User Instructions for the GBA Plus Departmental Summary
Table of Contents
Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA Plus) is an analytical tool used to support the development of responsive and inclusive policies, programs, and other initiatives. GBA Plus is a process for understanding who is impacted by the issue or opportunity being addressed by the initiative; identifying how the initiative could be tailored to meet diverse needs of the people most impacted; and anticipating and mitigating any barriers to accessing or benefitting from the initiative. GBA Plus is an intersectional analysis that goes beyond biological (sex) and socio-cultural (gender) differences to consider other factors, such as age, disability, education, ethnicity, economic status, geography, language, and sexual orientation.
The Gender Results Framework (GRF) is the Government of Canada’s vision for gender equality, highlighting the key issues that matter most. It is a whole-of government tool designed to track how Canada is currently performing in terms of achieving greater equality. Under this framework, the federal government has identified six key areas where change is required to advance gender equality. The GRF is aligned with GBA Plus ensuring that gender is considered in addition and in relation to other intersecting identity factors including age, disability, education, ethnicity, race, geography, sex, religion, economic status, and language.
The GBA Plus Departmental Summary Template is a tool that captures key GBA Plus information for an initiative, policy or program in order to support and inform decision-making. The template also provides the opportunity to identify if an initiative, policy or program tangibly advances the GRF. These user instructions are intended to provide additional clarity, definitions and examples to support the use of the template.
Publicly Available Information
The information provided in the GBA Plus departmental summary template may be made publicly available.
Information and Data Sources
Foundational to a strong GBA Plus is clear and credible information to support the analysis. It is therefore critical that we consider disaggregated data to get a better idea of the diversity of this population and the unique experiences of the different groups in it. GBA Plus isn’t only about sex and gender, as it recognizes that groups of people are not homogenous. Our experiences are affected by intersecting parts of our identity, the context we are in and our lived realities. We all have multiple identity factors that intersect, and that help make us who we are. Without GBA Plus, we risk missing or misreading the experiences of a significant portion of the Canadian population and, as a consequence, risk developing policies and initiatives that can inadvertently increase inequalities.
Some key Government of Canada resources that help support GBA Plus include:
- Gender, Diversity and Inclusion Statistics Hub
- Gender Results Framework Portal
- Quality of Life hub
- Statistics Canada data
- Open Data
- Program Administrative Data
There are also Indigenous-specific GBA Plus toolkits to help address the unique challenges with regards to access of data and culturally-sensitive GBA Plus in the context of Indigenous Peoples:
- Métis-Specific Gender Based Analysis Plus (GBA Plus) Tool Métis-Specific Gender Based Analysis Plus (GBA Plus) Tool
- Indigenous Gender Based Analysis Plus (IGBA+) Toolkit
- Native Women’s Association of Canada Research Toolkit
Increasingly multilateral organizations are also investing in disaggregated data, and some examples of resources include:
- OECD Gender Data Portal
- World Bank Gender Data Portal
- World Economic Forum – Global Gender Gap Index
- UN Women Data Hub
- Peer-reviewed academic articles
Statistics Canada offers a variety of workshops, training, and conferences to help analysts expand and improve their data skills. For the full list of current offerings, please visit https://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/services/wtc.
Please read through these instructions carefully as you fill out the GBA Plus Departmental Summary document, also referred to as the “template.” Examples from Budget 2019, Budget 2021 and Budget 2022 have been provided throughout to provide clarity for more complex cases. Please see Budget 2019’s Gender Report, Budget 2021’s Impacts Report, Budget 2022’s Impacts Report and the Budget 2023 Impact Report for more examples.
1. General Information
This section collects descriptive information about the proposal, the organizations which will be involved in its development and delivery, and the timing of the GBA Plus.
- Please use the same title as used for the budget/off-cycle proposal template for this proposal.
- Using the drop-down menu, identify the lead department involved in the delivery of the proposal. If there is more than one department involved, please type the department's name in the "Other Departments" box. It is expected that a GBA Plus summary be completed for all components of the proposal, which may require the coordination and input of multiple departments, as applicable. Where GBA Plus summaries for different components of a proposal are highly similar, one summary may be used for the entire proposal.
- Strong Arctic and Northern Communities encompasses a range of measures including enhanced economic development programming, infrastructure investments, a task force on post-secondary education, and research funding. Some of these initiatives provide targeted supports to Northern youth and Indigenous Peoples. In this example, multiple GBA Plus summaries were submitted as part of this proposal to reflect each of the distinct components.
Type of measure
- Proposals will be categorized as either a program, policy, legislation/regulation, or revenue measure.
- Select "policy" for those instances where the change exclusively relates to a new or change to government policy.
- Select "Revenue" for tax measures and other revenue-related measures.
- For all proposals that require legislation, select "legislation or regulation".
- More than one choice is possible as many measures may involve both a program and legislation, or revenue and legislation.
- All proposals should be either new or existing. If the proposal is for an existing program, please differentiate between a modification of the program versus a renewal of the program exactly as it is.
Timing of Conduct of GBA Plus
- GBA Plus can, and should, be conducted at various stages throughout the development and delivery of a policy, program or initiative.
- This section is intended to identify at which stages of an initiative's development the GBA Plus analysis was conducted and not when the GBA Plus summary template was filled out.
- For example, if the GBA Plus analysis was conducted early on in the initiative’s development then Early, should be selected. Similarly, if the GBA Plus analysis was conducted when options and proposals were being finalized, and updated prior to the submission of the proposal then only Mid-point should be selected. If the GBA Plus was conducted after the initiative was finalized then Later should be selected.
- If the budget proposal relates to an existing initiative then Existing should be selected.
- If clarification is necessary, please use the optional text box provided.
2. Brief Description of the Budget/Off-Cycle Proposal
This section seeks a brief description of the proposal, not of the GBA Plus. This entire section should be 300 words or less.
- In 150 words or less, the problem statement should describe "why" this proposal is being put forward. A question to ask when filling this out could be: What requirement or gap does the proposal address or respond to?
- In 150 words or less, the proposal summary should briefly define "what" the proposal is, how it addresses the problem and how it will be implemented.
3. Target Group (Policy Intent)
This section seeks information on the target population for the proposal, which may be different from the benefitting groups (section 4). Please choose one of the three categories that best describes the target group that the proposal is intended to benefit: all Canadians, specific regions or sectors, or a particular demographic group. It is expected that a single category would be selected in most circumstances; however, in rare instances, it may be appropriate to identify more than one target group (e.g. an initiative targeted at First Nations in the Atlantic regions).
If none of the options come close to reflecting the primary target group, then please use the explanatory box at the end of this section to specify the target group and provide further details.
- This option refers to those proposals that are aimed at the Canadian population as a whole or to support the broader values of Canadian society. Proposals designed to support government operations, environmental protection, scientific research, public health programs, and international development and engagement, achieve fiscal savings, promote public safety or defence are all examples of proposals that would generally be characterized as aimed at all Canadians.
This is a tax integrity proposal
- This box is intended to identify tax integrity proposals, a particular subset of proposals which are seen to be aimed at all Canadians through their fiscal savings and improvements to the fairness and efficiency of the tax system.
- For international proposals, "All Canadians" should be selected. When the proposal's primary purpose is to support individuals in other countries then please also select "Individuals in other countries"
Specific regions or sectors of the economy
- This sub-section refers to proposals that are primarily aimed at specific:
- Regions of Canada. Some examples include remote regions, rural areas, urban areas, specific provinces or territories; or
- Industries or sectors of the economy. Some examples include the auto industry, oil industry, dairy sector, etc.
- Note that some tax proposals are not aimed at all Canadians, but rather at a certain sector of the economy to support broader objectives, such as transitioning towards a low-carbon economy or increasing clean technology manufacturing. For example, An Investment Tax Credit for Clean Electricity from Budget 2023 targets the electricity sector as electric utility companies receive a tax credit for investing in the production of clean electricity.
- Please provide more information in the comments box at the bottom of the page, including details on which region or industry.
A particular demographic group
- This sub-section refers to proposals that are specifically targeted towards helping specific segments of the population. Some examples include Indigenous women, 2SLGBTQI+ individuals, low-income Canadians, etc.
Examples for Target Group
For the majority of budget proposals, defining the target population will be straightforward; however, for proposals that have broader objectives (i.e. environment, research, etc.) as part of their design, there may be overlap across these categories. Here are some examples of how the target population was defined for some of the more complex measures from previous Budgets and Economic and Fiscal Updates:
- The policy intent for Budget 2019's Commemorating Canada's Veterans: Highway of Heroes is for all Canadians to be reminded of those who have served in uniform; however, veterans are also expected to benefit from this recognition. In this example, "All Canadians" was selected, but "veterans" was also identified as a target group. Although the Highway of Heroes is located across part of southern Ontario, "Specific regions" was not selected as the region was not central to the measure's objective.
- Looking at a Budget 2023 example, the policy intent for Natural Resources Canada’s Explosive Program is to improve the safety and security of all Canadians by enhancing regulation of the explosives sector. In this example, “All Canadians” was selected as the target group. Although this measure directly impacts mining, construction, and oil and gas industries, among others in the natural resources sector, “Specific industries or sectors of the economy” was not selected. Instead the sectoral characteristics of who directly benefits from this program are identified in Section 4 of the template.
- The policy intent for the Fish and Fish Habitat Program is to improve the fish and fish habitats that are threatened by multiple interrelated factors such as habitat degradation and modification, aquatic invasive species, pollution, overfishing, and climate change. As such, “Specific regions and sectors” was selected as the target group. Although this measure directly impacts individuals who benefit from increased protection of aquatic environments both economically and recreationally, these sectoral characteristics of who directly benefits from this program are identified in Section 4a of the template.
- Generally speaking, measures which seek to improve the environment will be described as aimed at “All Canadians”; however, the specific region or sector may be noted when there is a strong regional or sectoral focus to the measure. Examples from Budget 2023 include Supporting Clean Technology Projects and The Atlantic Loop. In these examples, specific regions and industries were identified as the target group.
- Several Budget 2023 measures provided support to scientific research, where tangential impacts on all Canadians are derived from a sense of pride in Canada’s scientific achievements, or the bolstering of Canada’s position on the world stage. As these overarching impacts are not central to the measure’s objective, “All Canadians” is not selected. In the example, Supporting Canadian Leadership in Space, “Specific industries or sectors of the economy” are identified as the target group.
- Budget 2023’s Bolstering the Defence of Ukraine was designed to directly support the Ukrainian people in their efforts against Russia’s illegal invasion, and to enable Canada to promote international peace and security. Therefore, “All Canadians”and “Individuals in other Countries” were selected as the target groups.
- In Budget 2021, Helping Youth and Students Build Job Skills and Connect with Employers targets Canadians between the ages of 15-30, with an increased focus on vulnerable youth facing multiple barriers to employment. In this example, the option chosen was “Children or Youth” and the specific youth subgroups that benefited most were described in Section 4 of the template.
4. Expected Benefits
A proposal can affect people in a number of different ways, not all of which may be immediately obvious. This analysis should cover/address the relevant quality of life domains identified in the proposal template for a given proposal. (The GBA Plus corresponds with the “fairness and inclusion” angle of the framework, which focusses on distributional impacts.)
A. Direct Benefits
This section seeks to collect information on the gender and demographic characteristics of the recipient group over the short- and medium-term (five years). Depending on the nuances of the proposal, this group may align with the target client group or it may have different characteristics. For example, wealthier Canadians may derive greater benefits from certain programs despite the fact that they are not deliberately targeted at them.
Notable demographic characteristics
- This table should identify demographic characteristics that are predominant in the benefitting group relative to the population at large, as is the case for the majority of budget proposals. For example, if 25 per cent of the people benefitting from a proposal are low-income compared to the 11 per cent of Canadians classified as low-income in 2018, then "lower income" would be considered a notable demographic characteristic.
- If all income levels are benefitting equally then do not select any income level check boxes. The same applies for any sub-set of demographic characteristics; if all boxes are selected then no group is disproportionately benefiting. Leave the boxes unselected.
- Recognizing that some of the categories have diversity within, please use the <specify> field to add clarity, as appropriate (e.g. specifying two-spirit for the 2SLGBTQI+ section, or Atlantic Canada for the particular regions section, etc).
- Students: includes full-time, part-time and life-long learners.
- Workers: includes people in the paid labour force, whether employed or looking for a job. Does not include volunteers or those who work in the home.
- Lower-educated individuals: Highest level of education is high school or less.
- Higher-educated individuals: Have completed a first college diploma or university degree.
- Lower, middle and higher income: Identifying impacts across the income distribution can be challenging given that a family’s position greatly depends on household size and geographic location. For these reasons, use your judgment to assess how a particular policy affects different types of people across the income distribution. Note that Statistics Canada uses the Market Basket Measure for establishing poverty thresholds in Canada that account for geographic location and family size.
- Newcomers/Immigrants: recent immigrants, asylum seekers, refugees, foreign students, or foreign workers
- Persons with disabilities: The Accessible Canada Act defines disability as “any impairment, including a physical, mental, intellectual, cognitive, learning, communication or sensory impairment — or a functional limitation — whether permanent, temporary or episodic in nature, or evident or not, that, in interaction with a barrier, hinders a person’s full and equal participation in society”.
- For international proposals targeted at individuals in other countries please select the demographic characteristics of the expected beneficiaries as well as "Individuals in other countries".
Budget 2021 Example: Creating New Opportunities for Skilled Tradespeople targets apprentices and employers who hire them however, this measure is expected to directly benefit young men since they are overrepresented in most Red Seals trades and apprentices. The statistics on apprentices show that 86% are men and 53% are under 25 years of age. Therefore, “predominantly men” and “individuals 18-29” would be selected.
Budget 2022 and Budget 2023 Example: Working with Provinces and Territories to Advance the National Action Plan to End Gender-Based Violence will directly benefit women and girls, notably those at higher risk of experiencing gender-based violence. These groups also face increased barriers in accessing supports and services due to systemic inequalities, such as sexism, racism, poverty, and discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender expression.
- Budget 2023 Example: Investing in Canada’s Forest Economy will directly benefit the forest industry workforce, which is comprised of a disproportionate percentage of men (over 80 per cent) and Indigenous people relative to the overall Canadian workforce. Therefore, “Predominantly Men”, “Indigenous Peoples” and “Individuals in particular sectors” would be selected, with the “Forestry Sector” being specified in the corresponding field.
- Budget 2023 Example: Supporting the Accessibility and Safety of Canada’s Transportation System will directly benefit people and businesses in the marine transportation and fishing industries, which predominantly employ men. Therefore, “Predominantly Men”, and “Individuals in particular sectors” would be selected, and the above sectors would be identified.
- Budget 2023 Example: Fish and Fish Habitat Program will directly benefit fish, seafood and recreational fishing industries, which predominantly employ men. Therefore, “Predominantly Men”, and “Individuals in particular sectors” would be selected, and the above sectors would be identified. The men employed in the fish, seafood and recreational fishing industries may also have other intersectional characteristics that could be described in more detail. As well, the characteristics of those who will indirectly benefit would be described in section 4b of the template.
- Budget 2023 Example: Redeveloping the Bonaventure Expressway and Supporting Transportation Infrastructure in Montreal will directly benefit residents, businesses, and visitors in the Montreal area by supporting safe and efficient transportation in the region. However, there are also likely to be indirect benefits for the construction industry workforce involved in this redevelopment project.
- If “The benefitting group has no notable characteristics beyond those of the Canadian population overall” is selected then this means no subset of the population is disproportionately benefiting. Please do not select any demographic characteristics in this instance unless a clear explanation is provided.
- In cases where the selected characteristics reflect more than one distinct group of people (rather than one group possessing all these characteristics), please select the "multiple groups" option and use the explanation box at the end of this section to provide details of each group and the relevant characteristics.
- Cracking Down on Predatory Lending (Budget 2023) seeks to ensure that Canadians are not subject to high-cost predatory loans. While the target beneficiaries of the measure are primarily low-income Canadians, there are disproportionate benefits for low-income Indigenous people, persons with disabilities, newcomers or immigrants, and lone-parent families. In this example, the “multiple groups” box would be selected and an explanation would be provided to clarify that this measure was expected to help low-income individuals who identify with these particular characteristics.
- Expanding Health-related Tax Relief Under the GST/HST System (Budget 2019) would directly benefit persons with disabilities and health issues; however, there are three specific facets to this tax measure: providing tax relief for human ova and in vitro embryos, for foot-related medical devices, and for multidisciplinary health care services. In this example, the "multiple groups" box would be selected and clarification that there are three distinct groups and their corresponding characteristics would be included in the explanation box at the end of this section.
- Automatic Tax Filing (Budget 2023) would directly benefit low-income individuals and families; however, single-person households and Indigenous people will particularly benefit as they represent the demographic groups with lower tax filing rates relative to the overall Canadian population. Therefore, “multiple groups” was selected and further explanation was provided.
- Modernizing Federal Disaster Assistance (Budget 2023) benefits Canadians who reside in areas at high risk of natural disasters. This group is comprised of multiple demographic characteristics which could intersect in certain circumstances i.e. persons with disabilities, black and racialized groups, Indigenous peoples, 2SLGBTQI+ people, women, new immigrants and seniors. Accordingly, in this example, “multiple groups” was selected and clarification was provided.
- Fish and Fish Habitat Program (Budget 2023) will directly benefit fish, seafood and recreational fishing industries, which predominantly employ men. This group is comprised of multiple demographic characteristics which could intersect in certain circumstances. These characteristics include lower-income and of working-age, and people who identify as Indigenous, who are disproportionately represented in the fish and seafood industry.
- An Action Plan for Black Employees in the Public Service (Budget 2023) will directly benefit black public servants working for the Government of Canada who might have experienced harassment, racism, and discrimination in the workplace. The “multiple groups” box was selected because while the proposal focuses on black public servants, the proposal also impacts other groups within the Black Community such as those who have experienced harassment or discrimination because of their gender, sexual orientation, or disability.
No notable characteristics
- This response should be used in the rare case that the benefitting group truly has no notable characteristics beyond that of the Canadian population overall. If this option is selected, do not fill out the table of demographic characteristics. Some examples are tax tightening proposals, which are assumed to benefit the entire population through the expected fiscal savings, or proposals to improve public safety for Canada as a whole, or capacity building proposals for government entities.
- In some cases, the short- and medium-term impacts (up to 5 years) may differ from the long-term impacts. Please use this section of the form to describe any differences to the benefitting group, if applicable.
Budget 2022 Example: Making the Switch to Zero-Emission Vehicles More Affordable is available to all driving-age Canadians; benefits will initially accrue to early adopters of ZEV, who are more likely to be men, middle-aged, well-educated, high-income earners, and live in urban areas. In this example, increased ZEV uptake will have significant benefits for all Canadians by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality over the longer term.
Budget 2023 Example: The immediate benefits of An Investment Tax Credit for Clean Electricity will accrue to workers in construction and at electric utilities, who tend to be men with above average incomes. However, all Canadians, especially future generations will benefit from climate change mitigation through investments towards a low-carbon economy.
Budget 2023 Example: The immediate benefits of AAFC Laboratory Asset Renewal accrue to scientists and researchers in the Agriculture and Agri-Food sector, who are predominantly highly educated men with high incomes. Enabling scientific research in this sector presents long-term benefits to all Canadians through innovations of new technologies that will help protect the environment from adverse effects of livestock production.
Budget 2023 Example: The immediate benefits of An Action Plan for Black Employees in the Public Service accrue to black public servants, who may have experienced harassment, racism, and discrimination in the workplace. This proposal offers targeted programming for Black employees, to address specific issues of trauma and barriers to career advancement. The long-term benefits are a culture change within the federal government, and a more diverse and inclusive public service that better reflects the Canadian population, and is better positioned to design and deliver programs and services for the diverse needs of different groups.
B. Indirect Benefits
This section seeks to collect information on the notable gender and demographic characteristics of the group or groups of people who may receive secondary benefits from the proposal – for example through playing a role in the delivery of a proposal or experiencing the benefits of the proposal in a secondary way.
As with the direct benefits section, if there is more than one distinct group being indirectly affected, please provide details on the specific breakdowns.
If there is insufficient supporting data to make a determination, please choose "There is insufficient information to adequately assess the indirect impacts" and use the box at the end of this section to explain those data gaps. It is expected that every budget proposal has been sufficiently developed as to be clear who may be directly benefitting; however, it is understandable that not all proposals have the data available to confirm indirect beneficiaries.
Budget 2022 and Budget 2023 Examples:
- Promoting Official Languages (Budget 2021) will directly benefit students in official language minority communities. However, as women make up 70 per cent of education services, they are expected to indirectly benefit. In this case, “women” would be selected as an indirect beneficiary.
- Increasing Canada’s Contributions to NATO (Budget 2021) will directly benefit all Canadians through an increase in defense and security, and the promotion of peace. However, benefits will accrue to Canada’s defense industries, whose employees are predominantly men. For example, 81 per cent of employees in aerospace and 87 per cent of employees in shipbuilding are men. In this case, “men” would be selected as an indirect beneficiary.
- Increasing Loan Forgiveness for Doctors and Nurses in Rural and Remote Communities (Budget 2022) directly benefits health care workers in rural and remote areas, as well as people living in these communities who currently do not have access to doctors and nurses. However, the program also indirectly benefits women, who were the majority of 5,490 health care workers who used the program in 2019-20. The demographic characteristics of this group would be selected in this section. For example, in 2019-20, 83 per cent of rural and remote health professionals were women, therefore “predominantly women” would be selected.
- Embracing Digital Government (Budget 2022) will benefit all Canadians and others who use government services through the provision of reliable and accessible digital government services. However, the Canadian Digital Service also ensures that accessibility issues are taken into consideration, so that veterans, immigrants, and other underserved or marginalized, such as people with disabilities and people living in rural areas are able to access these services. In this instance these groups will be listed as indirect beneficiaries.
- The Fish and Fish Habitat Program (Budget 2023) will in directly benefit fish, seafood and recreational fishing industries, which predominantly employ men. However, this measure will also indirectly benefit Canadians living near aquatic habitats through improved environmental and health outcomes.
- Budget 2023: The primary objective of Redeveloping the Bonaventure Expressway and Supporting Transportation Infrastructure in Montreal is to support safe and efficient transportation for residents and visitors in the Montreal area. However, the construction of the expressway will result in indirect benefits for the construction industry, 87 per cent of which is comprised of men. Hence, “Predominantly Men” and “Individuals in particular occupations or sectors” would be selected
C. Income Distribution Impacts
Distributional impacts should be considered relative to existing incomes and tax contributions. Consider whether the benefits of the proposal are concentrated among individuals of a particular income level. Please explain the assumptions behind your assessment in the explanation box at the end of this section.
- For example, a government funded program that provides equal per capita benefits to all Canadians would be considered progressive, while an equal per capita tax on individuals would be considered regressive.
- Generally speaking, "strongly benefits low-income individuals" would tend to be selected for proposals with impacts concentrated among low-income groups (e.g. Guaranteed Income Supplement, Automatic tax filing). Proposals that carry benefits to both lower income and wealthier Canadians but that may be more valuable to low-income individuals may be identified as "somewhat benefits low-income individuals" (e.g. Clean Electricity, Employment Insurance measures).
Budget 2019 Example: Ensuring Everyone Who Is Eligible Receives Canada Pension Plan Benefits will ensure that seniors who have not applied enroll CPP contributors for a CPP pension once they reach age 70 if they have not applied. In this example, "Strongly benefits low income individuals" was selected.
- For proposals that are not tax or direct transfers (i.e. grants and contributions, regulatory proposals, other programs etc.), this section should indicate whether benefits are most likely concentrated among Canadians of different income levels.
Budget 2021 Example: Removing Barriers to Internal Trade has the potential to increase productivity and reduce costs of goods and services, benefiting Canadians broadly. Lower-income Canadians will benefit disproportionately as a result of reduced costs of living as this group spends more as a percentage of their income on consumption of goods. In this example, "Somewhat benefits low income individuals" was selected.
Budget 2022 Example: An Employment Strategy for Persons with Disabilities would improve the employment prospects of persons with disabilities and make workplaces more inclusive and accessible. It is expected that persons with disabilities from all age groups (with various intersecting identities and low income) would predominantly benefit from this measure, given their lack of attachment to the labour market. In this example, “Somewhat benefits low income individuals” was therefore selected.
Budget 2023 Example: Supporting the Accessibility and Safety of Canada’s Transportation System benefits a wide variety of demographic groups and industries, namely Indigenous Peoples, and the marine transportation, fishing and construction sectors. Indirectly, all Canadians will benefit from a more reliable transportation network. Due to the broad-based nature of this measure’s impact, there are no significant income distributional impacts.
Budget 2023 Example: Establishing the Dairy Innovation and Investment Fund will benefit the employees and owners of dairy processing firms, as well as dairy farmers. As Canadian dairy processing is oligopolistic in nature, this measure will predominantly benefit high-income individuals.
Budget 2023 Example: Using College Research to Help Businesses Grow invests in business research and development that supports the growth and productivity of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Direct benefits will accrue to owners of these businesses who are mostly white men with relatively high-income. College students, who tend to be lower income will indirectly benefit from attaining work experience in the STEM sector. Since the central objective of this measure is to equip SMEs with the tools for future growth, “Somewhat benefits high income individuals” was selected.
Budget 2023 Example: Fish and Fish Habitat Program will directly benefit those employed in the fish, seafood and recreational fishing industries. According to official stats the median income for fish harvesters and processers ranged between $30,000 and $51,000 in 2018, therefore “Somewhat benefits low-income individuals” was selected.
D. Generational Benefits
Generational impacts should be considered relative to the contributions of those benefiting from the proposal. Consider whether the benefits of the proposal are concentrated among individuals of a particular generational group. For example, a new government program for retired seniors that is funded from the current tax base would primarily benefit seniors. Note that the generation selected here may not be the same as the age group that disproportionately benefits from a proposal.
- For proposals that benefit the generations between youth and seniors, please select no significant generational impacts and describe the impacts in the explanation box for this section.
Budget 2021 Example: Support for Farmers and Agricultural Climate Solutions are expected to benefit older men since 71 per cent of operators in the agriculture are men and the average age of all farm operators is 55. In these examples, "Primarily benefits the baby boom generation or seniors" was selected.
Budget 2022 Example: Implementation of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Act is expected to benefit Indigenous peoples, in a gender-balanced way, by ensuring that laws, policies and programs are fair and equally accessible to all Canadians. It is likely to benefit youth and future generations, as advances made pursuant to the Act will be forward looking. As such, “Primarily benefits youth, children or future generations” was selected.
Budget 2023 Example: Implementing the 988 Suicide Prevention Line is expected to particularly benefit people who experience higher rates of suicidal thoughts and other mental health crises.Although certain demographic groups are more likely to face these crises, the services provided by this measure will be offered to all Canadians who are in need of emergency mental health counselling. Therefore, “No significant generational impacts” was selected.
Budget 2023 Example: Enhancing the Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Investment Tax Credit is expected to directly benefit businesses that invest in carbon capture, utilization, and storage technologies located in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia, and will indirectly benefit employees in the resource, utilities, and manufacturing sectors, who are predominantly (72 per cent) men. However, all Canadians will benefit from investments that reduce pollution, especially future generations. Hence “Primarily benefits youth, children or future generations” was selected.
Budget 2023 Example: Fish and Fish Habitat Program will help to restore lost protections for fish and fish habitat in the near term, while ensuring the long-term sustainable and productive fisheries for generations to come through larger fish stocks, therefore “No significant generational impacts” was selected.
5. A) Barriers to Participation or Access or Negative Impacts
This section should be used to identify the gender and demographic groups which are expected to face a barrier to participation/access or be negatively affected by the proposal. Please select the appropriate checkbox and identify the demographic characteristics of the group(s) impacted. Demographic characteristics should only be selected if they are predominant relative to the Canadian population at large.
If no barriers to access/participation or negative impacts are anticipated then please skip to section 6. If these have been identified then please complete section 5 B) GBA Plus Responsive Approach.
Barriers to access or participation
Barriers to participation or access are not always obvious but should always be considered. Barriers usually arise as a result of an existing inequality (systemic) and are not necessarily a direct result of the proposal itself. This section may also be used to identify where the proposal may inadvertently perpetuate these barriers. If a barrier was identified for certain demographic groups, section 5bi should be completed. .
- For example, a proposal may create an opportunity for a specific group, but inadvertently perpetuate an inequality or create a barrier for another group. For example, a program to promote coding for elementary school students may have low take-up from children in low-income families owing to high participation fees. While this may not create a negative impact per se, such barriers should be noted and proactive strategies should be developed whenever possible. Another example would be proactive strategies which take into consideration the circumstances of rural and remote communities and people living in them. This could include using a variety of communication channels to reach Canadians without high-speed internet access, personalized support, and specific adaptations to promote rural access to the program.
- Please provide details in the explanation box.
Budget 2021 Example: Creating New Opportunities for Skilled Tradespeople is expected to benefit men as they are overrepresented in most Red Seal trades (86 per cent of apprentices are men). Women comprised about 14 per cent of apprentices overall, and fewer women than men apprentices were registered in a Red Seal trade (59 per cent versus 81 per cent). Acknowledging this disparity and in an attempt to not perpetuate an existing inequality, an additional $5,000 per apprentice position ($10,000 in total) will be provided to incent employers to hire and train apprentices from underrepresented groups, including women, Black and racialized Canadians. In this example, "Predominantly Women" would be selected and the expected barriers explained in the text box. Section 5 B i) would then be completed.
Budget 2021 Example: Working with Provinces and Territories to Advance the National Action Plan to End Gender-Based Violence will directly benefit women and girls, notably those at higher risk of experiencing gender-based violence, including women and girls with disabilities; Black, Indigenous and racialized women and girls; immigrant and refugee women; 2SLGBTQI+ people; and women living in northern, rural, and remote communities. These groups also face increased barriers in accessing supports and services due to systemic inequalities. conIn this example, “Predominantly Women” would be selected, other intersecting demographic characteristics and expected barriers would also have to be explained in the text box. Section 5 B i) would then be completed.
Budget 2022 Example: Creating a Canadian Innovation and Investment Agency directly benefits owners of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), 64 per cent of whom are men. This measure will also stimulate employment demand for highly educated individuals with expertise in the STEM fields. Given that women are underrepresented in both the SME and STEM sectors, they are likely to face barriers to participating in this measure. Therefore, “Women” will be selected, an explanation will be provided in the text box, and Section 5B i) will be populated.
Budget 2023 Example: Investing in Urban, Rural, and Northern Indigenous Housing Strategy is expected to benefit Indigenous people who lack access to suitable housing in urban, rural and Northern communities. The need for improved access for adequate housing, particularly for Indigenous women and girls, stems from a plethora of reasons, including being at risk of violence when experiencing homelessness, and risk of intimate partner or family violence. Familial responsibilities or residing in a remote area may prevent Indigenous women from participating in consultation sessions for this measure. Therefore, “Predominantly Women” and “Indigenous Peoples” will be selected, accompanied by an explanation of anticipated barriers in the text box. Section 5B i) would then be completed.
Negative impacts occur when one group is materially harmed or lesser off, either intentionally or unintentionally, as a result of the initiative being proposed. If the proposal is expected to generate negative impact(s) on certain demographic groups, complete section 5bii.
- Please provide details in the explanation box.
Budget 2021 Example: Supporting Safe Air Travel includes advancing the Known Traveler Digital Identity pilot project. Research has shown that facial recognition technology could result in increased scrutiny and delayed processing time for certain demographics. In this case, "The proposal carries, or could carry, negative impacts for one or more specific demographic group(s)" would be checked off, the demographic characteristics of those negatively impacted would be selected, an explanation would be provided in the text box, and section 5 B) ii. would be completed.
Budget 2022 Example: Clean Electricity will negatively impact coal mining communities through job losses, income insecurity due to job loss, re-training requirements, re-employment and increased job competition in local industries. Individuals over the age of 60 who are still in the labour market may also experience severe economic and social impacts and be unable to adapt to a clean new electricity system. In this case, “The proposal carries, or could carry, negative impacts for one or more specific demographic group(s)” would also checked off, the demographic characteristics of those negatively impacted would be selected, an explanation would be provided in the text box, and section 5 B) ii. would be completed.
Budget 2023 Example: Fish and Fish Habitat Protection Program may negatively affect Indigenous Peoples as a result of project development and a potential influx of workers who move closer to their communities. In this example, “The proposal carries, or could carry, negative impacts for one or more specific demographic group(s)” and “Indigenous Peoples” would be checked off, along with an explanation of negative impacts in the text box. Section 5B) ii would then be completed.
5. B) GBA Plus Responsive Approach
This section should be completed if section 5 A) was completed and should be used to describe any program designs or implementation elements associated with the proposal that seek to reduce potential barriers to access/participation or to mitigate negative impacts of the proposal.
i. Steps for addressing potential barriers to access or participation
- This section should be completed for proposals which identified groups that could face a barrier to access/participation in section 5 A). This section can also be proactively completed even if no barriers to access/participation or negative impacts have been identified in 5A), to prevent potential future occurrences of adverse impacts.
Budget 2019 Example: Expanding the Canada Service Corps is aimed at youth across the country, providing them with volunteer opportunities to increase leadership and develop new skills. Recognizing that some youth may experience barriers in participating, the program developed new incentives and supports to reduce the barriers identified by underrepresented youth, including targeted outreach to increase participation amongst young men and boys.
Budget 2021 Example: Enhancing the Canada Workers Benefit could introduce barriers to participation (as described in the above example under 5. A). In response to the potential barrier to access that secondary earners could face, introducing a secondary earner exemption will allow secondary earners benefitting from the CWB, about 75 per cent of whom will be women, to exclude a portion of their earnings from the benefit's income test, mitigating or preventing this decline. This new feature will help ensure that everyone is able to participate in the workforce
Budget 2022 Example: Addressing Global Health Priorities contains elements to promote access to health services and products for those who may be in vulnerable situations or marginalized, including women and girls. Canada supports implementing partners that consider the needs of program recipients at all stages of programming to help identify potential barriers and better promote access to health services and products.
Budget 2022 Example: Renewing and Expanding the Oceans Protection Plan recognizes that some partners such as Indigenous peoples, are often in remote areas, and may therefore experience barriers to participation (e.g., not having a reliable internet connection). The Oceans Protection Plan will continue to take steps to reduce barriers to participation, such as through regional engagement sessions to reach a greater number of communities.
Budget 2023 Example: In accordance with the aforementioned Investing in Urban, Rural, and Northern Indigenous Housing Strategy, people with higher incidence of core housing need tend to be excluded from consultations for such strategies. To most effectively serve those with lived experience of inadequate housing, they will participate in engagement sessions for the Strategy. Any barriers to participating in these sessions will be mitigated with honoraria, child care support, and in-person/virtual attendance options.
Budget 2023 Example: In the example, Supporting Advanced Transportation Technologies, social barriers faced by women in STEM are taken in consideration with the inclusion of proposal design elements that will promote access and increase participation. Aside from continuing to promote diversity and representation in staffing activities,internship programs hosted by Transport Canada’s Motor Vehicle Test Centre targets women in STEM fields.
ii. Mitigation measures to respond to potential negative impacts
- Only complete this section if you identified specific groups which could face negative impacts in section 5 A).
- It is expected that mitigation measures have been considered if the GBA Plus identified potential negative impacts. Mitigation measures should be described with sufficient detail and provide enough context to understand the following:
- Scope and expected effect of the measure
- Any potential costs of the measure (where applicable) and the associated source of funds.
- In cases where mitigation measures have not been considered where the GBA Plus identified potential differential or negative impacts, further information must be provided as to how mitigation measures will be considered going forward.
- For measures whose purpose is to address inequality by favoring a particular target group, please choose "targets a specific client base; no mitigation measures are proposed to address the differential impact on groups outside of the target client base."
Budget 2021 Example: In the Supporting Safe Air Travel example outlined above, Transport Canada would select "The proposal includes mitigation measures" and explain the mitigation measures to ensure that advanced technologies used for identity verification, such as facial recognition, do not introduce negative impacts based on disability, ethnicity, age or gender.
Budget 2022 Example: In the Clean Electricity measure also highlighted above, the Regional Energy Tables and Pan-Canadian Grid Council will seek diverse and inclusive membership, and engagements through the course of its work, thereby reducing any potential negative impacts on workers and communities. The Regional Energy Tables and Pan-Canadian Grid Council will enable the transition to net-zero electricity, which will create significant economic opportunities, in the form of new industries, markets, supply chains and jobs, and enable communities to capitalize on those aforementioned economic opportunities.
Budget 2023 Example: As highlighted above, the Fish and Fish Habitat Protection Program has the potential to infringe on Indigenous and treaty rights. To address these impacts, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans will work with, and provide support to Indigenous Peoples to engage in consultations on project decisions that may adversely affect their communities.
6. Gender Results Framework
Gender Results Framework
- The Gender Results Framework is a whole-of- government tool to help define what is needed to achieve greater equality and to determine how progress will be measured going forward. Not all proposals will advance the Framework’s goals. Only those proposals that demonstrably move the needle on the Gender Results framework should be articulated in this section of the template.
- For examples of measures which were identified as advancing the Gender Results Framework please see Budget 2022’s Impacts Report.
- For proposals that advance the Framework, please indicate which pillar (only one) will be advanced by choosing the goal (e.g. equal and full participation in the economy) or objective (e.g. reduced gender wage gap) from the corresponding drop-down menu. Please include an explanation of how the proposal advances the Framework in the box at the end of this section. More information on these goal statements, objectives and indicators can be found on Women and Gender Equality’s website.
- Although only gender is included in the title of the Framework, it is aligned with the Government of Canada’s policy of GBA Plus, ensuring that gender is considered in relation to other intersecting identity factors. Wherever possible, intersecting identity factors should be considered for all of the relevant indicators. For example, a measure that is designed to promote literacy among Indigenous Peoples could be described as advancing the Education and Skills Development pillar. For more information, please see the Gender Results Framework below.
Budget 2022 Example: Increasing the Capacity of Superior Courts is expected to advance the Leadership and Democratic Participation Pillar. Increased judicial capacity of superior courts helps improve access to justice for all Canadians by addressing court delays, ultimately strengthening the public’s confidence in the justice system. New judges are selected through a superior courts judicial appointment process that aims to achieve a gender-balanced bench, reflecting the diversity of Canadian society. Of the judges who have been appointed since October 2016, 57 per cent have identified as women, 4 per cent as Indigenous, 10 per cent as visible minorities, 1 per cent as a person with a disability, and 7 per cent as a member of the 2SLGBTQI+ community.
Budget 2023 Example: Helping Canadians Stay Active is expected to advance the Poverty Reduction, Health, and Well-Being Pillar. This measure will support physical activity for all Canadians, but may particularly benefit certain groups who face barriers to physical activity due to socioeconomic or environmental factors. These groups include Indigenous people, Black and racialized people, immigrants, low-income households, women and girls, 2SLGBTQI+ people, and persons with disabilities. This program has the potential to ensure equitable access to physical activity, thereby affording more years in good health for Canadians from all walks of life.
Budget 2023 Example: Establishing the NATO Climate Change and Security Centre of Excellence in Montréal will demonstrably advance the Gender Equality Around the World Pillar. The Centre of Excellence will aim to address the increasing threat of climate change, with a strong focus on the disproportionate impacts of climate change on women and diverse populations in developing and conflict affected countries. Countries with greater gender equality tend to be more peaceful, and display more preparedness and resiliency to climate disasters and security issues.
Budget 2022 Example: Supporting Culture Change in the Canadian Armed Forces is expected to restore confidence in military leadership and enhance the Canadian Armed Forces’ capacity to recruit and retain women, helping increase representation.
Budget 2023 Example: The Fish and Fish Habitat Protection Program does not tangibly move the dial on any of the GRF pillars, so no GRF implication is selected in the template.
Canada's Gender Results Framework
Equal opportunities and diversified paths in education and skills development
- More diversified educational paths and career choices
- Reduced gender gaps in reading and numeracy skills among youth, including Indigenous youth
- Equal lifelong learning opportunities and outcomes for adults
Equal and full participation in the economy
- Increased labour market opportunities for women, especially women in underrepresented groups
- Reduced gender wage gap
- Increased full-time employment of women
- Equal sharing of parenting roles and family responsibilities
- Better gender balance across occupations
- More women in higher-quality jobs, such as permanent and well-paid jobs
Gender equality in leadership roles and at all levels of decision-making
- More women in senior management positions, more diversity in senior leadership positions
- Increased opportunities for women to start and grow their businesses, and succeed on a global scale
- More company board seats held by women, more diversity on company boards
- Greater representation of women and underrepresented groups in elected office and ministerial positions in national and sub-national governments
- Increased representation of women and underrepresented groups as administrators of the justice system
Eliminating gender-based violence and harassment, and promoting security of the person and access to justice
- Workplaces are harassment-free
- Fewer women are victims of intimate partner violence and sexual assault
- Fewer victims of childhood maltreatment
- Fewer women killed by an intimate partner
- Increased police reporting of violent crimes
- Fewer Indigenous women and girls are victims of violence
- Increased accountability and responsiveness of the Canadian criminal justice system
Reduced poverty and improved health outcomes
- Fewer vulnerable individuals living in poverty
- Fewer women and children living in food insecure households
- Fewer vulnerable individuals lacking stable, safe and permanent housing
- Child and spousal support orders are enforced
- More years in good health
- Improved mental health
- Improved access to contraception for young people and reduced adolescent birth rate
Promoting gender equality to build a more peaceful, inclusive, rules-based and prosperous world
- Feminist international approach to all policies and programs, including diplomacy, trade, security and development
7. Public and Stakeholder Engagement
This section seeks to confirm whether the public was engaged on the proposal and to understand the nature of the feedback received during those engagements.
- Please describe the nature and format of public consultations, including details on what point in the development of the proposal these consultations took place and how the target population was involved.
8. Monitoring and Evaluation
This section seeks to collect information on how the performance of the proposal will be actively monitored from a GBA Plus perspective. Please consider this section in relation to the quality of life domains identified in the proposal template.
- The last few budget publications, Budget 2021, 2022 and 2023, emphasized the importance of disaggregated data collection across government programs to improve inclusiveness. Where feasible, please describe any plans to improve the collection of disaggregated administrative data and strengthen reporting practices associated with this proposal.
- If no plans are in place, please explain the data collection plan going forward, or specify why there is no data collection plan in place.
- In some cases, it may be determined that no further monitoring is required, in which case a rationale will be required in this section.
9. Data Sources
This section seeks to collect information on what data sources were used to inform this analysis. Were there any notable data gaps?
This section should be used to clearly source the information used for this analysis. Do not worry about formatting but please hyperlink any URLs.
- Indicate your data sources using the checkboxes, and provide further details in the right-hand column (e.g. hyperlinks, table names, articles, etc.). If any supporting information should not be made publicly available, please be clear about which information is sensitive in nature.
- Please identify any notable data gaps.
10. Summary GBA Plus Statement
- Please provide a brief description of the GBA Plus assessment (not the proposal itself), using the information from questions 3 to 6 in this questionnaire. If applicable, please include information regarding equality and the Gender Results Framework, from question 6.
- Please describe impacts in a neutral, factual tone and avoid promotional language. See Budget 2023’s Impacts Report for examples.
- The statement should include the following elements:
- Primary target client group for the proposal, as well as the expected benefits (direct, indirect, negative) on different groups of women, men and gender-diverse people (as applicable) supported by statistical data.
- Brief description of measures, if any, included in the proposal in order to mitigate expected negative impacts or reduce barriers to participation.
11. Approved By
- At a minimum, please include the contact information for both the analyst and Assistant Deputy Minister responsible for the GBA Plus. Additional contact information may be provided, if required.
- It is recommended that your department's GBA Plus Focal Point review the GBA Plus Summary Template for consistency across your department. Please include the GBA Plus Focal Point's name and date of review beside their name.
- For proposals originating from Finance, sign-off/approval of the GBA Plus is indicated by marking the date of sign-off/approval beside the reviewer's name.
Glossary of Key Terms Related to GBA Plus
Barrier to Access: occurs when certain demographic groups are involuntarily prevented from accessing or benefiting from an initiative, service, program or policy due to pre-existing societal inequities.
Consultation: the Government of Canada (GoC) has a duty to consult with, and accommodate Indigenous groups prior to taking actions or making decisions that may adversely impact potential or established Indigenous treaty rights. While not a legal obligation, the GoC also conducts targeted discourse with subject matter experts (NGO’s, Academics, other Government Departments, etc.) as part of a policy or program’s development process.
Data Gap: the absence of any quality data or studies to inform GBA Plus
Demographic Characteristics: the characteristics of a population that have been categorized by distinct criteria—such as age, gender and income
Direct Benefits: benefits that result from the fulfillment of a proposal’s primary objective(s)
Engagement: planned two-way discussions with individuals, groups, or communities, external to the Government of Canada, designed to gather input, clarify information and foster understanding among those affected by a policy or initiative, and to better inform the GoC’s decision-making.
Generational Impacts: the impact of a policy or initiative for cohorts of people at different life stages
GBA Plus Responsive Approach: describes efforts made to minimize the potential negative impacts of a proposal, or plans to proactively reduce barriers to access or participation
Income Distributional Impacts: the impact of a policy or initiative on people within different income quintiles
Indirect Benefits: accrue to individuals or demographic groups that are not the primary targets of a proposal, but may experience additional benefits by providing ancillary support in the implementation of a program or initiative. Benefits received by indirect beneficiaries may also be attributed to an existing relationship with direct beneficiaries (familial, community, etc.).
Long-term Benefits: benefits that are realized more than five years after the implementation of a policy, program or initiative
Mitigation Strategy: proactive plans to eliminate or reduce the severity of potential negative impacts prior to the implementation of a policy, program or initiative
Monitoring and Evaluation: the systematic collection and analysis of evidence on the outcomes of programs to make judgments about their relevance, performance and alternative ways to deliver them or to achieve the same results
Negative Impacts: unintended harmful, disadvantageous or unfavorable changes in the circumstances of certain demographic groups as a result of a policy or initiative
Target Group: the particular group that a policy or initiative is intended to reach
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