K2P 0M6

Dear President (surname): Yours sincerely, “President (surname)”
PresidentFootnote 10(Provincial) President (full name) Dear President (surname): Yours sincerely, “President (surname)”
MinisterFootnote 11 Minister (full name) Dear Minister (surname): Yours sincerely, "Minister (surname)"
SenatorFootnote 12 Senator (full name) Dear Senator (surname): Yours sincerely, "Senator (surname)"

N.B. The titles indicated above are intended as examples. There are many other community-based, provincial or national Indigenous organizations across Canada that use their own governing structure and titles. Many of these organizations have adopted a corporate structure for their Board, including titles such as Vice-President, Director, Treasurer and Secretary, which are not listed above.

Provincial and territorial dignitaries

Dignitary Formal Title and Address (where applicable) Written Greetings Spoken greeting
Salutation Final Salutation In Conversation
Lieutenant Governor

His or Her Honour the Honourable (full name)
Lieutenant Governor of (province)

Note: The Lieutenant Governor of a province has the title "Honourable" for life; the courtesy title "His Honour" or "Her Honour" is used only while in office.

Your Honour:

OR

Dear Lieutenant Governor:

Yours sincerely, "Your Honour" first, then "Sir" or "Madam" or simply "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Spouse of a Lieutenant Governor

His or Her Honour (full name)

Note: The courtesy title "His Honour" or "Her Honour" is used only while the Lieutenant Governor is in office.

Your Honour:

OR

Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname):

Yours sincerely, "Your Honour" first, then "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Former Lieutenant Governor The Honourable (full name) Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname): Yours sincerely, "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Commissioner of a territory

The Honourable (full name)
Commissioner of (territory)

Note: The Commissioner of a territory has the title "Honourable" only while in office.

Commissioner (surname): Yours sincerely, "Sir" or "Madam" or "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Premier of a province or territory

The Honourable (full name),
M.L.A. (or M.P.P./M.N.A./M.H.A.)
Premier of (province or territory)

M.L.A. applies to all provinces and territories except for:

  • Ontario (M.P.P.)
  • Quebec (M.N.A.)
  • Newfoundland (M.H.A.)

Note: A provincial or territorial Premier does not retain the title "Honourable" after tenure of office unless he or she is a member of the Privy Council. In this case, the letters P.C. are also used after his or her name.

Dear Premier:

Note: While the term “Mr. Premier” or “Madam Premier” is often heard informally, it is not used officially.

Yours sincerely, "Premier" first, then "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Provincial and territorial cabinet ministers

The Honourable (full name), M.L.A. (or M.P.P./M.N.A./M.H.A.)
Minister of (Portfolio)

M.L.A. applies to all provinces and territories except for:

  • Ontario (M.P.P.)
  • Quebec (M.N.A.)
  • Newfoundland (M.H.A.)

Note: A provincial or territorial cabinet minister does not retain the title "Honourable" after tenure of office unless he or she is a member of the Privy Council. In this case, the letters P.C. are also used after his or her name.

Dear Minister:

OR

Dear Colleague: (between colleagues)

Yours sincerely, "Minister" first, then "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Chief Judges or Chief Justices and judges of Superior Courts
(highest level of courts in a province or territory)

The Honourable (full name)

Chief Judge of (court)

OR

Chief Justice of (court) OR

Judge of (court)

Dear Chief Judge (surname):

OR

Dear Chief Justice (surname):

OR

Dear Mr. Justice (surname):

OR

Dear Madam Justice (surname):

OR

Dear Justice (surname):

Yours sincerely,

“Chief Judge (surname)” or “Chief Justice (surname)”

OR

"Mr. Justice (surname)" or “Madam Justice (surname)” or “Justice (surname)”

Chief judges and judges of provincial or territorial courts (or lower courts)

The Honourable (full name)
Chief Judge/Judge of (court)

Note: The Table of Titles to be used in Canada recognizes the title "Honourable" for provincially/territorially appointed judges. The courtesy title "His Honour" or "Her Honour" is no longer appropriate given an official title has been granted.

Dear Chief Judge/Judge (surname): Yours sincerely, “Chief Judge (surname)” or “Judge (surname)”
Members of a provincial/territorial legislative assembly

Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (full name), M.L.A. (or M.P.P./M.N.A./M.H.A.)

M.L.A. applies to all provinces and territories except for:

  • Ontario (M.P.P.)
  • Quebec (M.N.A.)
  • Newfoundland (M.H.A.)
Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname), Yours sincerely, “Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)”

Foreign dignitaries

Dignitary Formal Title and Address (where applicable) Written Greetings Spoken Greeting
Salutation Final Salutation In conversation
An Emperor or an Empress

His Imperial Majesty (regnal nameFootnote 13)

Emperor of (country)

OR

Her Imperial Majesty (regnal nameFootnote 13) Empress of (country)

Your dignified Majesty: I have the honour to remain, Your Imperial Majesty's obedient servant, "Your Majesty" first, then "Sire" or "Ma’am"
A King

His Majesty (regnal nameFootnote 13)

King of (country)

Your Majesty:

OR

Sire:

I have the honour to remain, Your Majesty's obedient servant, "Your Majesty" first, then "Sire"
A Queen Her Majesty (regnal nameFootnote 13)
Queen of (country)
Your Majesty: I have the honour to remain, Your Majesty's obedient servant, "Your Majesty" first, then "Ma'am"
A Prince Consort
(Male spouse of a reigning monarch)
His Royal Highness (first name)
(Additional titles)
Your Royal Highness: I remain, Your Royal Highness, Yours very truly, "Your Royal Highness" first, then "Sir"
A Queen Consort
(Female spouse of a reigning monarch)
Her Majesty (first name)
(Additional titles)
Your Majesty: I have the honour to remain, Your Majesty's obedient servant, "Your Majesty” first, then "Ma’am"
A Prince or a Princess With title "Royal Highness";

His Royal Highness
The Prince of (place)

OR

Her Royal Highness

The Princess of (place)

Your Royal Highness: I remain, Your Royal Highness, Yours very truly, "Your Royal Highness" first, then "Sir" or "Ma'am"
With title "Serene Highness";

His Serene Highness
The Prince of (place)

OR

Her Serene Highness

The Princess of (place)

Your Serene Highness: I remain, Your Serene Highness, Yours very truly, "Your Serene Highness" first, then "Sir" or "Ma'am"
Without title "Highness";

Prince (full name)

OR

Princess (full name)

Prince:

OR

Princess:

Yours very truly, "Prince" first, then "Sir" or "Princess" first, then "Madam"
President of a Republic

His Excellency (full name)

OR

Her Excellency (full name)

President of the Republic of (country)

Excellency: Yours sincerely, "Excellency" first, then "President" or "Sir" or "Madam"
President of the United States of America

His Excellency the Honourable (full name)

OR

Her Excellency the Honourable (full name)

President of the United States of America

The White House
Washington, D.C.

Dear Mr. President:

OR

Dear Madam President:

Yours sincerely, "Mr. President", "Madam President" or "Excellency" first, then "Sir" or "Madam"
Prime Minister

His Excellency (full name)

OR

Her Excellency (full name)

Prime Minister of (country)

Dear Prime Minister: Yours sincerely, "Prime Minister" or "Excellency" first, then "Sir” " or “Madam”
Ambassadors/High Commissioners of foreign countries in Canada

His Excellency (full name)

OR

Her Excellency (full name)

Ambassador of (country)/High Commissioner for (country)

There is one exception:

For Great Britain, the High Commissioner is addressed as “British High Commissioner” and not “High Commissioner for Britain”

Dear Ambassador/High Commissioner: Yours sincerely, "Your Excellency" or "Excellency"

Religious dignitaries

Dignitary Formal Title and Address (where applicable) Written Greetings Spoken Greeting
Salutation Final Salutation In Conversation
Roman Catholic Church
The Pope

His Holiness Pope (regnal nameFootnote 13)

Apostolic Palace
00120 Vatican City

Your Holiness: I have the honour to remain Your Holiness's obedient servant, "Your Holiness"
A Cardinal

His Eminence (first name) Cardinal (surname)
(Additional titles)

Note: The title "Cardinal" comes between the first name and surname of the incumbent, for example "John Cardinal Smith" for a Cardinal by the name of John Smith.

Your Eminence:

OR

Dear Cardinal (surname):

Yours very truly, "Your Eminence"
An Archbishop or Bishop

The Most Reverend (full name)
Archbishop or Bishop of (name of Archdiocese or Diocese)

Note: The Holy See has accorded the courtesy title "His Excellency" to Roman Catholic archbishops and bishops; that title is not recognized by Canadian civil authorities.

Dear Archbishop/Bishop (surname): Yours very truly, "Archbishop" or "Bishop"
An Abbot

The Right Reverend (full name)
Abbot of (name of abbey or monastery)

Note: The title of the abbot may be followed by post-nominal letters specific to the abbot’s religious order.

Right Reverend Father:

OR

Dear Abbott (surname):

Yours sincerely, "Father Abbot"
An Abbess or Prioress

The Reverend Mother (full name) or Mother Superior (full name)

Note: The title of the abbess may be followed by post-nominal letters specific to the abbess’s religious order.

Dear Mother Superior: Yours sincerely, “Reverend Mother”
A Canon The Very Reverend (full name) Dear Canon (surname): Yours sincerely, "Canon (surname)"
A Priest The Reverend (full name) Dear Father: Yours sincerely, "Father" or "Father (surname)"
A Sulpician Mr. (full name) Dear Mr. (surname): Yours truly, "Mr. (surname)"
A Religious
(A Monk or a Nun)

Reverend Father (full name)

OR

Reverend Mother (full name) or Reverend Sister (full name)

Dear Father (name):

OR

Dear Reverend Mother:

or Dear Reverend Sister:

Yours sincerely,

"Reverend Father"

OR

"Reverend Mother" or "Reverend Sister"

Anglican Church of Canada
The Primate The Most Reverend (full name)
Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada
Dear Archbishop (surname): Yours sincerely, "Archbishop"
An Archbishop The Most Reverend (full name)
Archbishop of (name of Diocese)
Dear Archbishop (surname): Yours very truly, "Archbishop"
A Bishop The Right Reverend (full name)
Bishop of (name of Diocese)
Dear Bishop (surname): Yours very truly, "Bishop (surname)" or "Bishop"
A Dean The Very Reverend (full name)
Dean of (name of Cathedral)
Dear Dean (surname): Yours sincerely, "Dean (surname)" or "Mr./Mrs./Ms. (surname)"
An Archdeacon The Venerable (full name)
Archdeacon
Dear Archdeacon (surname): Yours sincerely, "Archdeacon (surname)"
A Canon The Reverend Canon (full name) Dear Canon (surname): Yours sincerely, "Canon (surname)"
A Priest The Reverend (full name)

Dear Father (surname):

OR

Dear Mother (surname):

OR

Dear Mrs./Ms. (surname):

Yours sincerely,

"Father" or "Father (surname)"

OR

"Mother" or "Mother (surname)"

OR

"Mrs./Ms. (surname)"

A Religious
(A Monk or a Nun)

The Reverend Father (full name)

OR

Reverend Mother (full name) or Reverend Sister (full name)

Dear Father (name):

OR

Dear Reverend Mother:
or Dear Reverend Sister:

Yours sincerely,

"Reverend Father"

OR

"Reverend Mother" or "Reverend Sister"

Other religious denominations
A Moderator
(United Church of Canada and Presbyterian Church in Canada)

A present ordained Moderator:
The Right Reverend (full name)
Moderator of (name of Church)

A past ordained Moderator:
The Very Reverend (full name)
Moderator of (name of Church)

Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms. (surname): Yours sincerely, "Mr./Mrs./Ms. (surname)"
A Minister The Reverend (full name) Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms. (surname): Yours sincerely, "Mr./Mrs./Ms. (surname)"
A Rabbi
(Judaism)
Rabbi (full name) Dear Rabbi (surname): Yours sincerely, “Rabbi (surname)"
An Imam
(Islam)
Imam (full name) Dear Imam (surname): Yours sincerely, “Imam (surname)”

Others

Dignitary Formal Title and Address (where applicable) Written Greetings Spoken Greeting
Salutation Final Salutation In Conversation
Mayors His or Her Worship (full name)
Mayor of (city or town name)

Dear Sir: or Dear Mr. Mayor:

OR

Dear Madam: or Dear Madam Mayor:

Yours sincerely, "Your Worship" first, then "Mayor (surname)"
Lawyers /Notaries Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (full name) or Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (full name), K.C. Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname): Yours sincerely, "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Doctors
(Medical/Health Care)

(full name), M.D.

Note: While M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) is presented here as an example, other medical or health care degrees such as Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.D.M.)/Dental Surgery (D.D.S.) or Doctor of Clinical Psychology (Psy.D.) are recognized and are treated in the same way as M.D.

Dear Dr. (surname): Yours sincerely, “Dr. (surname)” or “Doctor”
Doctors
(Academic)

(full name), Ph.D.

Note: Note that depending on the issuing institution, the degree of Doctor of Philosphy (Ph.D.) may also be abbreviated D.Phil. While Ph.D. is presented here as an example, other academic doctoral degrees such as Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) or Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) are recognized and treated in the same way as Ph.D.

Dear Dr. (surname): Yours sincerely, “Dr. (surname)” or “Doctor”
Armed ForcesFootnote 14
(Officer ranks)

In general, Officers should be addressed by rank, as shown in the example below:

Major (full name)

Dear Major (surname): Yours sincerely, “Major (surname)”
Armed ForcesFootnote 14
(Warrant Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and other ranks)

In general, Warrant Officer, Non-Commissioned Officers and other ranks should be addressed as shown in the example below:

Sergeant (full name)

Dear Sergeant (surname): Yours sincerely, "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
Aide-de-camp
Note: The Post-nominal letters "A. de C." have been authorized for Aides-de-camps to the Governor General and Lieutenant Governors
.
Military (according to rank) (see Armed Forces) (see Armed Forces) (see Armed Forces)
Civilian (according to title)
Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (full name)
Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname): Yours sincerely, "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Mx. (surname)"
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